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Intro to MultiCopters

Tom Paulus
October 18, 2014

Intro to MultiCopters

Commonly referred to as Drones, these craft provide the pilot the ability to capture images from a new perspective. In this talk we will discuss the basic principles and technology that enable this gravity defying craft to fly.

We have flown these magical devices for a few hundred hours over the last two years. We have bought and built too many multi-copters (unfortunately also known as drones). Anyways, we would really love to share some of our most exciting and memorable experiences with you.

But be warned! You will leave the session, with the strong desire to acquire parts (you before didn't know existed) and build a mulit-copter of your own.

Tom Paulus

October 18, 2014
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  1. © 2014 Tom Paulus Photo: Wolf Paulus
    Getting Started
    with MultiCopters
    Wolf Paulus
    @wolfpaulus
    http://wolfpaulus.com
    Tom Paulus
    @tompaulus
    http://tompaulus.com
    © 2014 Tom Paulus

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  2. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    What is a MultiCopter?

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  3. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Build Vs. Buy
    How Do I Get One?

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  4. HUBSAN X4 H107C-HD Quadcopter with 2MP Video

    US$ 65

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  5. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Build vs Buy

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  6. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Frame Shape

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  7. © 2014 Tom Paulus

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  8. © 2014 Tom Paulus

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  9. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Flight Controller
    • The MOST important component on
    your craft
    • Translates your inputs into changes in
    the motor speeds
    • There are 3 different classes of Flight
    Controller to choose from

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  10. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Auto-Level Only
    KK 2.1
    $30
    Acro Naze 32
    $25
    Flip 1.5
    $16*
    *Does NOT include the case

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  11. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Altitude Holding
    Flip 1.5
    $22* **
    Naze 32
    $52
    **With the addition of the Pimp Your Flip Board ($7)
    *Does NOT include the case

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  12. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    GPS with AutoPilot Capabilities
    ArduPilot
    $300
    DJI Naza Lite
    $175

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  13. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Motors
    • RPM is measured in kV
    • 1 kV is 1 revolution per volt
    • Measure of the dimension of the
    stator
    • For Example, 2212 980kV Motors
    Photo: rcexplorer.se

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  14. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Props
    Lets take a 10x4.5 Prop for Example
    10 x 4.5
    Diameter of
    the Prop
    Pitch of the
    Prop

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  15. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    ESCs
    Electronic Speed Controller
    Connects your Motors to your
    Battery and Flight Controller
    Motor
    Battery
    ESC
    Flight
    Controller
    Photo: HobbyKing

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  16. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Batteries
    Voltage
    • 4s+ - High Voltage App.
    • 3S -11.1V (Most Common)
    • 2S - 7.4V
    Amperage
    Measured in C (Capacities)
    Diagram: Traxxas

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  17. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Now What?

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  18. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Mobius GoPro Camcorder DSLR
    39g
    Camera: 74g (2.6oz)
    w/housing: 136g (4.8oz)
    approx. 350g approx. 1500g
    Payload

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  19. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Payload Influencers
    • Frame Type
    • All-up Weight (without the camera)
    • Battery (3.7V per LiPO cell)
    • ESC (Max Amperage)
    • Motor
    • Propeller (Length and Pitch)

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  20. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    But how much power is needed to turn a propeller at a certain speed?
    Bob Boucher’s Electric Motor Handbook states that the following
    formula works well for most two-bladed propellers:
    • Propeller constant of APC propeller is 1.11
    • Propeller diameter in feet = 10 * 0.0833 = 0.83
    • Propeller pitch in feet = 4.5 * 0.0833 = 0.37
    • Estimated RPM = 9000 / 1000 = 9
    Power required to spin the propeller = 1.11 * 0.83^4 * 0.37 * 9^3 = 144 Watts
    1 x4.5 APC props
    a. 9 rpm
    w = Kp × d4 × Pitch × RPM3

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  21. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    • 3 Rotors 10 x 4.5
    • 2500 mAh 3 Cell Battery
    • Motors 980 rpm/V Motors
    • 1000g All-up Weight
    • Mixed Flight Time 7.7 min
    • Hover Flight Time 11 min
    • Hover at 49% Throttle input
    • Possible Payload 493 g
    • Max Speed 25.5 mph
    Baseline
    120 W
    100 F

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  22. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    • 3 Rotors 10 x 4.5
    • 2500 mAh 4 Cell Battery
    • Motors 980 rpm/V Motors
    • 1000g All-up Weight
    • Mixed Flight Time 8.1 min
    • Hover Flight Time 14 min
    • Hover at 28% Throttle input
    • Theo. Payload 1300 g
    • Max Speed 38.5 mph
    4 Cell Battery
    225 W
    127 F

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  23. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    • 3 Rotors 11 x 4.5
    • 2500 mAh 3 Cell Battery
    • Motors 980 rpm/V Motors
    • 1000g All-up Weight
    • Mixed Flight Time 7.8 min
    • Hover Flight Time 12 min
    • Hover at 38% Throttle input
    • Possible Payload 812 g
    • Max Speed 26.7 mph
    11’ Propeller
    144 W
    109 F

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  24. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    • 3 Rotors 10 x 4.5
    • 2500 mAh 3 Cell Battery
    • Motors 980 rpm/V Motors
    • 1000g All-up Weight
    • Mixed Flight Time 7.7 min
    • Hover Flight Time 11 min
    • Hover at 49% Throttle input
    • Possible Payload 493 g
    • Max Speed 25.5 mph
    Baseline
    120 W
    100 F

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  25. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    • 3 Rotors 10 x 4.5
    • 2500 mAh 3 Cell Battery
    • Motors 980 rpm/V Motors
    • 1350g All-up Weight
    • Mixed Flight Time 5.6 min
    • Hover Flight Time 7 min
    • Hover at 72% Throttle input
    • Possible Payload 143 g
    • Max Speed 14.9 mph
    Payload
    120 W
    100 F

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  26. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Transmitter

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  27. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Transmitter
    Altitude

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  28. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Transmitter
    Forward
    Backward

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  29. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Right
    Transmitter
    Left

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  30. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Transmitter
    Spin
    Right
    Spin
    Left

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  31. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Questions?

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  32. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Summary
    We looked at…
    - Do I Build or Buy?
    - Various Components Essential to your Copter
    - What kind of payloads you can carry

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  33. © 2014 Tom Paulus
    Demo

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