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第二言語習得と外国語教育における 「文法知識」の位置づけ

Ken Urano
February 14, 2020

第二言語習得と外国語教育における 「文法知識」の位置づけ

LET関西支部メソドロジー研究部会
@ビジネスセンター Keep Front
2020. 2. 16.

Ken Urano

February 14, 2020
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  1. Ӝ໺ݚʢ๺ւֶԂେֶʣ
    [email protected]
    https://www.urano-ken.com/research/methoken2020
    ୈೋݴޠशಘͱ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δ
    ʮจ๏஌ࣝʯͷҐஔ͚ͮ
    LETؔ੢ࢧ෦ϝιυϩδʔݚڀ෦ձ
    ˏϏδωεηϯλʔ Keep Front
    ɹɹ2020. 2. 16.

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  2. ͸͡Ίʹ

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  3. Yoichi doesn’t have a driver’s license.
    Luckily, his apartment is close to his
    workplace, so he walk to his office every
    day.
    Please read the following passage.

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  4. Did you notice any grammatical error in the
    passage?
    Question

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  5. Yoichi doesn’t have a driver’s license.
    Luckily, his apartment is close to his
    workplace, so he walk to his office every
    day. walks

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  6. Please look at the following picture.

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  7. Mike
    Robert
    R
    M
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/rockmixer/2832611130/

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  8. Mike said that Robert shaved him.
    Mike Robert
    R
    M
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/rockmixer/2832611130/
    Mike said that Robert shaved himself.

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  9. Steven
    Dan
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/skylerbug/334385169/
    D
    S

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  10. Steven said that Dan shaved him.
    Steven Dan
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/skylerbug/334385169/
    D
    S
    Steven said that Dan shaved himself.

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  11. ڭ͑ͯ΋਎ʹ͔ͭͳ͍஌ࣝ
    ڭ͑ͳͯ͘΋਎ʹͭ͘஌ࣝ

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  12. ෆࢥٞͰ͢Ͷ

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  13. ୈೋݴޠशಘͱ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δ
    ʮจ๏஌ࣝʯͷҐஔ͚ͮ

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  14. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ
    จ๏ɹ≠ɹgrammar

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  15. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ
    “[Grammatical competence] will be understood to
    include knowledge of lexical items and of rules of
    morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics,
    and phonology.” (Canale & Swain, 1980, p. 29)

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  16. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ
    grammar
    lexis
    morphology
    syntax
    semantics
    phonology

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  17. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ
    จ๏
    lexis
    morphology
    syntax
    semantics
    phonology

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  18. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ
    จ๏ɹʹɹ౷ޠɾܗଶૉͷنଇ

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  19. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ
    • ౷ޠɾܗଶૉʹؔ͢Δݸʑͷنଇʹ͍ͭͯ
    ஌͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ
    • ਖ਼͍͠ܗͱޡͬͨܗΛ۠ผͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    • ޡΓΛࢦఠͰ͖Δ͜ͱ

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  20. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ
    • ౷ޠɾܗଶૉʹؔ͢Δݸʑͷنଇʹ͍ͭͯ
    ஌͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ
    • ਖ਼͍͠ܗͱޡͬͨܗΛ۠ผͰ͖Δ͜ͱ
    • ޡΓΛࢦఠͰ͖Δ͜ͱ

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  21. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ
    ʮ஌͍ͬͯΔʯͱ͸ʁ

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  22. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ
    • ʮओޠ͕̏ਓশ୯਺Ͱɺ੍͕࣌ݱࡏͷͱ͖
    ಈࢺʹ –s Λ෇͚Δʯͱ͍͏نଇΛ
    • આ໌Ͱ͖Δ͜ͱʁ
    • ࣮ࡍʹ࢖͑Δ͜ͱʁ

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  23. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ
    • ʮ͓ன͸օͰڶഴ԰ʹೖΓ·ͨ͠ɻͰ΋ࢲ͕͏
    ͲΜΛ஫จ͠·ͨ͠ɻʯͱฉ͍ͨͱ͖
    • ʮࢲ͕ʯͰ͸ͳ͘ʮࢲ͸ʯ͕ਖ਼͍͠ͱ
    ࢦఠͰ͖Δ͜ͱʁ
    • ͳͥͦ͏ͳͷ͔આ໌Ͱ͖Δ͜ͱʁ

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  24. จ๏஌ࣝͷཧ࿦తഎܠ
    • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    • એݴత஌ࣝɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝ

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  25. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝʢexplicit knowledgeʣ
    • ҙࣝతʢconsciousʣͰ
    આ໌తʢexplanatoryʣͳ஌ࣝ
    • ྫʣͲ͏͍͏࣌ʹ̏୯ݱ ‒s ͕෇͍ͯ
    Ͳ͏͍͏࣌ʹ෇͔ͳ͍͔ʹ͍ͭͯઆ໌Ͱ͖Δ

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  26. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝʢimplicit knowledgeʣ
    • ͋Δจ͕จ๏త͔൱͔Λɺࠜڌ͸આ໌Ͱ͖ͳ
    ͯ͘ ΋௚ײతʢintuitiveʣʹ൑அͰ͖Δ஌ࣝ
    • ྫʣʮࢲʢ͸ʛ͕ʣ͏ͲΜΛ஫จ͠·ͨ͠ʯ
    ͷҧ͍ʹ͍ͭͯͷ೔ຊޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀͷ஌ࣝ

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  27. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    • ୈೋݴޠʢL2ʣͰίϛϡχέʔγϣϯΛߦ͏
    ্Ͱத৺తͳ໾ׂΛՌͨ͢ͷ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    ʢe.g., Ellis, 2005, p. 143ʣ

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  28. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • εΩϧशಘཧ࿦ʢSkill Acquisition Theoryʣʹ
    جͮ͘
    • ୈೋݴޠशಘ͸ଞͷӡಈٕೳͷशಘͱಉ͡Α͏
    ͳϓϩηεΛͨͲΔͱ͢Δཱ৔ʹجͮ͘

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  29. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • એݴత஌ࣝʢdeclarative knowledgeʣ
    • نଇʹ͍ͭͯ໌ࣔతʹઆ໌Λड͚ͯཧղͯ͠
    ಘΒΕͨ஌ࣝ
    • ྫʣࣗಈंڭशॴͰंͷӡసํ๏ʹ͍ͭͯ
    આ໌Λड͚Δ͜ͱͰಘͨ஌ࣝ

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  30. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • खଓ͖త஌ࣝʢprocedural knowledgeʣ
    • એݴత஌ࣝΛ࣮ࡍʹӡ༻͢Δ͜ͱͰແҙࣝԽ
    ͨ͠΋ͷɻϊ΢ϋ΢ɻ
    • ྫʣӡసͷ࿅शΛ܁Γฦ͢͜ͱͰɺखॱΛ֬
    ೝ͠ͳͯ͘΋ӡస͕Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͨঢ়ଶ

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  31. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • จ๏نଇͷशಘखॱʢe.g., DeKeyser, 2007ʣ
    • نଇΛ໌ࣔతʹֶΜͰએݴత஌ࣝΛशಘ
    • ࣮ࡍʹ࢖ͬͯΈΔ͜ͱͰ஌͕ࣝखଓ͖Խ
    • ࿅शΛ܁Γฦ͢͜ͱͰखଓ͖త஌͕ࣝࣗಈԽ

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  32. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • จ๏نଇͷशಘखॱʢe.g., DeKeyser, 2007ʣ
    • ͍ΘΏΔPPPܕࢦಋͷج൫

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  33. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱએݴత஌ࣝ
    • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱએݴత஌ࣝ͸ಉٛͱݴ͑ͦ͏

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  34. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ͸ಉٛͰ͋Δͱ͢Δ
    ݚڀऀ΋͍Δʢe.g., Bowles, 2011ʣ
    • ྆ऀ͸࣭తʹҟͳΔͱ͢Δݚڀऀ΋͍Δʢe.g.,
    Hulstijn, 2002ʣ

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  35. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • DeKeyser ΋྆ऀ͸ผ෺Ͱ͋Δͱ͍ࣔࠦͯ͠Δ
    • ͞Βʹએݴత஌͕ࣝखଓ͖త஌ࣝʹม༰͢Δ
    ͱ΋ݴ͍ͬͯͳ͍
    • “Existing declarative knowledge, via practice,
    plays a causal role in the development of
    procedural knowledge.” (DeKeyser, 2015, p.
    103)

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  36. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • ฼ޠ࿩ऀͷ࣋ͭจ๏஌ࣝ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    • ໌ࣔతɾએݴత஌ࣝͷशಘ΋ͳ͚Ε͹ͦΕʹ
    ൐͏࿅श΋ߦΘΕ͍ͯͳ͍
    • खଓ͖త஌ࣝͰ͸ͳ͍
    • ྫʣ೔ຊޠͷॿࢺʢ͸ʛ͕ʣͷ࢖͍෼͚

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  37. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • ୈೋݴޠֶशऀͷ࣋ͭจ๏஌ࣝ͸ʁ
    • ໌ࣔతɾએݴత஌ࣝΛशಘޙɺ࿅शΛܦͯ
    खଓ͖త஌ࣝΛशಘ͢Δ͜ͱ΋͋Δ
    • ͨͩ͠฼ޠ࿩ऀͷ࣋ͭ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱ͸ผ෺
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ͸Մೳ͔ʁ

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  38. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • ୈೋݴޠֶशऀ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ͕Ͱ͖Δ
    • ྫʣKrashen (1981, 1985)
    • ฼ޠ࿩ऀͱಉ͡҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍
    • ྫʣBley-Vroman (1989)

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  39. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ
    • ΠϯϓοτԾઆʢKrashen, 1985ʣ
    • Πϯϓο τʢԻ੠·ͨ͸จࣈͰఏࣔ͞ΕΔҙ
    ຯΛ࣋ͬͨݴޠࢿྉʣΛཋͼɺͦͷҙຯ಺༰
    Λཧղ͢ΔதͰɺҙຯͱܗࣜͷϚοϐϯά͕
    ߦΘΕΔͱ͖ʹ҉ࣔత஌͕ࣝशಘ͞ΕΔɻ

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  40. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ
    • ΠϯλϥΫγϣϯԾઆʢLong, 1983ʣ
    • ΠϯϓοτΛཋͼΔ͚ͩͰͳ͘ɺֶशऀ΋ҙ
    ຯަবʹࢀՃ͢Δ͜ͱͰɺΠϯϓοτͷཧղ
    ͕ਐΈɺݴޠܗࣜ΁ͷؾ͖ͮ΋ଅ͞ΕΔɻ͜
    Ε͕҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘʹͭͳ͕Δɻ

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  41. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ
    • Ξ΢τϓοτԾઆʢSwain, 1985ʣ
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘʹ͸Πϯϓοτ͚ͩͰ͸ෆ
    े෼Ͱ͋ΓɺΞ΢τϓοτ΋ඞཁɻ

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  42. %#*
    $('
    !&('
    ) !&(' ('




    ,"

    ,"

    +







    *('
    ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    ਤ̍ɽએݴతɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝͱ໌ࣔతɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷؔ܎

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  43. ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊
    • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝʹม༰͠͏Δ͔

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  44. ਤ̎ɽڧ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔
    ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊

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  45. ਤ̏ɽϊʔɾΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔
    ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊

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  46. ਤ̐ɽऑ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔
    ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊

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  47. ୈೋݴޠशಘݚڀʹ͓͚Δจ๏஌ࣝ
    • ೝ஌Պֶͱͯ͠ͷୈೋݴޠशಘݚڀͰ͸ɺେਓ
    ͷL2ֶशऀ͕฼ޠ࿩ऀͱಉ͡ʢ҉ࣔతʣ஌ࣝΛ
    शಘͰ͖Δ͔Ͳ͏͔͸ॏཁͳݚڀ՝୊ɻ
    • ྟքظɾහײظɺόΠϦϯΨϦζϜɺݴޠো
    ֐౳ͱͷؔ࿈Λ୳Δɻ
    • ͦͷͨΊʹ͸ɺ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝΛ੾
    Γ෼͚Δඞཁ͕͋Δɻ

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  48. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δจ๏஌ࣝ
    • L2ֶशऀ͕฼ޠ࿩ऀͱಉ͡஌ࣝΛशಘͰ͖Δ͔
    Ͳ͏͔͸ͦΕ΄ͲॏཁͰ͸ͳ͍ɻ
    • L2ͰίϛϡχέʔγϣϯΛߦ͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Ε
    ͹ɺͲͷΑ͏ͳछྨͷ஌ࣝͰ͋ͬͯ΋Α͍ɻ

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  49. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ
    • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝɾએݴత஌ࣝɿ࢖͑ͳ͍
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝɿ࢖͑Δ
    • ʢࣗಈԽ͞Εͨʣखଓ͖త஌ࣝɿ࢖͑Δ

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  50. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͰ͢΂ͯΛΧόʔ͢Δͷ͸ࠔ೉
    • Πϯϓοτྔ͕গͳ͍

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  51. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝΛशಘͰ͖ͳ͍จ๏نଇͷଘࡏ
    • ྫʣ೔ຊޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀͷӳޠͷ਺ʢnumberʣ
    ͷशಘ͸೉͍͠orෆՄೳʢe.g., Wakabayashi,
    1997ʣ

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  52. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ
    • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘͷΈΛ໨ࢦ͢֎ࠃޠڭҭ͸
    ݱ࣮తͰͳ͍
    • ࿅शΛ௨ͯ͠΋໌ࣔత஌͕ࣝ҉ࣔత஌ࣝʹมΘ
    Δ͜ͱ͸ͳ͍͕ɺࣗಈԽ͞Εͨखଓ͖త஌ࣝ͸
    ͦͷ୅ସͱͯ͠ར༻Ͱ͖ΔʢDeKeyser, 2015ʣ

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  53. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    • खଓ͖త஌ࣝͷशಘͱͦͷࣗಈԽʹ͸ʮ࿅शʯ
    ͕ෆՄܽ
    • ̎छྨͷ࿅श
    • એݴత஌ࣝΛجʹͦͷจ๏نଇΛ࢖ͬͯΈΔ
    ࿅शʢखଓ͖త஌ࣝͷशಘ͕໨తʣ
    • खଓ͖త஌ࣝͷࣗಈԽͷͨΊͷ࿅श

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  54. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    • “We define practice as specific activities in the
    second language engaged in systematically,
    deliberately, with the goal of developing
    knowledge of and skills in the second
    language.” (DeKeyser, 2007, p.1)

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  55. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    • ؇΍͔ͳఆٛͰ͋ΓɺԿ͕࿅शͰԿ͕࿅शͰͳ
    ͍͔ͷઢҾ͖͕೉͍͠ɻ

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  56. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    • εΩϧशಘཧ࿦ʹج͚ͮ͹ɺ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚
    Δ࿅श͸ɺίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͷखஈͱͯ͠࢖
    ͏΋ͷͰ͋Δ΂͖ɻ
    • ྫʣࣗಈंͷϒϨʔΩ͚ͩΛ౿Ή࿅श vs
    ӡసΛ͠ͳ͕ΒඞཁʹԠͯ͡ϒϨʔΩΛ౿Ή
    ࿅श

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  57. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    • υϦϧత࿅शʢe.g., ύλʔϯɾϓϥΫςΟεʣ
    ΑΓ΋ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯʹ͍ۙ࿅शʢe.g., λ
    εΫʣΛɻ
    • शಘͨ͠ʢએݴతʣจ๏஌ࣝΛίϛϡχέʔ
    γϣϯͰ࢖͏࿅शΛɻ

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  58. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    • ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ͸࢈ग़ͷΈͰ͸ͳ͍ɻ
    • ௌ͘ɾಡΉ࿅श΋ඞཁ
    • Πϯϓοτॲཧ׆ಈʢVanPatten, 1996ʣ

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  59. %#*
    $('
    !&('
    ) !&(' ('




    ,"

    ,"

    +







    *('
    ·ͱΊ
    ਤ̑ɽએݴతɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝͱ໌ࣔతɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷؔ܎
    ʢऑ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔ʣ

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  60. Summary
    ·ͱΊ
    • จ๏نଇͷཧ࿦తഎܠ
    • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ
    • એݴత஌ࣝɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝ
    • ऑ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔
    • ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ
    • ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ
    Ken Urano
    [email protected]
    https://www.urano-ken.com/research/methoken2020

    =

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