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MasteringBitcoinを読むBitcoinネットワーク

 MasteringBitcoinを読むBitcoinネットワーク

MasteringBitcoinを読むBitcoinネットワーク

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Shu Kobuchi

July 26, 2019
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  1. ʮ.BTUFSJOH#JUDPJOʯΛಡΉ ୈճ#JUDPJOωοτϫʔΫ ೥݄೔ ϏοτίΠϯͱ͔ษڧձ খᔹप 4IV,PCVDIJ

  2. খᔹपɹ4IV,PCVDIJɹ!TIV@LPCTIVLPCVDIJ ෱Ԭݝ൧௩ࢢੜ·Εɹฌݿݝ੢ٶࢢɾๅ௩ࢢҭͪ ਆށେֶւࣄՊֶ෦ଔۀ ಸྑઌ୺Պֶٕज़େֶӃେֶ৘ใՊֶݚڀՊम࢜ྃ ৽ଔͰՈిϝʔΧʔͰιϑτ΢ΣΞ։ൃ ͦͷޙ4*FSͰͷडୗ։ൃ౳ େࡕͷϕϯνϟʔͰ#JUDPJO8FC8BMMFUࢼ࡞඼։ൃ ʙגࣜձࣾΩϡʔϒγεςϜ w ʙେࡕʹͯɺڭҭܥେن໛جװγεςϜͷ։ൃͱอक

    w ʙɹ౦ژసۈɺٕज़ઓུࣨʢϒϩοΫνΣʔϯͳͲʣ ʙϑϨηοπגࣜձࣾͷγχΞιϑτ΢ΣΞΤϯδχΞ w Ծ૝௨՟ࣄۀऀ޲͚΢ΥϨοτ։ൃΛ୲౰ ࣗݾ঺հ !2
  3. ҉߸௨՟ಡॻձʗษڧձɹIUUQTDSZQUPDVSSFODZDPOOQBTTDPN ʮϏοτίΠϯͱ͔ษڧձʯʢ݄̍ճɿฏ೔໷ʣ w ࣍ճ͸೥݄ௐ੔த ʮ҉߸௨՟ྠಡձʯʢ݄̍ճɿฏ೔໷ʣ w ࣍ճ͸೥݄೔ ਫ ʙ&BTU7FOUVSFT͞Μ ࿡ຊ໦

     DSBTIBDBEFNZ *5ܥಈը഑৴ ʹͯϏοτίΠϯͱ͔ษڧձͷΞʔΧΠϒ഑৴த
 IUUQTDSBTIBDBEFNZDPNNVOJUZDSZQUPDVSSFODZ :PV5VCFνϟϯωϧʢྠಡձʗษڧձʣIUUQTHPPHM"2&W+ ϩάϛʔ5FDI ษڧձॻ͖ى͜͠ IUUQTHPPHMK,"-3 ίϛϡχςΟ঺հ !3
  4. .BTUFSJOH#JUDPJOʹ͍ͭͯ "OESFBT."OUPOPQPVMPT ΞϯυϨΞεɾ.ɾΞϯτϊϓϩε ஶ IUUQTHJUIVCDPNCJUDPJOCPPLCJUDPJOCPPL OE&EJUJPO  0`3&*--:͔ΒϖʔύʔόοΫʗ,JOEMFͳͲͷిࢠॻ੶͕ग़൛͞Ε͍ͯΔ ೔ຊޠ༁͸TU&EJUJPOͷΈ ࠓҪਸ໵

    ോ֋३Ұ࿠ +POBUIBO6OEFSXPPE 5PNPBLJ4BUP "LJSB.JUBOJ /55ग़൛͔Βॻ੶ʗిࢠॻ੶͕ग़൛ ๜୊ʮϏοτίΠϯͱϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ҉߸௨՟Λࢧ͑Δٕज़ʯ w ඇٕज़ऀͳͲॳ৺ऀ޲͚ͷίϯαΠζ൛͋Γ !4
  5. #JUDPJOωοτϫʔΫ ॻ੶൛ʮ.BTUFSJOH#JUDPJOʯୈষʮϏοτίΠϯωοτϫʔΫʯʹ૬౰ IUUQCJUMZCJUDPJOKQO ˢ೔ຊޠ༁1%'͸ͪ͜Β ϊʔτ1$΍λϒϨοτɺεϚʔτϑΥϯͰ1%'Λ͝ཡʹͳΓͳ͕Β͓ௌ͖͘ ͍ͩ͞ ࠓճͷൣғʮ#JUDPJOωοτϫʔΫʯͷষ͸1%'શମͰ1ʙ DPOQBTTʹࢿྉ͸্͍͛ͯ·͢ උߟɿ59ʢ5SBOTBDUJPOɿτϥϯβΫγϣϯʣ !5

  6. 11FFSUP1FFSωοτϫʔΫઃܭ ϏοτίΠϯ͸Πϯλʔωοτ্ͷQFFSUPQFFS 11 ωοτϫʔΫͱͯ͠ߏ ங͞Ε͍ͯΔ ಛผͳϊʔυ͸ͳ͘ɺͦΕͧΕ͕ಉ౳ͷཱ৔ w தԝ؅ཧαʔό͕ͳ͍ #JUDPJOҎલɺ11͸ϑΝΠϧڞ༗Ͱൃల /BQTUFSɺ#JU5PSSFOU

    ೔ຊͳΒ8JO.9ɺ8JOOZ #JUDPJOωοτϫʔΫ͸#JUDPJO11ϓϩτίϧ͕ಈ࡞͍ͯ͠Δϊʔυશମ ϓϩτίϧͱ͸ωοτϫʔΫ্ͷݴޠɾϧʔϧ #JUDPJOϓϩτίϧ͸#JUDPJOωοτϫʔΫͷݴޠɾϧʔϧ !6
  7. 1ϊʔυλΠϓͱ໾ׂ ϏοτίΠϯ11ωοτϫʔΫ಺ͷ ϊʔυ͸ฏ౳͕ͩɺ͍͔ͭ͘ͷ໾ׂʹ ෼͔Ε͍ͯΔ ϊʔυͷதʹ͸ͭͷେ͖ͳػೳ܊ w 8BMMFU  ϊʔυΛ༻͍ͨࢿۚͷ؅ ཧɾૹۚ

    w #MPDLDIBJO  औҾཤྺͷ୆ா w .JOFS  ϚΠχϯάʢ59ঝೝʣ w /FUXPSL3PVUJOH  Πϯλʔωοτ্Ͱଞϊʔ υͱ௨৴ !7 # 'VMM#MPDLDIBJO / FUXPSL 3PVUJOH/PEF . JOFS 8 BMMFU
  8. 1֦ு͞Εͨ#JUDPJOωοτϫʔΫ  ΋ͷϊʔυͰωοτϫʔΫΛߏ੒ #*5/0%&4Ͱࠃผͷϊʔυ਺ɺϊʔυ7FS਺Λूܭ IUUQTCJUOPEFTFBSODPN !8

  9. 1ωοτϫʔΫΛͲͷΑ͏ʹൃݟ͢Δͷ͔ CJUDPJODMJHFUOFUXPSLJOGP 13050$0-@7&34*0/ QSPUPDPMWFSTJPO  w  ݱࡏNBJOFU UFTUOFUͱ΋ʹʣ O-PDBM4FSWJDFT

    MPDBMTFSWJDFT  w lE NBJOOFU UFTUOFUڞ௨ʣ O5JNF w ݱࡏ࣌ࠁ BEES:PV MPDBMBEESFTTFT  w BEESFTT QPSU TDPSF TVCWFS TVCWFSTJPO  w l4BUPTIJ #FTU)FJHIU w ʢݱࡏʣ !9
  10. 1ωοτϫʔΫΛͲͷΑ͏ʹൃݟ͢Δͷ͔ ϐΞಉ࢜ͷ࠷ॳͷʮϋϯυγΣΠΫʯ !10 ϩʔΧϧϊʔυ ϦϞʔτϊʔυ WFSTJPO WFSBDL WFSTJPO WFSBDL ˣ

    ࣌ ؒ ϩʔΧϧ ϊʔυ ৘ใ ϦϞʔτ ϊʔυ ৘ใ
  11. 1ωοτϫʔΫΛͲͷΑ͏ʹൃݟ͢Δͷ͔ ࣗ਎ͷ*1ΞυϨεͷ఻ൖͱଞͷ*1ΞυϨεͷൃݟ !11 ϩʔΧϧϊʔυ ϦϞʔτϊʔυ BEE HFUBEES BEES ˣ ࣌

    ؒ BEES BEES ωοτϫʔΫ্ ͷϊʔυ৘ใ
  12. 1ϑϧϊʔυ ϑϧϊʔυ͸શͯͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯΛؚΉ׬શͳϒϩοΫνΣʔϯΛ؅ཧ HFOFTJTCMPDL ࠷ॳͷϒϩοΫ ͔Β࠷৽ͷϒϩοΫ·ͰΛݕূ͠ɺอ࣋ ଞͷϊʔυΛશ͘৴༻ͤͣཔΔ͜ͱͳ͘શͯͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯɺϒϩο ΫΛࣗྗͰݕূՄೳ σϝϦοτ͸ɺσʔλ༰ྔ͕େ͖͍͜ͱ !12

  13. 1l*OWFOUPSZzͷަ׵ ݕূ͸ࣗྗͰͰ͖ͯ΋σʔλࣗମ͸ଞϊʔυ͔Β΋ΒΘͳ͍ͱ͍͚ͳ͍ ॳظηοτΞοϓ࣌͸ສϒϩοΫɺ(#΋ͷσʔλΛޮ཰Α͘΋Β͏ ඞཁ !13 ϦϨʔϊʔυ ϦϞʔτϊʔυ JOW IFBEFST HFUIFBEFST

    CMPDL ˣ ࣌ ؒ ϑϧϊʔυͷ৔߹ ϦϨʔϊʔυ ϦϞʔτϊʔυ JOW UY HFUEBUB NFSLMFCMPDL ˣ ࣌ ؒ 417ϊʔυͷ৔߹
  14. 14JNQMJpFE1BZNFOU7FSJpDBUJPO 417 ϊʔυ ϑϧϊʔυͰ͸ϚγϯͷσΟεΫ༰ྔ͕ଟ͗͢ΔͷͰɺܰྔʹ͢ΔͨΊʹ417 ϊʔυ͕͋Δ ϒϩοΫશମͰ͸ͳ͘ɺϒϩοΫϔομ τϥϯβΫγϣϯͷ͏ͪɺϊʔυͱؔ܎͋Δ΋ͷ͚ͩΛอ࣋ શͯͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯΛ͍࣋ͬͯͳ͍ͷͰɺτϥϯβΫγϣϯΛ59 νΣʔϯͰ௥͍ͬͯ͘ݕূ͸ෆՄ ݕূ͢Δʹ͸ϑϧϊʔυ΁ͷ໰͍߹Θ͕ͤඞཁ

    ϒϩοΫͷதʹ59͕ଘࡏ͢Δ͔ͷ֬ೝ͸Մೳ w ಉ͡6590ͷೋॏ࢖༻ EPVCMFTQFOE Λ֬ೝ͸ෆՄ ৴༻Ͱ͖Δෳ਺ͷϑϧϊʔυʹϥϯμϜͰ઀ଓ͢Δ͜ͱ͕๬·͍͠ !14
  15. 14JNQMJpFE1BZNFOU7FSJpDBUJPO 417 ϊʔυ ϐΞ͔ΒϒϩοΫΛऔಘ͢Δ͜ͱʹΑͬͯϒϩοΫνΣʔϯͱಉظ͢Δϊʔυ !15 ϊʔυ" ϊʔυ# JOW HFUEBUB ˣ

    ࣌ ؒ CMPDL CMPDL CMPDL CMPDL CMPDL HFUCMPDLT HFUCMPDLT
  16. 14JNQMJpFE1BZNFOU7FSJpDBUJPO 417 ϊʔυ 417ϊʔυͷϒϩοΫϔομಉظ !16 ϊʔυ" ϊʔυ# ˣ ࣌ ؒ

    IFBEFST HFUIFBEFST HFUIFBEFST IFBEFST
  17. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ 417ϊʔυ͸ϒϩοΫͱ59ͷඥ෇͚͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍ ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλ͸֬཰తͳ୳ࡧϑΟϧλͰɺཉ͍͠ύλʔϯΛਖ਼֬ʹಛ ఆ͠ͳͯ͘΋ύλʔϯΛهड़Ͱ͖Δํ๏ $IVSDI4U w 3$)Ͱ໊લ͕ऴΘΔ௨Γ w 63$)Ͱ໊લ͕ऴΘΔ௨Γ w

    )Ͱ໊લ͕ऴΘΔ௨Γ w ͜ͷΑ͏ͳ͜ͱΛ417ϊʔυ͕ߦ͏ͷ͕ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλ ୳ࡧύλʔϯ 11,) 1BZUP1VCMJL,FZ)BTI ͷ4DSJQU 14) 1BZUP4DSJQU)BTI ͷ4DSJQU ଟ෼ؚΜͰ͍ΔPSઈରؚΜͰ͍ͳ͍ !17
  18. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ 417ϊʔυͰ͸59Λશ෦औಘͨ͠ޙɺϊʔυ ΢ΥϨοτ ʹؔ܎ͳ͍59Λࣺ ͯΔ͜ͱʹΑͬͯ༰ྔΛ࡟ݮ͍ͯͨ͠ ࠓͰ͸ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλΛ༻͍ͯɺޮ཰తʹ59ΛϑΟϧλϦϯάͯ͠औಘ ͍ͯ͠Δɻ !18 ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλ ؔ܎͕͋Δ

    ؔ܎͕ͳ͍ ؔ܎͕ͳͯ͘΋ ϑΟϧλΛύεͨ͠΋ͷ͸औΓࠐ·ΕΔ
  19. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ CJUͷϑΟʔϧυͱ̏ͭͷϋογϡؔ਺Λ࣋ͬͨۃ୺ʹγϯϓϧʹͨ͠ϒ ϧʔϜϑΟϧλͷྫ !19      

                              ,  ,  ,  ͭͷϋογϡؔ਺ ϋογϡؔ਺ग़ྗ஋ ͔Β ۭͷϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλɺϏοτ഑ྻ
  20. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ લʹࣔͨ͠୯७ͳϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʹύλʔϯ"Λ༩͑ͨ৔߹ !20       

                             ,  ,  ,  ϋογϡؔ਺ ύλʔϯ " , "  , "  , " 
  21. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ લʹࣔͨ͠୯७ͳϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʹ൪໨ͷύλʔϯ#Λ༩͑ͨ৔߹ !21       

                             ,  ,  ,  ϋογϡؔ਺ ύλʔϯ # , #  , #  , # 
  22. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ ͋Β͔͡ΊύλʔϯΛ͍͔ͭ͘༩͑ͯɺϏοτΛ͔ΒʹมԽͤ͞Δ ୳ࡧύλʔϯΛϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʹه࿥͢Δ "ͰΛཱͯͨͱ͜Ζʹ#͕ΛཱͯΑ͏ͱͯ͠΋Կ΋͠ͳ͍ ύλʔϯ͕ଟ͗͢ΔͱɺͷՕॴ͕ଟ͘ͳͬͯɺϑΟϧλ͕؇͘ͳΔ Ϗοτྻͱɺϋογϡؔ਺ͷ਺͕ଟ͚Ε͹ଟ͍΄Ͳਖ਼֬ʹͳΔ !22

  23. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλΛ࢖ͬͯύλʔϯ9͕ଘࡏ͢Δ͔νΣοΫɻͦͷ݁Ռ͸ʮ֬ ཰తʹϙδςΟϒʯɺͭ·ΓʮͨͿΜ͋Δʯɻ !23      

                              ,  ,  ,  ϋογϡؔ਺ ͜ͷύλʔϯΛؚΜͰ͍ΔͰ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ 9 , 9  , 9  , 9  ͨͿΜؚΜͰ͍Δ
  24. 1#MPPN'JMUFSʢϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλʣ ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλΛ࢖ͬͯύλʔϯ:͕ଘࡏ͢Δ͔֬ೝɻͦͷ݁Ռ͸ʮ࣮֬ʹ ωΨςΟϒʯɺͭ·Γʮ࣮֬ʹͳ͍ʯɻ !24      

                              ,  ,  ,  ϋογϡؔ਺ ͜ͷύλʔϯΛؚΜͰ͍ΔͰ͠ΐ͏͔ʁ : , :  , :  , :  ઈରʹؚΜͰ͍ͳ͍ʂ
  25. 1#MPPN'JMUFSͱ*OWFOUPSZߋ৽ ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλ͸417ϊʔυ͕ड͚औΔ59 ٴͼͦΕΒΛؚΜͰ͍Δϒϩο Ϋ ΛϑΟϧλϦϯά͢ΔͨΊʹ࢖ΘΕΔ 417ϊʔυ͸ɺpMUFSBEEϝοηʔδΛϐΞʹૹΔ͜ͱͰɺ৽ͨͳύλʔϯΛϒ ϧʔϜϑΟϧλʹ௥ՃͰ͖Δ ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλ͔Β͋Δύλʔϯ͚ͩΛ࡟আ͢Δ͜ͱ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍ Ұ౓࡟আ͔ͯ͠Β৽͍͠ϒϧʔϜϑΟϧλΛૹΓ௚͢͜ͱʹͳΔ !25

  26. 1τϥϯβΫγϣϯϓʔϧ ϝϞϦϓʔϧɺτϥϯβΫγϣϯϓʔϧ ະݕূͷ59ͷҰ࣌తͳϦετΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔ ΦʔϑΝϯ ݽࣇ 59͸਌59΋ະঝೝͷ৔߹͔ͭ਌59Λ͍࣋ͬͯͳ͍ !26 #MPDL 59 59

    59 #MPDL 59 59 59 #MPDL 59 59 59 ঝೝࡁΈ NFNQPPM 59 59 59 ਌ 59 59 59 ਌͕ QPPMʹ ͳ͍ ࢠ ݽࣇ
  27. 1Ξϥʔτϝοηʔδ #JUDPJOͷۓٸ์ૹγεςϜ *% w ΞϥʔτΛҰҙʹࢦఆ͢Δ*% &YQJSBUJPO w Ξϥʔτ͕ࣦޮ͢Δ·Ͱͷ࣌ؒ 3FMBZ6OUJM w

    Ξϥʔτ͕தܧ͞Εͳ͘ͳΔ·Ͱͷ࣌ؒ .JO7FS .BY7FS w Ξϥʔτ͕ద༻͞ΕΔ#JUDPJOϓϩτίϧόʔδϣϯͷൣғ TVC7FS w Ξϥʔτ͕ద༻͞ΕΔΫϥΠΞϯτόʔδϣϯ 1SJPSJUZ w Ξϥʔτͷ༏ઌϨϕϧɺݱࡏ࢖༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ !27
  28. ଓ͖͸࣍ճҎ߱ʹ ࣍ճະఆ ʮϒϩοΫνΣʔϯʯʢ1%'શମͰ1ʙʣ ݟಀͨ͠ճ͸ΞʔΧΠϒͰνΣοΫ DSBTIBDBEFNZ *5ܥಈը഑৴ ʹͯϏοτίΠϯͱ͔ษڧձͷΞʔΧΠϒ ഑৴த
 IUUQTDSBTIBDBEFNZDPNNVOJUZDSZQUPDVSSFODZ :PV5VCFνϟϯωϧʢྠಡձʗษڧձʣIUUQTHPPHM"2&W+

    ࣍ষҎ߱ͷൃදऀืूதʂ ʮϒϩοΫνΣʔϯʯʢ1%'શମͰ1ʙʣ ʮϚΠχϯάͱίϯηϯαε ߹ҙܗ੒ ʯʢ1%'શମͰ1ʙʣ ʮ"MUDIBJOɺ௨՟ɺΞϓϦέʔγϣϯʯʢ1%'શମͰ1ʙʣ ʮ#JUDPJOͷ҆શੑʯʢ1%'શମͰ1ʙʣ !28
  29. ͓͠·͍ ͝ਗ਼ௌ͋Γ͕ͱ͏͍͟͝·ͨ͠ ࣭໰Λ͓ؾܰʹͲ͏ͧ ࠙਌ձͰ࣭໰͍͍ͯͨͩͯ͠΋݁ߏͰ͢ DPOQBTTʹࢿྉ͸্͍͛ͯ·͢ !29