with the top four reasons all relating to product usability: frequent requests for changes by users, overlooked tasks, users' lack of understanding of their own requirements, and insufficient user analysis communication and understanding (Lederer & Prassad, 1992).
information and insight. • Paraphrasing, or repeating back in our own words what the speaker has said, in order to clarify or confirm understanding. • Probing - questioning in a supportive way that requests more information or that attempts to clear up confusions • Providing nonverbal communication, like body language and facial expressions, to show we are paying attention. • Learning when to be quiet. Giving the other to time to think as well as to talk.
what, or why • Are used to clarify information and keep the conversation open by encouraging a person to share as much as they wish Closed Questions • Result in a simple “yes” or “no” or in short, factual answers • Tend to bring the conversation to a stop, requiring more questions to get the full story
think you said… Okay, so what I heard you say is… So what you’re saying is… You’re telling me that… Am I hearing you correctly that… Are you saying that… Am I hearing you clearly that… So what I hear you saying is… I believe that you are saying… So, you’re saying… Okay, let me see if I got what you said… So let me summarize what you just said… I want to be on the same page as you, so let me go over what you just said…
design, by talking about ‘Susan’ rather than ‘the user’ • Helps avoid self-referential design • Brings user-centered design into an organisation by providing a shared basis for communication in all stages of development cycle • Enables involving a "user" long before true usability testing is possible
empathy, e.g. by including a human face and a name • Include contextual insights, e.g. capture personality with a quote • Include details about goals, motivations and behaviours • Include pet peeves/frustrations
and quotes • Mention some demographics • Specify their computer/internet environment & savvy-ness • Create 3 to 5 bullets specifying key goals • Include some behaviours or attitudes • Don’t forget pet peeves • Add some scenarios for your persona – Draw conclusions based strictly on observed facts
the ATM's screen. 2. The user takes a valid Huntington bank card from their wallet. 3. The user slides the bank card fully into the marked slot. 4. The user waits five seconds for the ATM to respond. Feedback: The ATM displays "Please enter your four-digit personal identification number" on the screen. 5. Using the physical keypad attached to the ATM, the user correctly enters their four-digit PIN. 6. The user presses the Enter key. […] 7. The user removes their bank card and returns it to their wallet. 8. The user watches the screen for 15 seconds. Feedback: The ATM redisplays the welcome message. 9. The customer leaves.
typically find in usability testing - confusing concepts, poor terminology, layout problems, lack of feedback, etc. Missing (or misspecificed) functional requirements. Users often have needs that the development team isn't aware of, or the team may have a mistaken assumption about what functionality will satisfy a user requirement. Preference for one design alternative. Sometimes there are multiple ways to provide a function and they're equally easy to implement. But users may have a clear preference for one way over another.
on the browser screenshot sheet • Draw everything else on card, cut it up, and position with restickable glue • Use index cards or post-it notes for pop-up windows/error messages/fly-out menus/and the ‘waiting’ hour-glass • Put repositionable tape over each text field to allow for editing, etc • Use pencil instead of pen to indicate ‘greyed-out’ items • Use squiggles to indicate copy text • Make things bigger rather than smaller – otherwise it’s harder to manipulate all the little objects • For little objects, make little ‘tabs’ so that you can place them and remove them more easily • Don’t worry about straight lines, details – it’s meant to be rough
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Ongoing user familiarisation (‘urban safaris’) User Research ‘Generic’ personas Personas for target audience Study of patterns Usability tests to uncover specific usability issues Conversation tool Artefacts