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Jets from stellar deaths

C5ca9433e528fd5739fa9555f7193dac?s=47 Rodrigo Nemmen
September 13, 2018

Jets from stellar deaths

Invited talk given by Rodrigo Nemmen with a broad, short introduction to relativistic jets produced from stellar deaths. Slight emphasis on what we can learn with GMT observations.

• Importance of jets
• How jets are produced
• Gamma-ray bursts
• Black hole binaries
• Unification

GMT Science Conference, Stars: Birth and Death. Honolulu, Hawaii.

C5ca9433e528fd5739fa9555f7193dac?s=128

Rodrigo Nemmen

September 13, 2018
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  1. Rodrigo Nemmen Universidade de Sao Paulo Jets from stellar deaths

    M. Weiss, CfA
  2. Jets from stellar deaths M. Weiss, CfA How jets form

    GRBs X-ray binaries Unification Rodrigo Nemmen Universidade de Sao Paulo
  3. Why are relativistic jets important? Labs for high-energy astrophysics and

    particle acceleration across mass scale Beaming 㱺 very high luminosities 㱺 seen at high-z ∴ cosmological messengers Sources of EM radiation, cosmic rays, neutrinos ∴ multimessenger astronomy γ ν p Rodrigo Nemmen
  4. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science magnetic flux tube ergosphere Requirements v ⊵ spinning black hole Rodrigo Nemmen
  5. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements Rodrigo Nemmen
  6. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements Rodrigo Nemmen
  7. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements P = B2 8⇡ <latexit sha1_base64="FqfqdSJ6YeVubAYd6XxayOAVE88=">AAACDHicdVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVdSO4GSyCCwkTNdgsBNGNywrWFppaJtOJHTpJhplJoYT6CX6FW125E7f+gwv/xUmtoKIHLhzOuZd77wkFZ0oj9GZNTc/Mzs2XFsqLS8srq/ba+pVKM0lonaQ8lc0QK8pZQuuaaU6bQlIch5w2wv5Z4TcGVCqWJpd6KGg7xjcJixjB2kgde7N2HEQSk/y0E4geu94f5VUYCDbq2BXkIM/3XASR4yHXPyiI71cPPQ+6DhqjAiaodez3oJuSLKaJJhwr1XKR0O0cS80Ip6NykCkqMOnjG9oyNMExVXvdARNqTNv5+JkR3DFmF0apNJVoOFa/D+c4VmoYh6YzxrqnfnuF+JfXynRUbecsEZmmCflcFGUc6hQWycAuk5RoPjQEE8nM2ZD0sMlGm/zKJo+vp+H/5GrfcZHjXhxWTk4nyZTAFtgGu8AFR+AEnIMaqAMCbsE9eACP1p31ZD1bL5+tU9ZkZgP8gPX6AVytm2E=</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="FqfqdSJ6YeVubAYd6XxayOAVE88=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="FqfqdSJ6YeVubAYd6XxayOAVE88=">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</latexit> <latexit sha1_base64="FqfqdSJ6YeVubAYd6XxayOAVE88=">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</latexit> Rodrigo Nemmen
  8. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements
  9. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements
  10. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements Jet
  11. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements Blandford-Znajek mechanism: Jet power rotation frequency magnetic flux ∝ (ΦΩ)2 ∼ ( a M ΦBH) 2 ∼ a2 · Mc2 (relevant for GRBs and microquasars) Jet
  12. How jets are formed large scale B + accretion +

    rotation Semenov+2004, Science Requirements environment radiation GR Lense-Thirring precession Complications for theory Blandford-Znajek mechanism: Jet power rotation frequency magnetic flux ∝ (ΦΩ)2 ∼ ( a M ΦBH) 2 ∼ a2 · Mc2 (relevant for GRBs and microquasars) Jet
  13. Best way of producing relativistic jets Compact object accreting highly

    magnetized gas magnetized accretion flow Such conditions are natural outcomes of stellar deaths
  14. ~10-4 pc? 3C 31 4 I.F. Mirabel Fig. 1.2 The

    British journal Nature announced on July 16, 1992 the discovery of a microquasar in the Galactic center region [22]. The image shows the synchrotron emission at a radio wavelength Black hole binaries (μquasars) ~1 pc 1E1740.7-2942 ~1 Mpc ~100 kpc Active galactic nuclei Tidal disruption events Long GRBs Gamma-ray bursts Short GRBs HH 30 Young stellar objects 1000 AU 106-1010 M⊙ few-10 M⊙ 106-107 M⊙ few M ⊙ few-100 M⊙
  15. ~10-4 pc? 3C 31 4 I.F. Mirabel Fig. 1.2 The

    British journal Nature announced on July 16, 1992 the discovery of a microquasar in the Galactic center region [22]. The image shows the synchrotron emission at a radio wavelength Black hole binaries (μquasars) ~1 pc 1E1740.7-2942 ~1 Mpc ~100 kpc Active galactic nuclei Tidal disruption events Long GRBs Gamma-ray bursts Short GRBs HH 30 Young stellar objects 1000 AU kilonovas supernovae GW s ✅ GWs ?
  16. ~10-4 pc? 4 I.F. Mirabel Fig. 1.2 The British journal

    Nature announced on July 16, 1992 the discovery of a microquasar in the Galactic center region [22]. The image shows the synchrotron emission at a radio wavelength Black hole binaries (μquasars) ~1 pc 1E1740.7-2942 Long GRBs Gamma-ray bursts Short GRBs GW s ✅ GWs ? GMT opportunities Jet emission in low and very high states G-CLEF, GMTNIRS • Redshifts G-CLEF • Afterglows G-CLEF • Kilonovas G-CLEF, GMTNIRS, GMTIFS
  17. Jets from dying stars Stay tuned for transients talks tomorrow

    (sessions 10 & 11)
  18. Jets from collapsars: Long GRBs rotating massive star MacFadyen &

    Woosley 1999; Woosley & Heger 2006; Woosley & Bloom 2006 M ≳ 30M⊙ islands of explosion? (Sukhbold’s talk)
  19. Jets from collapsars: Long GRBs rotating massive star MacFadyen &

    Woosley 1999; Woosley & Heger 2006; Woosley & Bloom 2006 M ≳ 30M⊙ core-collapses islands of explosion? (Sukhbold’s talk)
  20. Jets from collapsars: Long GRBs rotating massive star MacFadyen &

    Woosley 1999; Woosley & Heger 2006; Woosley & Bloom 2006 conditions for jet production ✔ M ≳ 30M⊙ ˙ M ˙ MEdd BH accretion rate accreting Kerr BH core-collapses islands of explosion? (Sukhbold’s talk)
  21. Jets from collapsars: Long GRBs Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553

    Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553 Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure collapsar Lorentz factor γ ≫ 1 Eiso jet ∼ 1050 − 1054 erg Relativistic jet w/:
  22. Jets from collapsars: Long GRBs Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553

    Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553 Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure collapsar jet punctures stellar envelope → GRB along jet axis (beaming) Lorentz factor γ ≫ 1 Eiso jet ∼ 1050 − 1054 erg Relativistic jet w/:
  23. Jets from collapsars: Long GRBs Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553

    Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553 Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure collapsar jet punctures stellar envelope → GRB along jet axis (beaming) GRB followed by isotropic explosion: superluminous supernovae (type Ic SNe) Lorentz factor MacFadyen 2001; Woosley & Bloom 2006 γ ≫ 1 Eiso jet ∼ 1050 − 1054 erg Relativistic jet w/: central engine operation ~ tfreefall jet breakout ~ seconds Bromberg+2015 ∴ duration > few seconds
  24. Long GRBs light curve ~0-102 s ≳102 s Prompt Afterglow

    GRB Cartoon Picture Meszaros & Rees 2014 γ-rays radio optical X-rays
  25. Long GRBs light curve ~0-102 s ≳102 s Prompt Afterglow

    GRB Cartoon Picture Meszaros & Rees 2014 γ-rays radio optical X-rays Flux Prompt emission γ, X-rays Afterglow radio, optical, X-rays Relativistic jet, nonthermal Blast wave decelerating into ISM jet break: opening angle, energetics based on Van Eerten 2018
  26. Long GRBs light curve ~0-102 s ≳102 s Prompt Afterglow

    GRB Cartoon Picture Meszaros & Rees 2014 γ-rays radio optical X-rays Flux Prompt emission γ, X-rays Afterglow radio, optical, X-rays Relativistic jet, nonthermal Blast wave decelerating into ISM jet break: opening angle, energetics based on Van Eerten 2018
  27. Mergers of binary neutron stars: Short GRBs NS NS NS

    BH or Paczynski 1986; Eichler et al. 1989; Narayan et al. 1992 time
  28. Mergers of binary neutron stars: Short GRBs NS NS Paczynski

    1986; Eichler et al. 1989; Narayan et al. 1992 time GWs orbit decays due to GW emission
  29. Mergers of binary neutron stars: Short GRBs NS NS Paczynski

    1986; Eichler et al. 1989; Narayan et al. 1992 time neutron rich, magnetized accreting torus conditions for jet production ✔ GWs orbit decays due to GW emission duration ~ ms
  30. Rezzolla+2011 cf. also Ruiz+2016 Numerical relativity simulation of NS merger:

    Short GRB emerges naturally Rezzolla, Giacomazzo et al. 2011 Cactus/Carpet/Whisky codes (solves Einstein eqs. + ideal MHD) Initial condition: •NS binary a few orbits before its coalescence •2 NSs •each NS with M=1.5Msun •Bmax=1012 G (each star)
  31. Rezzolla+2011 cf. also Ruiz+2016 gas density magnetic fields

  32. Rezzolla+2011 cf. also Ruiz+2016 gas density magnetic fields Results in:

    • accreting BH, M = 2.91 Msun • short GRB jet, Δt = 30 ms • opening angle 30 deg • amplifies B to 1015 G • Eiso = 1049 erg
  33. fallback material GRB jet (beamed) Ejecta (unbeamed)

  34. fallback material GRB jet (beamed) Lattimer & Schramm 1974 produces

    many Earth-mass amounts of precious metals (r-process, lanthanides) Ejecta (unbeamed) radio optical X-rays γ-rays kilonova: IR optical UV
  35. fallback material GRB jet (beamed) Lattimer & Schramm 1974 produces

    many Earth-mass amounts of precious metals (r-process, lanthanides) Ejecta (unbeamed) radio optical X-rays γ-rays kilonova: IR optical UV Short GRB multimessenger time series: GWs + light Fernandez & Metzger 2016 nandez-Metzger ARI 4 May 2016 13:30 Event Signal Phase Coalescence X-ray/radio precursor? μ Ω r-process ms magnetar? Short GRB X-ray extended emission/plateau Ye > 0.25 Ye < 0.25 Free n? Shocked ISM GW “chirp” GWs from remnant NS? Inspiral Dynamical Accretion Remnant BH ?? Blue kilonova ?? Neutron precursor (UV) Red kilonova Radio transient Seconds Milliseconds 10 ms 100 ms Minutes–hours Hours–days Days–weeks Month–years Event Signal Coalescence X-ray/radio precursor? μ Ω r-process ms magnetar? Short GRB X-ray extended emission/plateau Ye > 0.25 Ye < 0.25 Free n? Shocked ISM GW “chirp” GWs from remnant NS? NS BH NS ?? Blue kilonova ?? Neutron precursor (UV) Red kilonova Radio transient Figure 1 Phases of a neutron star (NS) merger as a function of time, showing the associated observational signatures and underlying physical phenomena. Abbreviations: BH, black hole; GRB, γ -ray burst; GW, gravitational wave; ISM, interstellar medium; n, neutron; UV, ultraviolet; Ye , electron fraction. Coalescence inset courtesy of D. Price and S. Rosswog (see also Reference 15).
  36. fallback material GRB jet (beamed) Lattimer & Schramm 1974 produces

    many Earth-mass amounts of precious metals (r-process, lanthanides) Ejecta (unbeamed) radio optical X-rays γ-rays kilonova: IR optical UV Short GRB multimessenger time series: GWs + light Fernandez & Metzger 2016 nandez-Metzger ARI 4 May 2016 13:30 Event Signal Phase Coalescence X-ray/radio precursor? μ Ω r-process ms magnetar? Short GRB X-ray extended emission/plateau Ye > 0.25 Ye < 0.25 Free n? Shocked ISM GW “chirp” GWs from remnant NS? Inspiral Dynamical Accretion Remnant BH ?? Blue kilonova ?? Neutron precursor (UV) Red kilonova Radio transient Seconds Milliseconds 10 ms 100 ms Minutes–hours Hours–days Days–weeks Month–years Event Signal Coalescence X-ray/radio precursor? μ Ω r-process ms magnetar? Short GRB X-ray extended emission/plateau Ye > 0.25 Ye < 0.25 Free n? Shocked ISM GW “chirp” GWs from remnant NS? NS BH NS ?? Blue kilonova ?? Neutron precursor (UV) Red kilonova Radio transient Figure 1 Phases of a neutron star (NS) merger as a function of time, showing the associated observational signatures and underlying physical phenomena. Abbreviations: BH, black hole; GRB, γ -ray burst; GW, gravitational wave; ISM, interstellar medium; n, neutron; UV, ultraviolet; Ye , electron fraction. Coalescence inset courtesy of D. Price and S. Rosswog (see also Reference 15).
  37. Birth of multimessenger astronomy: GWs and EM radiation from GW170817

  38. Birth of multimessenger astronomy: GWs and EM radiation from GW170817

  39. Kilonova opportunities for GMT lighter elements (lanthanide-poor) heavier elements (lanthanide-rich)

    (UV) (NIR) cf. also Cowperthwaite+2017
  40. Kilonova opportunities for GMT lighter elements (lanthanide-poor) heavier elements (lanthanide-rich)

    (UV) (NIR) cf. also Cowperthwaite+2017
  41. Jets from dead stars: black hole binaries cf. Sung-Chul Yoon’

    talk tomorrow
  42. the galaxy and h sites. In these s of lower

    mass he black hole. igh number of e to study their not cover here. s undergo tran- y i- ht n o se n n st ke r- s- a he s- ns te n c, r- il d n- n- h of s- mation of an outburst in the hardness-intensity diagram (HID) is presented in the supplementary materials (movie S1). The rising phase of the outburst (A → B). Sources in quiescence are rarely regularly moni- tored, and so usually the first thing we know about an outburst is an x-ray source rising rapidly in luminosity, as detected by x-ray all-sky monitors. implying an origin very close to the black hole, and can in turn be used to estimate the spin of the black hole. This is because of the innermost stable cir- cular orbit (ISCO): Within this radius, matter can no longer follow a circular orbit and will cross the black hole event horizon on very short time scales (milliseconds for a black hole of a few solar masses). The size of the ISCO depends on the spin of the black hole, ranging from 6 RG (10) for a nonrotating (Schwarzschild) black hole to 1 RG for a maximally rotating (maximal Kerr) black hole. Accurate measurements of the de- gree of gravitational redshift affect- ing the line can be used to infer how close the line is to the black hole, and from this the spin of the black hole itself, although both observation and modeling are complex. During the hard state, characteristic time scales of variability,calledquasi-periodicoscilla- tions(QPOs),are also seen to decrease, which may correspond to changing viscosity or decreasing characteristic radii in an evolving accretion disc. In this state, sources are always ob- served to also show relatively steady radio emission at gigahertz radio fre- quencies (11). This radio emission (LR ) correlates in strength with the x-ray emission (LX ) in a nonlinear way: LX º LR b, where 0.6 < b < 0.7. In recent years, it has become appar- ent that a less radio-loud branch also existsinthehardstate,whichmayhave a steeper correlation (12), and yet Disc wind Jet Stream-impact point X-ray heating Accretion stream Accretion disc Companion star Fig. 1. An artist’s impression of a low-mass BHXRB. The major components of the binary, accretion flow, and outflows are indicated. The inclination and relative masses of the binary components are based on estimates for the system GX 339-4, a key source in our understanding of black hole accretion and the source of the data presented in Fig. 2. [Image produced with BinSim on October 26, 2012 www.sciencemag.org ownloaded from Rob Hynes Black holes in binary systems cf. work by Jack Steiner
  43. the galaxy and h sites. In these s of lower

    mass he black hole. igh number of e to study their not cover here. s undergo tran- y i- ht n o se n n st ke r- s- a he s- ns te n c, r- il d n- n- h of s- mation of an outburst in the hardness-intensity diagram (HID) is presented in the supplementary materials (movie S1). The rising phase of the outburst (A → B). Sources in quiescence are rarely regularly moni- tored, and so usually the first thing we know about an outburst is an x-ray source rising rapidly in luminosity, as detected by x-ray all-sky monitors. implying an origin very close to the black hole, and can in turn be used to estimate the spin of the black hole. This is because of the innermost stable cir- cular orbit (ISCO): Within this radius, matter can no longer follow a circular orbit and will cross the black hole event horizon on very short time scales (milliseconds for a black hole of a few solar masses). The size of the ISCO depends on the spin of the black hole, ranging from 6 RG (10) for a nonrotating (Schwarzschild) black hole to 1 RG for a maximally rotating (maximal Kerr) black hole. Accurate measurements of the de- gree of gravitational redshift affect- ing the line can be used to infer how close the line is to the black hole, and from this the spin of the black hole itself, although both observation and modeling are complex. During the hard state, characteristic time scales of variability,calledquasi-periodicoscilla- tions(QPOs),are also seen to decrease, which may correspond to changing viscosity or decreasing characteristic radii in an evolving accretion disc. In this state, sources are always ob- served to also show relatively steady radio emission at gigahertz radio fre- quencies (11). This radio emission (LR ) correlates in strength with the x-ray emission (LX ) in a nonlinear way: LX º LR b, where 0.6 < b < 0.7. In recent years, it has become appar- ent that a less radio-loud branch also existsinthehardstate,whichmayhave a steeper correlation (12), and yet Disc wind Jet Stream-impact point X-ray heating Accretion stream Accretion disc Companion star Fig. 1. An artist’s impression of a low-mass BHXRB. The major components of the binary, accretion flow, and outflows are indicated. The inclination and relative masses of the binary components are based on estimates for the system GX 339-4, a key source in our understanding of black hole accretion and the source of the data presented in Fig. 2. [Image produced with BinSim on October 26, 2012 www.sciencemag.org ownloaded from Rob Hynes Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. 2006.44:49-92. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 12/01/11. For personal use only. Remillard & McClintock 2006 Black holes in binary systems cf. work by Jack Steiner
  44. thin disk RIAF jet Thermal state Hard state Intermediate state

    18 C. Done et al. Fig. 9 The left hand panel shows a selection of states taken from the 2005 outburst of GRO J1655-40. GRO J1655-40 Done+2007 Black holes binaries show different states
  45. Hardness-intensity diagram: evolution of a black hole outburst During this

    phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time hard transition, although also sho ing a range of luminosities at which can occur (even in the same sourc generally occurs at a luminosity o few percent of the Eddington lum nosity (24 ). In fact, the soft state h never been convincingly observ in any BHXRB at luminosities b low 1% Eddington. By the time t source reaches the canonical ha state again, with almost exactly t same spectral and timing charact istics as the initial hard state, the has reappeared, and the accreti disc wind is gone. Once in the ha state, the source decline continu typically below the detection lev of all-sky or regular x-ray monitorin and are observed only occasiona until their next outburst. These qu phases are not without interest, ho ever, for it is during these perio that—without the glare of the brig X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes Fender & Belloni 2012 Science X-ray luminosity During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. hard transition, although also show- ing a range of luminosities at which it can occur (even in the same source), X-ray spectrum SOFT HARD B C Black Holes soft X-ray spectrum hard During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time of the state transition. It has been re- cently shown that in some cases, the ejection is coincident in time with the appearance of the strong QPOs (15 ). The soft state (D → E). As the spectral transition continues, these strong QPOs disappear, and the over- all level of x-ray variability drops as hard transition, althou ing a range of luminos can occur (even in the generally occurs at a few percent of the E nosity (24 ). In fact, th never been convinci in any BHXRB at lu low 1% Eddington. B source reaches the c state again, with alm same spectral and tim istics as the initial ha has reappeared, and disc wind is gone. O state, the source dec typically below the d of all-sky or regular x- and are observed on until their next outbur phases are not withou ever, for it is during that—without the gla accretion disc—resea to accurately measure tions of the compan optical telescopes an mate the mass of the self (25 , 26 ). These cycles of clear changes in the w X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes GRS 1915+105 Similar to H-R diagram State-changes in Δt ~ days
  46. Hardness-intensity diagram: evolution of a black hole outburst During this

    phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time hard transition, although also sho ing a range of luminosities at which can occur (even in the same sourc generally occurs at a luminosity o few percent of the Eddington lum nosity (24 ). In fact, the soft state h never been convincingly observ in any BHXRB at luminosities b low 1% Eddington. By the time t source reaches the canonical ha state again, with almost exactly t same spectral and timing charact istics as the initial hard state, the has reappeared, and the accreti disc wind is gone. Once in the ha state, the source decline continu typically below the detection lev of all-sky or regular x-ray monitorin and are observed only occasiona until their next outburst. These qu phases are not without interest, ho ever, for it is during these perio that—without the glare of the brig X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes Fender & Belloni 2012 Science X-ray luminosity During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. hard transition, although also show- ing a range of luminosities at which it can occur (even in the same source), X-ray spectrum SOFT HARD B C Black Holes soft X-ray spectrum hard During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time of the state transition. It has been re- cently shown that in some cases, the ejection is coincident in time with the appearance of the strong QPOs (15 ). The soft state (D → E). As the spectral transition continues, these strong QPOs disappear, and the over- all level of x-ray variability drops as hard transition, althou ing a range of luminos can occur (even in the generally occurs at a few percent of the E nosity (24 ). In fact, th never been convinci in any BHXRB at lu low 1% Eddington. B source reaches the c state again, with alm same spectral and tim istics as the initial ha has reappeared, and disc wind is gone. O state, the source dec typically below the d of all-sky or regular x- and are observed on until their next outbur phases are not withou ever, for it is during that—without the gla accretion disc—resea to accurately measure tions of the compan optical telescopes an mate the mass of the self (25 , 26 ). These cycles of clear changes in the w X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes GRS 1915+105 low/hard XRB low-luminosity AGNs, Sgr A* N+06; N+14
  47. Hardness-intensity diagram: evolution of a black hole outburst During this

    phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time hard transition, although also sho ing a range of luminosities at which can occur (even in the same sourc generally occurs at a luminosity o few percent of the Eddington lum nosity (24 ). In fact, the soft state h never been convincingly observ in any BHXRB at luminosities b low 1% Eddington. By the time t source reaches the canonical ha state again, with almost exactly t same spectral and timing charact istics as the initial hard state, the has reappeared, and the accreti disc wind is gone. Once in the ha state, the source decline continu typically below the detection lev of all-sky or regular x-ray monitorin and are observed only occasiona until their next outburst. These qu phases are not without interest, ho ever, for it is during these perio that—without the glare of the brig X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes Fender & Belloni 2012 Science X-ray luminosity During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. hard transition, although also show- ing a range of luminosities at which it can occur (even in the same source), X-ray spectrum SOFT HARD B C Black Holes soft X-ray spectrum hard During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time of the state transition. It has been re- cently shown that in some cases, the ejection is coincident in time with the appearance of the strong QPOs (15 ). The soft state (D → E). As the spectral transition continues, these strong QPOs disappear, and the over- all level of x-ray variability drops as hard transition, althou ing a range of luminos can occur (even in the generally occurs at a few percent of the E nosity (24 ). In fact, th never been convinci in any BHXRB at lu low 1% Eddington. B source reaches the c state again, with alm same spectral and tim istics as the initial ha has reappeared, and disc wind is gone. O state, the source dec typically below the d of all-sky or regular x- and are observed on until their next outbur phases are not withou ever, for it is during that—without the gla accretion disc—resea to accurately measure tions of the compan optical telescopes an mate the mass of the self (25 , 26 ). These cycles of clear changes in the w X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes GRS 1915+105 low/hard XRB low-luminosity AGNs, Sgr A* N+06; N+14 Open question: Nature of state transitions? Jet-disk connection
  48. Hardness-intensity diagram: evolution of a black hole outburst During this

    phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time hard transition, although also sho ing a range of luminosities at which can occur (even in the same sourc generally occurs at a luminosity o few percent of the Eddington lum nosity (24 ). In fact, the soft state h never been convincingly observ in any BHXRB at luminosities b low 1% Eddington. By the time t source reaches the canonical ha state again, with almost exactly t same spectral and timing charact istics as the initial hard state, the has reappeared, and the accreti disc wind is gone. Once in the ha state, the source decline continu typically below the detection lev of all-sky or regular x-ray monitorin and are observed only occasiona until their next outburst. These qu phases are not without interest, ho ever, for it is during these perio that—without the glare of the brig X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes Fender & Belloni 2012 Science X-ray luminosity During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. hard transition, although also show- ing a range of luminosities at which it can occur (even in the same source), X-ray spectrum SOFT HARD B C Black Holes soft X-ray spectrum hard During this phase, the behavior of the jet, revealed by infrared and radio observations, also begins to change. The infrared emission drops almost as soon as the state transition begins (14 ), indicating a change in the jet properties(density andmagneticfield) close to the black hole. The radio emission begins to vary more dramatically, showing oscilla- tions and flare events superposed on an overall decline (8 , 15 ). At a cer- tain point, there are one or more large radio flares, which can be two or more orders of magnitude more luminous than the previous existing, steadier jet in the hard state. In several notable cases, high-resolution radio observa- tions after such flares have directly resolved radio- or even x-ray–emitting blobs moving away from the central black hole (16 , 17 ), which can be kinematically traced back to the time of the state transition. It has been re- cently shown that in some cases, the ejection is coincident in time with the appearance of the strong QPOs (15 ). The soft state (D → E). As the spectral transition continues, these strong QPOs disappear, and the over- all level of x-ray variability drops as hard transition, althou ing a range of luminos can occur (even in the generally occurs at a few percent of the E nosity (24 ). In fact, th never been convinci in any BHXRB at lu low 1% Eddington. B source reaches the c state again, with alm same spectral and tim istics as the initial ha has reappeared, and disc wind is gone. O state, the source dec typically below the d of all-sky or regular x- and are observed on until their next outbur phases are not withou ever, for it is during that—without the gla accretion disc—resea to accurately measure tions of the compan optical telescopes an mate the mass of the self (25 , 26 ). These cycles of clear changes in the w X-ray spectrum X-ray luminosity SOFT HARD A B C D E F Black Holes GRS 1915+105 low/hard XRB low-luminosity AGNs, Sgr A* N+06; N+14 Open question: Nature of state transitions? Jet-disk connection
  49. Jet unification

  50. Universal mechanism for energy dissipation and jet production? Mirabel &

    Rodriguez 2002 Mirabel
  51. log jet power (erg/s) Black hole jets are scale-free: knowledge-

    transfer from stellar to supermassive ones Pre-Swift Swift BAT Fermi GBM/LAT BL Lacs FSRQs log Lγ-rays (erg/s) Nemmen+2012, Science cf. also Merloni+2003; Falcke+2004; McHardy+2006; Ma+2014; Lamb+2017; ~10 MSun 10 8 -10 9 M Sun Ferm i blazars G R Bs
  52. Summary: Jets from stellar deaths Ingredients to produce relativistic jets:

    (i) spinning black holes (ii) extended magnetic fields (iii) gas accretion All of them in collapsars, NSNS mergers and BH binaries long GRBs short GRBs μquasars prospects Jet SEDs in low and very high states Rodrigo Nemmen • Spec. and photometric z • Afterglow monitoring • Kilonova observations
  53. Github Twitter Web E-mail Bitbucket Facebook Group figshare rodrigo.nemmen@iag.usp.br rodrigonemmen.com

    @nemmen rsnemmen facebook.com/rodrigonemmen nemmen blackholegroup.org bit.ly/2fax2cT
  54. Directors cut

  55. optical emission rises in≲1 day, then fades with a rapid

    color evolution to the red e spectra shown in Fig. 2 exhibit similarly volution; 11 hours after the trigger the m is blue and smooth, but it transitions a few days to a redder spectrum with at ne clear spectral bump near 9000 Å (12). ptical spectra lack the numerous absorp- atures typically seen in the spectra of or- supernovae (10, 12). ly every known class of astrophysical nts is inconsistent with at least one of the ng properties of SSS17a: the rise time of urs, subsequent fading at ≳1 mag dayÀ1, r difference in V- and H-band magnitudes that transitions from À1:2 to þ3:6 mag days, and the nearly featureless optical at all epochs (10–12). Among previously d events dominated by thermal continuum n, the most similar class is rapidly evolving ansients (21); however, these events have agnitudes that are too luminous, typically n star-forming galaxies, do not have the ed color evolution, and do not fade as as SSS17a (10). Nonthermal relativistic s such as GRB afterglows can produce fading transients but are not expected to e the quasi-blackbody spectra that are ed (Fig. 2) (12). 7a’s observational properties suggest a nt progenitor system. Various types of uration transients have been theorized e from white dwarf or massive-star explo- but none of these model predictions re- SSS17a. For example, models of surface ions on a white dwarf (22) could explain 10000 1042 1041 1040 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Temperature (K) Residual Magnitude (+ offset) Luminosity (erg s–1) Rest-frame days from merger 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 1 0 –1 on January 2, 2018 http://science.sciencemag.org/ loaded from Kilpatrick+2017, Science Cowperthwaite+2017 Drout+2017, Science
  56. None
  57. None
  58. None
  59. Alexander (Sasha) Tchekhovskoy SPSAS-HighAstro ’17 Explaining Jet High-Energy Emission Binary

    Merger GRB merger ejecta, wind Core collapse GRB stellar envelope R AGN interstellar medium kpc Magnetic reconnection is promising (Sironi+2015) but how to get it to work generically in a smooth jet? Universal mechanism to convert 10-50% of jet energy into heat? (Panaitescu and Kumar 03, Nemmen+2013) Slide: Tchekhovskoy
  60. Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic GRB jets 553 Figure 1. Cartoon of the

    large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. Ultrarelativistic magnetodynamic G Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. Th the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a co by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are thread lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The mag the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly co an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indic separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind pro for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varyi strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows t of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrica points. Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. Th the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a co by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are thread lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The mag the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly co an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indic separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind pro for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varyi strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows t of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrica points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-fr the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gase collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘ idealized model can be considered as a freel Figure 1. Cartoon of the large-scale structure of a GRB source (not to scale). The major elements are a central engine which launches a polar magnetically dominated ultrarelativistic jet, and a gaseous stellar envelope (grey shading) which confines the jet. The central engine may be an accreting rapidly rotating BH or a millisecond magnetar. For a failed supernova, there could also be a disc wind which may additionally confine the jet. within the pre-supernova core (Aloy et al. 2000; Zhang et al. 2003; Morsony, Lazzati & Begelman 2007; Wang, Abel & Zhang 2007). These simulations show that the jet collimates and accelerates as it pushes its way through the confining stellar envelope, thus sug- gesting that the envelope plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and Lorentz factor of the flow that emerges from the star. If the collapsar system forms an accreting BH, then the ultra- relativistic jet may be accompanied by a moderately relativistic disc wind that may provide additional collimation for the jet (McKinney 2005b,2006b). We note that the larger the radius of the progenitor star and/or the denser the stellar envelope, the more energy is re- quired for the jet to have to penetrate the stellar envelope and reach Figure 2. Idealized model studied in this paper. The thick solid lines in the upper panel show an azimuthal cut through a compact star surrounded by a razor-thin disc. The star and the disc are threaded by magnetic field lines, which are shown as thin solid lines. The magnetized plasma above the star and the disc is assumed to be perfectly conducting and to have an ultrahigh magnetization parameter. Arrows show the direction of the poloidal electric current. The thick-dashed line indicates the field line that separates the jet from the disc wind. The disc wind provides pressure support for the jet and plays the role of the gaseous stellar envelope in Fig. 1. The degree of pressure support is adjusted by varying the magnetic field strength profile in the disc. The lower panel shows the angular frequency of rotation of field lines as a function of the cylindrical radius of their foot- points. parameter σ (Michel 1969; Goldreich & Julian 1970), we assume σ → ∞. In this idealized model, the force-free disc wind plays the role of the stellar envelope (plus any gaseous disc wind) that collimates the jet in a real GRB (Fig. 1). In the context of the collapsar picture, the ‘wind’ region of our idealized model can be considered as a freely moving pressure Long GRB Tchekhovskoy+08 AGN Similar ingredients for jet launching and collimation in GRBs and AGNs: expect scaling of jet properties? accretion flow (torus) collapsar ˙ M . ˙ MEdd ˙ M ˙ MEdd Semenov+04 Talks by Ioka, Kawanaka, ... ˙ M ˙ MEdd Short GRB
  61. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 2

    4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Long Short Opening angle θ j (degrees) Number Figure 18 Distributions of jet opening angles for short (blue) and long (red ) GRBs on the basis of breaks in their afterglow emission. Arrows mark lower or upper limits on the opening angles. The observations are summarized in Section 8.4. From Fong et al. (2013) and references therein. . Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org s on 06/05/14. For personal use only. Berger 2014 ARAA
  62. Van Eerten 2018

  63. slide: optical opportunities for GMT afterglow measurements what they can

    teach us Log Optical Flux -> Log Time -> Most GRB Have Optical Afterglows Prompt X/-ray light curves bright (wide field instruments), highly variable, inhomogeneous shapes LGRB typically ~ 40-100 s OPT AG MEASUREMENTS COMMON - Hundreds observed, dozens per year. (Flares ignored here) Physics well understood to be interaction of a jet with ISM. [Early or prompt phase not measured for most GRBs] Covino et al.: The prompt and the afterglow of GRB 060908 5 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 Flux (mJy) Time from burst (s) 1 keV U (x 100) B (x 30) V (x 10) R (x 3) I (x 1) Z (x 0.4) White (x 0.4) J (x 0.06) H (x 0.035) K (x 0.02) Covimo+2010 5.1. The picture since Swift Fig. 3. An overview of the various issues raised by GRB afterglow observations from 2004+, in particular those by Swift XRT. Since the launch of Swift, a complex picture of X-ray and optical afterglows has emerged. To some extent, this picture can be described in terms of a canonical long GRB afterglow light curve189–191 (see also Fig. 3, expanded from an illustration in Ref. 192), although analysis of the Swift XRT sample shows that ‘canonical’ should be taken with a grain of salt193, 194 and that the measured temporal slopes of the light curves span a wide range. After an initial flaring behaviour presumably connected to the prompt emission, the light curve drops steeply until it reaches a plateau value. The light curve then maintains this value for longer than was Eerten 2018
  64. Slide: Xue-Feng Wu

  65. GRB optical jet breaks Liang+2008

  66. compar Below ity will relation This pre BHCs, (Kong further

    The i is in g RX; jet % RX; jet % Markof electron (2005). to the e YUAN & CUI 410 Yuan & Cui 2005 log ν [Hz]