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Creating an optimal environment for learning English: The role of assistant language teachers

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=47 Ken Urano
December 11, 2017

Creating an optimal environment for learning English: The role of assistant language teachers

Plenary talk at 2017 Hokkaido Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs) Skills Development Conference

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=128

Ken Urano

December 11, 2017
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  1. Creating an optimal environment
 for learning English: The role of

    assistant language teachers Ken Urano, Hokkai-Gakuen University urano@hgu.jp December 11, 2017 @ Hokkaido Citizens Activities Promotion Center (Kaderu 2-7)
  2. Before we begin... • Please consider this talk as a

    proposal, rather than a lecture. • Your questions and comments are welcome at any time.
  3. About me… • Born in Kanagawa Prefecture. • Grew up

    in Nagano Prefecture.
  4. None
  5. • Bachelor’s and master’s degrees in education @ Shinshu University,

    Nagano • Master’s degree in English as a second language @ University of Hawai’i
  6. None
  7. None
  8. • Currently professor 
 @ Faculty of Business Administration, 


    Hokkai-Gakuen University • Teaching mainly English for business purposes
  9. None
  10. • I’m also a visiting professor 
 @ Graduate School

    of Foreign Languages, Nagoya Gakuin University • Supervising master’s students at its correspondence program
  11. None
  12. About me... • I’m a teacher of English. • I’m

    a researcher in second language acquisition.
  13. About me... • I’m a teacher of English. • I’m

    a researcher in second language acquisition.
  14. Researchers’ roles,
 teachers’ roles • Researcher • Making guidelines •

    Teacher • Adapting the guidelines
  15. What we know from research

  16. Second Language Acquisition

  17. Second Language Acquisition • is not the sole source of

    information for foreign language teaching, • but offers some useful insights.
  18. • is a field of study which attempts to understand

    the process of learning a language other than the first. Second Language Acquisition
  19. • We know that learning a second language is far

    more difficult than learning the first. • The goal of second language acquisition (SLA) research is to find the reasons why this is the case. Second Language Acquisition
  20. SLA Basics

  21. SLA Basics Learner Input Output Listening & reading Speaking &


    writing
  22. • We cannot use words or grammar rules that we

    do not know when we speak/write. • We acquire such knowledge from input. • Input precedes output. SLA Basics Learner Input Output
  23. We know... • Importance of input • No input, no

    language learning
  24. Importance of input • Limited input sources • Outside the

    classroom • Textbook • Teachers’ role as a main source of input
  25. What about output? • Output is also important, but •

    Input is crucial. Input (Listening/Reading) Output ʢSpeaking/Writing)
  26. What about output? • Output is also important, but •

    Input is crucial. Input (Listening/Reading) Output ʢSpeaking/Writing) X
  27. But...

  28. Not all input is good.

  29. It’s Greek to me! http://www.flickr.com/photos/dnevill/2402430135/

  30. Comprehensible input

  31. By the way...

  32. I have two daughters.

  33. MSR: ͜ΜͲύϑΣ৯΂ʹ͍ͬͯ͘ʂ We’re gonna eat some parfait! AKR: ύϑΣʁ Parfait?

    MSR: ͜ΜͲΞΠε৯΂ʹ͍ͬͯ͘ʂ We’re gonna eat some ice cream! AKR: ΞΠεʂ Ice cream! Conversation between 
 a 6-year-old and a 3-year-old
  34. Even a 6-year-old knows how to adjust her talk

  35. Speech adjustment • Caretaker speech • a.k.a. motherese, baby talk,

    etc. • Foreigner talk • Teacher talk
  36. Question

  37. Question How do you adjust your speech?

  38. • Language learning takes place • When learners understand the

    meaning of the input, and • When they pay some attention to the form, • At the same time. We know...
  39. Form-meaning mapping

  40. Gestures & visual aids

  41. Gestures & visual aids Statue of Liberty

  42. Gestures & visual aids http://www.flickr.com/photos/philofphotos/249220155/

  43. Gestures & visual aids • They are useful, but •

    They need to be used with caution • Because students may not pay attention to the form.
  44. Gestures & visual aids http://www.flickr.com/photos/zigazou76/3593523470/ Statue of Napoleon

  45. Gestures & visual aids http://www.flickr.com/photos/irenetong/2570306240/ Statue of King Kamehameha

  46. Gestures & visual aids Statue of Liberty

  47. Gestures & visual aids Statues

  48. To simplify or not to simplify...

  49. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent. Suppose your students

    don’t know this word. To simplify or not to simplify...
  50. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent. To simplify or

    not to simplify... hard-working
  51. Simplification • Replacing difficult items with easy ones.

  52. Simplification • The girl who is wearing blue jeans is

    my sister.
  53. Simplification • The girl who is wearing blue jeans is

    my sister. There is a girl over there. She is wearing blue jeans. That’s my sister.
  54. Simplification • Generally improves comprehension, but • Takes away the

    chance to learn a new item.
  55. Instead of simplifying...

  56. Elaborate!

  57. Elaboration • Giving additional information to improve comprehension without removing

    the difficult item.
  58. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent, I mean, hard-working.

    Elaboration
  59. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent, I mean, hard-working.

    Elaboration kept in the input
  60. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent, I mean, hard-working.

    Elaboration improves comprehension kept in the input
  61. Or...

  62. You can interact!

  63. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent. Do you know

    what diligent means? (No.) It means hard-working. So, everyone knows Mike is hard-working. Interaction
  64. • Everybody knows that Mike is diligent. Do you know

    what diligent means? (No.) It means hard-working. So, everyone knows Mike is hard-working. Interaction comprehension check
  65. We know... • Simplification improves comprehension, but it does not

    help language learning. • Elaboration does both. • Interaction does both, too.
  66. Quick summary • Input is necessary for SLA • Form-meaning

    mapping • Roles of simplification, elaboration, and interaction to help comprehension Learner Input Output
  67. • Roles of output in SLA • Noticing • Hypothesis

    testing • Metalinguistic knowledge Output
  68. • Positive evidence • Information about what is grammatical in

    the target language • i.e., input • Negative evidence • Information about what is not grammatical in the target language Positive evidence &
 negative evidence
  69. • Many scholars argue that positive evidence alone is not

    sufficient for SLA. • Roles of negative evidence Positive evidence &
 negative evidence
  70. 1a. δϣϯ͸Ώͬ͘ΓίʔώʔΛҿΜͩɻ 1b. John slowly drank coffee. 2a. δϣϯ͸ίʔώʔΛΏͬ͘ΓҿΜͩɻ 2b.

    *John drank slowly coffee. Positive evidence (1b) is not sufficient to learn that 2b is ungrammatical in English. Positive evidence &
 negative evidence
  71. Corrective feedback
 to provide negative evidence Positive evidence &
 negative

    evidence
  72. Corrective feedback • Students need to pay some attention to

    form. • Corrective feedback can help learners shift their attention to form. • It can also provide negative evidence.
  73. Feedback options • +/– Explicit • +/– Correction

  74. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  75. Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit – Recast

    + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction + Feedback options
  76. Clarification request S: I go to the library yesterday. T:

    Pardon?
  77. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  78. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  79. Recast S: I go to the library yesterday. T: Oh,

    you went to the library
 yesterday. Did you borrow any 
 books?
  80. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  81. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  82. Repetition S: I go to the library yesterday. T: “I

    go to the library yesterday”? S: Oh, I went to the library yesterday.
  83. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  84. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  85. Elicitation S: I go to the library yesterday. T: Yesterday,

    you ... S: ... went to the library.
  86. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  87. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  88. Metalinguistic clue S: I go to the library yesterday. T:

    It’s about yesterday, so what tense 
 do you have to use? S: Past tense. I went to the library 
 yesterday.
  89. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  90. Feedback options Feedback type Explicit–Implicit Correction Clarification request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction +
  91. Explicit correction S: I go to the library yesterday. T:

    It’s about yesterday, so you have to use the past tense went. S: OK. I went to the library 
 yesterday.
  92. Feedback options • Implicit feedback • does not block the

    flow of communication, but • learners may not notice the negative evidence. • is considered more effective with advanced learners.
  93. Feedback options • Explicit feedback • is easier to notice,

    but • often stops communication.
  94. Feedback options It is important that individual teachers decide which

    feedback options to use for which students on which errors.
  95. • Ways to help comprehension • Positive evidence & negative

    evidence • Roles & types of corrective feedback Learner Input Output Quick summary (2)
  96. Researchers’ roles,
 teachers’ roles • Researcher • Making guidelines •

    Teacher • Adapting the guidelines
  97. Researchers’ roles,
 teachers’ roles • Researcher • Making guidelines •

    Teacher • Adapting the guidelines
  98. Guidelines Methodological Principles

  99. Methodological Principles Methodological Principles are universally desirable instructional design features,

    motivated by theory and research findings in SLA, educational psychology, general educational curriculum design, and elsewhere, which show them either to be necessary for SLA or facilitative of it. (Long, 2009, p. 376)
  100. Methodological Principles 1 Use task, not text, as the unit

    of analysis. 2 Promote learning by doing. 3 Elaborate input. 4 Provide rich (not impoverished) input. 5 Encourage inductive (“chunk”) learning. 6 Focus on form. 7 Provide negative feedback. 8 Respect “learner syllabuses.” 9 Promote cooperative/collaborative learning. 10 Individualize instruction.
  101. MP1 Use task, not text, as the unit of analysis.

    • Task-based language teaching (TBLT) • target tasks, pedagogical tasks, task sequencing MP2 Promote learning by doing.
  102. MP3 Elaborate input. • Do not simplify. • Do not

    rely solely on “authentic” texts.
  103. MP4 Provide rich (not impoverished) input. • Exposure to varied

    input sources
  104. MP5 Encourage inductive (“chunk”) learning. • Implicit instruction

  105. MP6 Focus on form. During an otherwise meaning-focused classroom lessons,

    focus on form often consists of an occasional shift of attention to linguistic code features— by the teacher and/or one or more students—triggered by perceived problems with comprehension or production. (Long & Robinson, 1998, p. 23)
  106. MP6 Focus on form. Instruction types Unobtrusive ɹ㲗ɹ Obtrusive Πϯϓοτߑਫʢinput

    floodʣ λεΫඞਢݴޠʢtask-essential languageʣ Πϯϓοτิڧʢinput enhancementʣ ҙຯަবʢnegotiationʣ ϦΩϟετʢrecastʣ Ξ΢τϓοτิڧʢoutput enhancementʣ ΠϯλϥΫγϣϯิڧʢinteraction enhancementʣ σΟΫτάϩεʢdictoglossʣ ҙࣝߴ༲ʢconsciousness-raisingʣ Πϯϓοτॲཧʢinput processingʣ Ψʔσϯɾύεʢgarden pathʣ ɹ̭ ɹ̭ ɹɹ̭ ɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹ̭ ɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹɹ̭ FonF procedures (Doughty & Williams, 1998)
  107. MP7 Provide negative feedback. • Feedback on error (e.g., recasts)

    • Error “correction”
  108. MP8 Respect “learner syllabuses.” • Timing of pedagogical intervention to

    developmental readiness • What is taught ≠ what is learned. • Teachers cannot decide when certain items/rules are learned. • The idea of “feeding.”
  109. MP9 Promote cooperative/collaborative learning. • Negotiation of meaning • Interactional

    modification
  110. MP10 Individualize instruction. • Needs analysis • Consideration of individual

    differences (e.g., memory and aptitude) and learning strategies
  111. Summary

  112. Summary • Importance of comprehensible input • Elaboration and interaction

    to enhance form-meaning mapping • Corrective feedback to increase awareness • Methodological Principles
  113. My last question

  114. • How will you incorporate today’s ideas into your teaching?

    My last question
  115. References • Doughty, C. J., & Long, M. H. (2003).

    Optimal psycholinguistic environments for distance foreign language learning. Language Learning & Technology, 7, 50-80. Retrieved from http://llt.msu.edu/ vol7num3/doughty/ • Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (Eds.) (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press. • Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistics environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413-468). New York: Academic Press. • Long, M. H. (2007). Problems in SLA. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. • Long, M. H. (2009). Methodological principles for language teaching. In M. H. Long & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 373-394). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. • Long, M. H., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (1998).