Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

英語の授業をタスクで組み立てる

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=47 Ken Urano
March 13, 2021

 英語の授業をタスクで組み立てる

広島修道大学人文学部
英語英文学科主催ワークショップ
2021年3月13日

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=128

Ken Urano

March 13, 2021
Tweet

Transcript

  1. ӳޠͷतۀΛ λεΫͰ૊ΈཱͯΔ ޿ౡमಓେֶਓจֶ෦ ӳޠӳจֶՊओ࠵ϫʔΫγϣοϓ 2021೥3݄13೔ Ӝ໺ ݚʢ๺ւֶԂେֶʣ urano@hgu.jp

  2. • ࡳຈࢢத৺෦ʹ͋Δ૯߹ࢲཱେֶ • ܦࡁɾ๏ɾ޻ɾਓจɾܦӦֶ෦ • ๺ւಓͰҰ൪ݹ͘ɺҰ൪େ͖ͳࢲཱେֶ • 1952೥։ઃ • ࡏ੶ֶੜ਺໿8,300໊

    • ๺ւӳޠֶߍʢ1885೥ઃཱʣ͕ىݯ ๺ւֶԂେֶ
  3. • ஍Ҭʹࠜͨ͟͠େֶ • ೖֶऀͷେ൒͕๺ւಓग़਎ʢ2020೥౓͸໿97ˋʣ • େֶϒϥϯυྗϥϯΩϯάಓ಺ࢲେ̍Ґ • ಓ಺اۀࣾ௕ग़਎େֶ̍Ґʢ900໊ʣ • ಓ಺ࢲେͰ།Ұ̎෦ʢ໷ؒ෦ʣΛ࣋ͭ

    • ̎෦ࡏ੶ֶੜ਺શࠃ̎Ґʢ໿2,300໊ʣ ๺ւֶԂେֶ
  4. • 2003೥ʹܦࡁֶ෦ܦӦֶՊ͕ಠཱ • ܦӦֶՊɾܦӦ৘ใֶՊͷֶ̎Պ • ̍෦ʢனؒ෦ʣʹֶ෦ಠࣗͷӳޠϓϩάϥϜ ܦӦֶ෦ͷ঺հ

  5. ͸͡Ίʹ

  6. ͸͡Ίʹ • ͢΂ͯͷӳޠतۀ͕λεΫɾϕʔεͰ͋Δ΂͖ͱ 
 ݴ͏ͭ΋Γ͸͋Γ·ͤΜ • ීஈͷӳޠतۀʹ͍ͭͯͷΠϝʔδΛҰ୴๨Εͯ 
 ฉ͍ͯΈ͍ͯͩ͘͞

  7. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ…

  8. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ…

  9. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ࣗసंʹ৐ΔͷʹඞཁͳεΩϧʢҰ෦ʣɿ ྆खͰϋϯυϧΛࢧ͑Δ ମશମͰࠨӈͷόϥϯεΛऔΔ ϖμϧΛ૨͙ ϒϨʔΩΛ౿Ή

  10. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ࣗసंʹ৐ΔͷʹඞཁͳεΩϧʢҰ෦ʣɿ Ͳ͏΍ͬͯ਎ʹ͚ͭΔʁ

  11. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ݸʑͷ஌ࣝ΍ٕೳΛผʑʹ਎ʹ͚ͭΔ͜ͱ ͦΕΛ౷߹ͯ͠࢖͑ΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ͜ͱ

  12. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ݸʑͷ஌ࣝ΍ٕೳΛผʑʹ਎ʹ͚ͭΔ͜ͱ ͦΕΛ౷߹ͯ͠࢖͑ΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ͜ͱ Ϊϟοϓ

  13. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ݸʑͷ஌ࣝ΍ٕೳͷशಘʢ࿅शʣΑΓ΋ ͱΓ͋͑ͣʮ΍ͬͯΈΔʯ͜ͱΛ௨ͯ͠ ౷߹తͳεΩϧΛ਎ʹ͚ͭΔֶश λεΫɾϕʔεͷֶश ʢtask-based learningʣ

  14. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… λεΫɾϕʔεͷֶश ʢtask-based learningʣ ҝ͢͜ͱʹΑֶͬͯͿʢlearning by doingʣ ೔ৗੜ׆ɾֶߍڭҭͰ΋Α͘ݟΒΕΔֶशɾࢦಋ๏

  15. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… λεΫɾϕʔεͷֶश ʢtask-based learningʣ

  16. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ࠷ऴ౸ୡ໨ඪʢΰʔϧʣ͕ߴ౓Ͱ͋Ε͹… ݸʑͷ஌ࣝ΍ٕೳΛ਎ʹ͚ͭΔ͜ͱ ͦΕΛ஁্͑͛Δ͜ͱʹҙ͕ٛ͋Δ

  17. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… ͜Ͳ΋ͷࣗసं࿅श vs ΦϦϯϐοΫΛ໨ࢦ͢৔߹

  18. ຊ୊ʹೖΔલʹ… Իָͷतۀ vs ԻָՈΛ໨ࢦ͢৔߹

  19. ӳޠڭҭ͸ʁ

  20. ຊ୊ʹೖΓ·͢

  21. What Is a Task?

  22. What Is a Task? I de fi ne it [task]

    as a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89)
  23. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  24. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  25. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  26. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  27. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  28. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  29. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  30. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  31. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  32. I de fi ne it [task] as a piece of

    work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a cheque, fi nding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by "task" is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. "Tasks" are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists. (Long, 1985, p. 89) What Is a Task?
  33. Tasks in Language Teaching

  34. Tasks in Language Teaching A task is a workplan that

    requires learners to process language pragmatically in order to achieve an outcome that can be evaluated in terms of whether the correct or appropriate propositional content has been conveyed. (Ellis, 2003, p. 16)
  35. λεΫͷ̐৚݅ɿ 1. ҙຯʹओͳয఺͕౰ͯΒΕ͍ͯΔ͜ͱ 2. ৘ใʹԿΒ͔ͷΪϟοϓ͕͋Δ͜ͱ 3. ༻͍Δදݱ΍ܗࣜʹ੍ݶ͕ͳ͍͜ͱ 4. ඇݴޠతͳ੒Ռʢୡ੒໨ඪʣ͕ઃఆ͞Ε͍ͯΔ͜ͱ (Ellis,

    2012, p. 198) Tasks in Language Teaching
  36. ʢΦʔϥϧʣλεΫͷछྨͱྫɿ 1. ৘ใ఻ୡʢඳըෳ੡ɺ૬ҧಛఆʣ 2. ৘ใ߹੒ʢ෺ޠ෮ݩɺਪཧղܾʣ 3. φϨʔγϣϯʢ෺ޠ࠶࿩ɺ࣮گඳࣸʣ 4. ໰୊ղܾʢ࿦ཧύζϧɺจষ׬੒ʣ 5.

    ҙࢥܾఆʢબ୒ɾॱҐ͚ͮɺΧ΢ϯηϦϯάʣ (দଜ, 2020, p. 13) Tasks in Language Teaching
  37. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ

  38. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ Task-Based Language Teaching vs. Task-Supported Language Teaching

  39. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ Task-Based Language Teaching vs. Task-Supported Language Teaching

  40. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ 1. χʔζ෼ੳʹΑΔ໨ඪλεΫͷܾఆ 2. ໨ඪλεΫͷ෼ྨͱ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓͷܾఆ 3. ೉қ౓ʢෳࡶ͞ʣΛௐ੔ͨ͠ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ࡞੒ 4. ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ഑ྻ (Long,

    2005, 2015)
  41. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ 1. χʔζ෼ੳʹΑΔ໨ඪλεΫͷܾఆ 2. ໨ඪλεΫͷ෼ྨͱ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓͷܾఆ 3. ೉қ౓ʢෳࡶ͞ʣΛௐ੔ͨ͠ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ࡞੒ 4. ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ഑ྻ (Long,

    2005, 2015)
  42. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ 1. χʔζ෼ੳʹΑΔ໨ඪλεΫͷܾఆ 2. ໨ඪλεΫͷ෼ྨͱ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓͷܾఆ 3. ೉қ౓ʢෳࡶ͞ʣΛௐ੔ͨ͠ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ࡞੒ 4. ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ഑ྻ (Long,

    2005, 2015)
  43. λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋ 1. χʔζ෼ੳʹΑΔ໨ඪλεΫͷܾఆ 2. ໨ඪλεΫͷ෼ྨͱ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓͷܾఆ 3. ೉қ౓ʢෳࡶ͞ʣΛௐ੔ͨ͠ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ࡞੒ 4. ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ഑ྻ (Long,

    2005, 2015)
  44. ໨ඪλεΫʢ Target Tasksʣ • ࣮ࡍʹֶशऀ͕ૺ۰͢ΔʢͰ͋Ζ͏ʣݴޠ࢖༻ͷ࣮ྫ • χʔζ෼ੳʹΑͬͯΈ͚ͭΔ • ͦͷ··Ͱ͸೉ֶ͗ͯ͢͠शऀ͸औΓ૊Ίͳ͍

  45. • ࣮ࡍͷ໨ඪλεΫΛந৅Խ͠෼ྨͨ͠΋ͷ ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓʢTarget Task Typesʣ

  46. ڭҭ༻λεΫʢPedagogic Tasksʣ • ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓʹج͍ͮͯɿ • ࡉ෼Խͯ͠αϒλεΫʹͨ͠΋ͷ • ෳࡶ͞Λௐ੔ͨ͠΋ͷ • λεΫલͷ׆ಈͱͯ͠༻ҙͨ͠΋ͷ

    • ਫ਼៛Խ౳ͰΠϯϓοτΛௐ੔ͨ͠΋ͷ
  47. λεΫͷ഑ྻʢTask Sequencingʣ • ෳ਺༻ҙͨ͠ڭҭ༻λεΫΛɺ୯७ͳ΋ͷ͔Βෳࡶ ͳ΋ͷ΁ͱ഑ྻ͢Δʢtask sequencingʣ • ඞཁʹԠͯ͡ಉ͡ʢछྨͷʣλεΫΛ܁Γฦ͢ ʢtask repetitionʣ

  48. Task Complexity, Conditions, & Di ffi culty Task complexity (cognitive

    factors) Task conditions (interactional factors) Task di ff i culty (learner factors) (a) resource-directing e.g., +/– few elements +/– here-and-now +/– no reasoning demands (a) participation variables e.g., open/closed one-way/two-way convergent/divergent (a) a ff ective variables e.g., motivation anxiety con fi dence (b) resource-depleting e.g., +/– planning +/– single task +/– prior knowledge (b) participant variables e.g., gender familiarity power/solidarity (b) ability variables e.g., aptitude pro fi ciency Intelligence Sequencing criteria Prospective decisions 
 about task units Methodological in fl uences On-line decisions 
 about pairs and groups (Robinson, 2001, p. 30)
  49. Task Complexity (Cognitive) • λεΫ͕࣋ͭཁҼ • Resource-directing • e.g., ±

    few elements, ± here-and-now, 
 ± no reasoning demands • Resource-depleting • e.g., ± planning, ± single task, ± prior knowledge
  50. Task Conditions (Interactional) • λεΫͱ׆ಈܗଶ͓Αͼֶशऀͱͷ૬ޓ࡞༻ • Participation variables • e.g.,

    open/closed, one-way/two-way, 
 convergent/divergent • Participant variables • e.g., gender, familiarity, power/solidarity
  51. Task Di ff i culty (Learner) • ֶशऀཁҼ • A

    ff ective variables • e.g., motivation, anxiety, con fi dence • Ability variables • e.g., aptitude, pro fi ciency, intelligence
  52. ͜͜·Ͱͷ·ͱΊ

  53. ͜͜·Ͱͷ·ͱΊ • λεΫɾϕʔεͷֶशʢtask-based learningʣ • λεΫͱ͸ʢtasks in language teachingʣ •

    λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋʢTBLTʣ • ໨ඪλεΫɺ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓɺڭҭ༻λεΫ • λεΫͷ഑ྻ
  54. ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʢ̍ʣ

  55. ̍ɽؒҧ͍୳͠λεΫ • ϖΞϫʔΫ • ޓ͍ͷֆΛݟͣʹؒҧ͍ΛΈ͚ͭΔ • λεΫͷෳࡶ͞ʢ೉қ౓ʣΛԼ͛Δ 
 ͨΊʹԿ͕Ͱ͖Δ͔ߟ͍͑ͯͩ͘͞ •

    Robinson (2001) Λࢀߟʹ Pictures from Lantern fi sh ESL (https://bogglesworldesl.com/)
  56. λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ

  57. λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ • ಉ͡λεΫΛ܁Γฦ͢͜ͱͰύϑΥʔϚϯε͕ 
 ޲্͢ΔՄೳੑ͕͋Δ

  58. • Fukuta (2016) • େֶੜͷӳޠֶशऀ͕̒ίϚອըΛӳޠͰඳࣸ 
 ͢ΔλεΫΛɺ̍िؒΛ͚͋ͯ̎ճ࣮ࢪ • ࣮ݧ܈ɿಉ͡ອըΛ̎ճඳࣸ •

    ରর܈ɿҟͳΔອըΛඳࣸ λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ
  59. 26 A surprise 1 2 λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ

  60. 27 Thechase 1 2 3 4 6 5 λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ

  61. • Fukuta (2016) • ൃ࿩σʔλͷෳࡶ͞ɺਖ਼֬͞ɺྲྀெ͞Λൺֱ • ܹࢗճ૝๏Λ༻͍ͯλεΫ਱ߦதʹԿʹҙࣝΛ 
 ޲͚͍͔ͯͨΛ෼ੳ •

    ࠓ೔͸࣮ݧ܈ͷσʔλΛ঺հ λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ
  62. Changes in attention orientation 
 (Fukuta, 2016, p. 331) λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask

    Repetitionʣ
  63. Changes in attention orientation 
 (Fukuta, 2016, p. 331) λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask

    Repetitionʣ
  64. Changes in attention orientation 
 (Fukuta, 2016, p. 331) λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask

    Repetitionʣ
  65. Changes in attention orientation 
 (Fukuta, 2016, p. 331) λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask

    Repetitionʣ
  66. • ಉ͡λεΫΛ܁Γฦ͢ͱɺֶशऀ͸֓೦Խʢҙຯʣ ʹׂ͘ϦιʔεΛݮΒ͢͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖ΔͨΊɺ 
 ͦͷ෼Λ౷ޠදݱॲཧʢܗࣜʣʹ࢖͑Δ • λεΫ਱ߦதʹܗࣜʹ஫ҙΛ޲͚Δ͜ͱ͸ 
 ݴޠशಘʹ໾ཱͭͱߟ͑ΒΕΔ λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask

    Repetitionʣ
  67. • Exact repetition • ·ͬͨ͘ಉ͡λεΫΛ܁Γฦ͢ • Procedural repetition • ಉ͡λΠϓͰ಺༰ͷҟͳΔλεΫΛ܁Γฦ͢

    λεΫͷ܁Γฦ͠ʢTask Repetitionʣ
  68. λεΫ഑ྻͷྫ

  69. The “Bicycle” Task ໨ඪλεΫɿ ֗தΛࣗసंͰҠಈͰ͖Δ

  70. The “Bicycle” Task ໨ඪλεΫɿ ֗தΛࣗసंͰҠಈͰ͖Δ

  71. ࣄྫ̍ɿ٬ࣨ৐຿һʢLong, 2015ʣ

  72. ࣄྫ̍ɿ٬ࣨ৐຿һʢLong, 2015ʣ • ໨ඪλεΫʢͷҰ෦ʣɿ • ே৯ɺன৯ɺ༦৯ɺҿ෺ɺܰ৯ͷఏڙ… • ٹ໋಑ҥͷ֬ೝɺۓٸ༻ҩྍػثͷ֬ೝ… • ্ͷ୨ͷ҆શ֬ೝɺ଍ݩͷՙ෺ͷऩೲ֬ೝɺ৐٬

    ͕ਖ਼͍͠࠲੮ʹ͍͍ͭͯΔ͔ͷ֬ೝ…
  73. ࣄྫ̍ɿ٬ࣨ৐຿һʢLong, 2015ʣ • ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓɿ • ҿ৯෺ͷఏڙ • ҆શػثͷ֬ೝ • ཭཮४උ

  74. • ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓɿ • ҿ৯෺ͷఏڙ • ҆શػثͷ֬ೝ • ཭཮४උ ࣄྫ̍ɿ٬ࣨ৐຿һʢLong, 2015ʣ

  75. ࣄྫ̍ɿ٬ࣨ৐຿һʢLong, 2015ʣ • ʮҿ৯෺ͷఏڙʯͷڭҭ༻λεΫɿ 1. ৐٬ͱͯ͠ମݧ͢ΔʢΠϯϓοτʣ 2. 2छͷྉཧͷ஫จΛͱΔ 3. 3छҎ্ͷྉཧͷ஫จΛͱΔ

    4. Ұ෦ྉཧ͕඼੾Εͷঢ়ଶͰ஫จΛͱΔ . . . n. ׬શͳγϛϡϨʔγϣϯ
  76. ڭࢣͷ໾ׂ

  77. ڭࢣͷ໾ׂ • ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ࡞੒ɺ഑ྻɺ࣮ࢪ • ֶशऀͷύϑΥʔϚϯεͷ؍࡯ͱϑΟʔυόοΫ

  78. ڭࢣͷ໾ׂ • λεΫલ͸ݪଇͱͯ͠ʮࢦಋʯ͸ߦΘͳ͍ • λεΫͰ࢖͏ݴޠ߲໨Λ੍ݶ͠ͳ͍ͨΊ • ͦͷ୅ΘΓʹΠϯϓοτΛఏڙ͢Δ • λεΫதɾλεΫޙͷϑΟʔυόοΫ͕ॏཁ

  79. గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ • Corrective feedback • ֶशऀ͸ҙຯ͚ͩͰͳ͘ܗࣜʹ΋஫ҙΛ޲͚Δ 
 ඞཁ͕͋Δ • గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ͸ܗࣜ΁ͷҙࣝΛ͏ͳ͕͢

    
 ໾ׂΛՌͨ͢
  80. Feedback type Explicit—Implicit Correction Clari fi cation request Implicit Explicit

    – Recast + Repetition – Elicitation – Metalinguistic clue – Explicit correction + గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  81. Clari fi cation requestʢ໌֬Խཁٻʣ S: I go to the library

    yesterday. T: Pardon? గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  82. RecastʢϦΩϟετɾݴ͍௚͠ʣ S: I go to the library yesterday. T: Oh,

    you went to the library yesterday. 
 Did you borrow any books? గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  83. Repetitionʢ܁Γฦ͠ʣ S: I go to the library yesterday. T: “I

    go to the library yesterday”? S: Oh, I went to the library yesterday. గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  84. Elicitationʢ༠ಋʣ S: I go to the library yesterday. T: Yesterday,

    you … S: … went to the library. గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  85. Metalinguistic clueʢϝλݴޠతख͕͔Γʣ S: I go to the library yesterday. T:

    It’s about yesterday, so what tense do you have 
 to use? S: Past tense. I went to the library yesterday. గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  86. Explicit correctionʢ໌ࣔతగਖ਼ʣ S: I go to the library yesterday. T:

    It’s about yesterday, so you have to use the past 
 tense went. S: OK. I went to the library yesterday. గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ
  87. గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ • ֶशऀ΍ޡΓͷछྨΛצҊ͠ɺͦͷ౎౓ద੾ͱ 
 ࢥ͑ΔϑΟʔυόοΫΛఏڙ͢Δ

  88. ಛఆ໨తͷͨΊͷӳޠʢESPʣ

  89. ಛఆ໨తͷͨΊͷӳޠʢESPʣ • English for Speci fi c Purposes • ಉ͡໨ඪΛֶ࣋ͬͨशऀΛର৅ʹͨ͠ӳޠڭҭ

    • English for Academic Purposes (EAP) • English for Occupational Purposes • English for Business Purposes • English for Medical Purposes • …
  90. ESP ΧϦΩϡϥϜ։ൃ

  91. ESP ΧϦΩϡϥϜ։ൃ (West, 1994) 1. ґڌ͢Δཧ࿦ͷબ୒ 2. χʔζ෼ੳ 3. ݴޠԽ

    4. ίʔεσβΠϯ 5. ίʔε࡞੒ 6. ࣮ફ
  92. ධՁ ଌఆ ίʔε σβΠϯ ڭत ֶश (Dudley-Evans & St. John,

    1998) χʔζ ෼ੳ ESP ΧϦΩϡϥϜ։ൃ
  93. ධՁ ଌఆ ίʔε σβΠϯ ڭत ֶश (Dudley-Evans & St. John,

    1998) χʔζ ෼ੳ ESP ΧϦΩϡϥϜ։ൃ
  94. ESP ͱχʔζ෼ੳ In an era of shrinking resources, there are

    growing demands for accountability in public life, with education a particularly urgent case and foreign language education a prime example within it…. There is an urgent need for courses of all kinds to be relevant… to the needs of speci fi c groups of learners and of society at large. (Long, 2005, p. 19)
  95. In an era of shrinking resources, there are growing demands

    for accountability in public life, with education a particularly urgent case and foreign language education a prime example within it…. There is an urgent need for courses of all kinds to be relevant… to the needs of speci fi c groups of learners and of society at large. (Long, 2005, p. 19) ESP ͱχʔζ෼ੳ
  96. χʔζ෼ੳͷ৘ใݯ • ֶशঢ়گ෼ੳɿLearning situation analysis (LSA) • ֶशऀͷҙݟɾཁ๬Λௐࠪ͢Δ • ໨ඪঢ়گ෼ੳɿTarget

    situation analysis (TSA) • ֶशऀ͕ݴޠ࢖༻Λߦ͏ʢ༧ఆͷʣ৔໘Λௐࠪ͢Δ • ݱঢ়෼ੳɿPresent situation analysis (PSA) • LSAɺTSA ͱൺֱͯ͠ݱঢ়Λ෼ੳ͢Δ
  97. χʔζ෼ੳͷ৘ใݯ • ֶशঢ়گ෼ੳɿLearning situation analysis (LSA) • ֶशऀͷҙݟɾཁ๬Λௐࠪ͢Δ • ໨ඪঢ়گ෼ੳɿTarget

    situation analysis (TSA) • ֶशऀ͕ݴޠ࢖༻Λߦ͏ʢ༧ఆͷʣ৔໘Λௐࠪ͢Δ • ݱঢ়෼ੳɿPresent situation analysis (PSA) • LSAɺTSA ͱൺֱͯ͠ݱঢ়Λ෼ੳ͢Δ
  98. ໨ඪঢ়گ෼ੳʢTSAʣ • ࣮ࡍͷχʔζʹҰ൪͍ۙ • ৘ใݯɿ • ࣮ࡍʹͦͷ৔໘ͰӳޠΛ࢖͍ͬͯΔਓ • ͦͷྖҬͷઐ໳Ո •

    ؔ࿈จॻ • ໨ඪσΟείʔε
  99. ໨ඪঢ়گ෼ੳʢTSAʣ • ࣮ࡍͷχʔζʹҰ൪͍ۙ • ৘ใݯɿ • ࣮ࡍʹͦͷ৔໘ͰӳޠΛ࢖͍ͬͯΔਓ • ͦͷྖҬͷઐ໳Ո •

    ؔ࿈จॻ • ໨ඪσΟείʔε
  100. ໨ඪσΟείʔε෼ੳ 1. ໨ඪσΟείʔεͷಛఆ • “Where will the students use English?”

    2. ໨ඪσΟείʔεͷऩू • “What do people actually do there?” 3. ऩूͨ͠໨ඪσΟείʔεͷ෼ੳ • “Are there any patterns?”
  101. • ࢢൢڭࡐͱ࣮ࡍͷσΟείʔεͱͷဃ཭ • Bartlett (2005) • ίʔώʔγϣοϓͰͷσΟείʔεΛऩू͠ɺ 
 ࢢൢڭࡐͷσΟείʔεͱൺֱͨ͠ ໨ඪσΟείʔε෼ੳͷॏཁੑ

  102. Wait person Customer Are you ready to order? Yes. Could

    I have (choose an entreé)? What kind of potatoes would you like? Let me see. I’d like… And would you like peas or asparagus? May I have…? Would you like Italian or French dressing with your salad? Could I have…? What would you like for dessert? What do you have? … … ࢢൢڭࡐதͷσΟείʔεྫ (Bartlett, 2005, p. 331)
  103. 1 S: Hi. Can I help you? 2 C: Can

    I get a grande latte with vanilla? 3 S: Did you want that blended or on the rocks? 4 C: Blended, I guess. 5 S: 2% or skimmed? 6 C: Uhm 2%. 7 S: 2% OK. Any whipped cream? 8 C: Sorry? 9 S: Did you want whipped cream on that? 10 C: Yes. 11 S: Anything else? 12 C: No, that’s it. Oh no. Can I get—are those scones? 13 S: Yeah, we have cranberry and blueberry. 14 C: I think I’ll have one of those (pointing). … ऩूͨ͠యܕతσΟείʔε (Bartlett, 2005, p. 338)
  104. As witnessed during the researcher’s own language teaching experience and

    supported by previous target discourse analyses, many current textbook materials ill- equip learners to handle real-life discourse. The present analysis attempts to show that although natural interactions are somewhat complex and reveal variability, there is a predictable overall nature. (Bartlett, 2005, p. 338) ໨ඪσΟείʔε෼ੳͷॏཁੑ
  105. As witnessed during the researcher’s own language teaching experience and

    supported by previous target discourse analyses, many current textbook materials ill- equip learners to handle real-life discourse. The present analysis attempts to show that although natural interactions are somewhat complex and reveal variability, there is a predictable overall nature. (Bartlett, 2005, p. 338) ໨ඪσΟείʔε෼ੳͷॏཁੑ
  106. ࣄྫ̎ɿߤۭӳޠʢೄా, 2012ʣ

  107. • ߤۭେֶߍʹ͓͚ΔESPγϥόεσβΠϯ • ໨ඪλεΫɿ༷ʑͳঢ়گԼͷߤۭແઢӳޠΛཧղ ͢Δ ࣄྫ̎ɿߤۭӳޠʢೄా, 2012ʣ

  108. ஈ֊ λεΫ ڭࡐ 1A ௨ৗ࣌ͷ༗ࢹքඈߦ ௐ੔͞Εͨ࿥Ի 1B ௨ৗ࣌ͷܭثඈߦ ௐ੔͞Εͨ࿥Ի 2A

    ௨ৗ࣌ͷ༗ࢹքඈߦ ຊ෺ͷ࿥Ի 2B ௨ৗ࣌ͷܭثඈߦ ຊ෺ͷ࿥Ի 3A ඇৗ࣌ͷ༗ࢹքɾܭثඈߦ ௐ੔͞Εͨ࿥Ի 3B ඇৗ࣌ͷ༗ࢹքɾܭثඈߦ ຊ෺ͷ࿥Ի ࣄྫ̎ɿߤۭӳޠʢೄా, 2012ʣ
  109. ࣄྫ̎ɿߤۭӳޠʢೄా, 2012ʣ ෳࡶ͞ʢ೉қ౓ʣ ࢹք ঢ়گ ڭࡐ ߴ ܭثඈߦ ඇৗ࣌ ຊ෺ͷ࿥Ի

    ௿ ༗ࢹքඈߦ ௨ৗ࣌ ௐ੔͞Εͨ࿥Ի
  110. ࣄྫ̏ɿϏδωεӳޠʢӜ໺, 2017ʣ

  111. ࣄྫ̏ɿϏδωεӳޠʢӜ໺, 2017ʣ • ϏδωεϝʔϧΛςʔϚʹͨ͠Ϋϥε • ໨ඪλεΫɿ༷ʑͳঢ়گԼͰద੾ͳӳจϏδωε 
 ϝʔϧΛॻ͘ • ࢢൢڭࡐͱΦϦδφϧͳλεΫͷ૊Έ߹Θͤ

  112. ࣄྫ̏ɿϏδωεӳޠʢӜ໺, 2017ʣ • جຊతͳઃܭࢥ૝ • ̎ͭͷϨϕϧͷλεΫ഑ྻͱ܁Γฦ͠ • γϥόεશମͰͷʮେ͖ͳʯ഑ྻ • αϒλεΫ಺Ͱͷʮখ͞ͳʯ഑ྻ

  113. ࢝ɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹऴ γϥόε γϥόεΛ௨ͨ͠ ෳࡶ͞ͷ্ঢ ࣄྫ̏ɿϏδωεӳޠʢӜ໺, 2017ʣ

  114. ࢝ɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹˠɹऴ γϥόε αϒλεΫ಺Ͱͷ ෳࡶ͞ͷ্ঢ ࣄྫ̏ɿϏδωεӳޠʢӜ໺, 2017ʣ

  115. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry શମΛ௨ͯ͠ͷෳࡶ͞ͷ૿Ճ
  116. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry શମΛ௨ͯ͠ͷෳࡶ͞ͷ૿Ճ
  117. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry ෳࡶ͞௿ ෳࡶ͞ߴ શମΛ௨ͯ͠ͷෳࡶ͞ͷ૿Ճ
  118. Unit 01 Course introduction Unit 09 Responding to inquiries Unit

    02 Basics of business email (1) Unit 10 Quotation Unit 03 Basics of business email (2) Unit 11 Order Unit 04 Thank you message Unit 12 Shipment Unit 05 Announcement Unit 13 Complaint Unit 06 Appointment Unit 14 Apology Unit 07 Request Unit 15 Course Summary Unit 08 Inquiry ෳࡶ͞௿ ෳࡶ͞ߴ શମΛ௨ͯ͠ͷෳࡶ͞ͷ૿Ճ
  119. ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ഑ྻ Pre-task Authentic input (target discourse) Pre-task Modi fi ed

    input (from the textbook) Sub-task 1 Group writing assignment Instructor’s feedback Sub-task 2 Individual writing assignment (homework) Peer feedback + instructor’s feedback Sub-task 3 Revision (homework) Instructor’s feedback
  120. ڭҭ༻λεΫͷ഑ྻ Pre-task Authentic input (target discourse) Pre-task Modi fi ed

    input (from the textbook) Sub-task 1 Group writing assignment Instructor’s feedback Sub-task 2 Individual writing assignment (homework) Peer feedback + instructor’s feedback sub-task 3 Revision (homework) Instructor’s feedback ෳࡶ্͞ঢ ಉ͡ෳࡶ͞
  121. Authentic Input (Target Discourse) Not available online. Please contact urano@hgu.jp

    for further information.
  122. Authentic Input (Target Discourse) Not available online. Please contact urano@hgu.jp

    for further information.
  123. Modi fi ed Input (Textbook) Dear Sales Manager: We import

    computer components in Japan. We are interested in your Product A, which was covered in an article in the April 2 issue of Business Week. If you ship your products abroad, please inform us of the formal order procedure. Thank you. Ԙ઒ʢ2012, p. 35ʣ
  124. Sub-task 1 (less complex) ͋ͳ໊ͨݹ԰Ͱখ͞ͳௐཧث۩ళ Owari Kitchen Utensils & Tableware

    Λ 
 ܦӦ͍ͯ͠·͢ɻ΄͔ͱ͸ҧ͏΋ͷΛച͍ͬͯΔͷͰ஍ݩͰਓؾ͕ 
 ग़͖ͯ·ͨ͠ɻ ε΢Σʔσϯʹ͋Δ૬खͷձࣾͷ2020೥Χλϩάͷ15ϖʔδʹܝࡌ͞Εͯ ͍Δ৯ثηοτʹڵຯ͕͋ΔͷͰɺ࣍ͷ͜ͱΛ໰͍߹Θ͍ͤͯͩ͘͞ɻ • ւ֎ൃૹΛ͍ͯ͠Δ͔ • ೔ຊʹ୅ཧళ͕͋Δ͔ Ԙ઒ʢ2012, p. 39 Λվมʣ
  125. Sub-tasks 2 & 3 (more complex) ͋ͳͨ͸γϯΨϙʔϧʹ͋ΔOrchard Food TradingͷࣾһͰ͢ɻઌ೔Tokyo LiquorʹΧλϩάૹ෇Λґཔͨ͠ͱ͜Ζɺ͙͢ʹPDF൛ͷΧλϩά͕ఴ෇͞

    Εͨϝʔϧ͕ฦ͖ͬͯ·ͨ͠ɻ ΧλϩάΛͻͱ௨Γ֬ೝͨ͠ͱ͜Ζɺळͷ෺࢈లͰൢചͯ͠΋Αͦ͞͏ͳ ๺ւಓ࢈ͷ೔ຊञͱ஍Ϗʔϧ΋͋Γͦ͏Ͱ͢ɻͦ͜Ͱ͋ͳͨ͸6݄ͷ঎ஊձ Ͱ۩ମతʹ࿩ΛਐΊΑ͏ͱߟ͍͑ͯ·͢ɻ঎ஊձͷલʹ͍͔ͭ֬͘ೝͨ͠ ͍఺͕͋ͬͨͷͰɺTokyo Liquorʹ໰͍߹ΘͤͷϝʔϧΛૹ͍ͬͯͩ͘͞ɻ ໰͍߹Θͤ಺༰͸ҎԼͷͱ͓Γɿ • ೔ຊञʹ͍ͭͯ6݄20–21೔ͷ঎ஊձͰ࣮ࡍʹࢼҿ͢Δ͜ͱ͸Մೳ͔ɻ • খḺϏʔϧʢOtaru Beerʣͱొผَ఻આ஍ϏʔϧʢNoboribetsu Oni Densetsu Beerʣʹڵຯ͕͋Δ͕ɺ஫จ୯Ґ͸࠷খͰԿຊ͔ɻ·ͨ࠷େ ͰԿຊ·ͰԷͤΔ͔ɻ • Χλϩάʹࡌ͍ͬͯΔϏʔϧ͸ළͷΈ͕ͩɺ؈Ϗʔϧ͸͋Δ͔ɻ
  126. Sample Student Work Not available online. Please contact urano@hgu.jp for

    further information.
  127. ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʢ̎ʣ

  128. ̎ɽϏδωεϦʔσΟϯάλεΫ • ໨ඪλεΫ • ͋ͳͨ͸౦ژͰಇ͘ձࣾһͰ͢ɻӳޠͷͰ͖ͳ͍ 
 ্͕࢘ʮ͜ͷهࣄͷ಺༰Λڭ͑ͯ͘Εʯͱهࣄͷ 
 ϦϯΫΛϝʔϧͰૹ͖ͬͯ·ͨ͠ɻ͜ͷهࣄ 


    ʢ࣍ͷεϥΠυʣΛಡΜͰ೔ຊޠͰ؆୯ʹ·ͱΊͯ 
 ͍ͩ͘͞ɻ
  129. Government plans 5% rebates for some cashless payments after 2019

    tax hike The government plans to give a 5 percent reward-point rebate to consumers on some payments made through credit cards and other cashless methods as a way of underpinning domestic demand after a planned tax increase next October, o ff i cials said Thursday. The special measure, expected to last for roughly nine months until the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, was expanded from an earlier plan to implement a 2 percent rebate program. Fumio Kishida, policy chief for the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, told reporters that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe had informed him of the plan. The rebate will be handed out in the form of reward points rather than cash, and it will not apply to payments made at large store chains, according to o ffi cials with knowledge of the plan. The move is part of a series of steps the government plans to take to ensure that raising the consumption tax from the current 8 percent to 10 percent will not put the brakes on economic activity. From the Japan Times, November 22, 2018 https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2018/11/22/business/government-plans-5-rebates-cashless-payments-2019-tax-hike/
  130. ̎ɽϏδωεϦʔσΟϯάλεΫ ͜ͷ໨ඪλεΫʹج͍ͮͨڭҭ༻λεΫΛෳ਺࡞Γɺ ഑ྻ͍ͯͩ͘͠͞

  131. ΍ͬͯΈΑ͏ʢ̏ʣ

  132. ̏ɽ஫จλεΫ • ໨ඪλεΫ • ͋ͳͨ͸ձࣾͷग़ுͰΠϯυͷϜϯόΠΛ๚Εͯ 
 ͍·͢ɻग़ுઌͷಉ྅໊̎ʢ໊̍͸ϜϯόΠग़਎ɺ 
 ΋͏໊̍͸ΦʔετϥϦΞਓʣͱன৯ͷͨΊۙ͘ 


    ͷϑΝετϑʔυళʹདྷ·ͨ͠ɻ࣍ͷεϥΠυͷ 
 ϝχϡʔΛݟͯ஫จ͍ͯͩ͘͠͞ɻ
  133. None
  134. ͜ͷ໨ඪλεΫʹج͍ͮͨڭҭ༻λεΫΛෳ਺࡞Γɺ ഑ྻ͍ͯͩ͘͠͞ ̏ɽ஫จλεΫ

  135. தߴ͸Ͳ͏͢Δʁ

  136. தߴ͸Ͳ͏͢Δʁ • ݕఆڭՊॻ͕ࢦఆ͞Ε͍ͯΔͨΊɺ͢΂ͯͷतۀΛ 
 λεΫɾϕʔεʹஔ͖׵͑Δͷ͸೉͍͠ • ʮϋΠϒϦουܕʯͷίʔεల։ʢদଜ, 2012ʣ ʢদଜ, 2012,

    p. 113ʣ
  137. ͓͢͢Ίͷจݙ

  138. ͓͢͢Ίͷจݙ

  139. ͓͢͢Ίͷจݙ • দଜʢ2017ʣ • TBLTͷཧ࿦ͱ࣮ફΛΘ͔Γ΍͘͢ղઆ • ࠷ॳͷҰ࡭ʹͥͻ

  140. ͓͢͢Ίͷจݙ • Anderson & McCutcheon (2019) • TBLTʹج͍ͮͨλεΫू • ๛෋ͳڭࡐྫΛऩ࿥

  141. ͓͢͢Ίͷจݙ • Ճ౻ɾদଜɾWickingʢ2020ʣ • TBLTʹج͍ͮͨλεΫू • ೔ຊͷจ຺ʹ߹͏΋ͷ

  142. ·ͱΊ

  143. ·ͱΊ • λεΫɾϕʔεͷݴޠࢦಋʢTBLTʣ • ໨ඪλεΫɺ໨ඪλεΫλΠϓɺڭҭ༻λεΫ • λεΫͷ഑ྻɺ܁Γฦ͠ • ڭࢣͷ໾ׂ •

    గਖ਼ϑΟʔυόοΫ • ಛఆ໨తͷӳޠʢESPʣͱχʔζ෼ੳ • ໨ඪσΟείʔε෼ੳ • ࣄྫ঺հ • ϋΠϒϦουܕίʔεల։ͷՄೳੑ Ӝ໺ ݚʢurano@hgu.jpʣ
  144. • Anderson, N., & McCutcheon, N. (2019). Activities for task-based

    learning: Integrating a fl uency fi rst approach into the ELT classroom. Stuttgart, Germany: DELTA Publishing. • Bartlett, N. J. D. (2005). A double shot 2% mocha latte, please, with whip: Service encounters in two co ff ee shops and at a co ff ee cart. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 305–343). Cambridge University Press. • Dudley-Evans, T., & St John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for speci fi c purposes: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge University Press. • Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford University Press. • Ellis, R. (2012). Language teaching research and language pedagogy. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. • Fukuta, J. (2016). E ff ects of task repetition on learners’ attention orientation in L2 oral production. Language Teaching Research, 20, 321–340. http:// dx.doi.org/10.1177/1362168815570142 • Heaton, J. (1997). Beginning composition through pictures. Harlow, UK: Longman. • Ճ౻༝ਸɾদଜণلɾPaul Wicking. (ฤ). (2020).ʰίϛϡχέʔγϣϯɾλεΫͷΞΠσΞͱϚςϦΞϧ: ڭࣨͱੈքΛͭͳ͙ӳޠतۀͷͨΊʹʱ౦ژ: ࡾमࣾ. • Long, M. H. (1985). A role for instruction in second language acquisition: Task-based language teaching. In K. Hyltenstam & M. Pienemann (Eds.), Modeling and assessing second language development (pp. 77–99). Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters. • Long, M. H. (2005). Methodological issues in learner needs analysis. In M. H. Long (ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 19–76). Cambridge University Press. • Long, M. (2015). Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. • দଜণل. (2012). ʰλεΫΛ׆༻ͨ͠ӳޠतۀͷσβΠϯʱ౦ژ: େमؗ. • দଜণل. (ฤ). (2017).ʰλεΫɾϕʔεͷӳޠࢦಋʔTBLTͷཧղͱ࣮ફʱ౦ژ: େमؗ. • দଜণل. (2020). λεΫͷجૅ஌ࣝ. Ճ౻༝ਸɾদଜণلɾPaul Wicking. (ฤ). ʰίϛϡχέʔγϣϯɾλεΫͷΞΠσΞͱϚςϦΞϧ: ڭࣨͱੈքΛͭ ͳ͙ӳޠतۀͷͨΊʹʱ౦ژ: ࡾमࣾ. • ೄాٛ௚. (2012). ESP ͷ؍఺͔Βͷߤۭӳޠڭҭ (1): ΧϦΩϡϥϜɾڭࡐ࡞੒ʹ͋ͨͬͯ. ʰߤۭେֶߍݚڀใࠂʱୈ65߸, 24–42. Retrieved from: http:// www.kouku-dai.ac.jp/kenkyu/R65_03.pdf • Robinson, P. (2001). Task complexity, task di ffi culty, and task production: Exploring interactions in a componential framework. Applied Linguistics, 22, 27– 57. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/22.1.27 • Ԙ઒य़඙. (2012). Ϗδωεӳจϝʔϧೖ໳: ղઆͱԋश. [Kindle] Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.co.jp/dp/B0155VGNKO/ • Ӝ໺ݚ. (2017). େֶͰͷӳޠࢦಋͷߟ͑ํͱ޻෉. দଜণل. (ฤ). ʰλεΫɾϕʔεͷӳޠࢦಋʔTBLTͷཧղͱ࣮ફʱ౦ژ: େमؗ. • West, R. (1994). Needs analysis in language teaching. Language Teaching, 27, 1–19. Ҿ༻จݙ