Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

第二言語習得と外国語教育における 「文法知識」の位置づけ

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=47 Ken Urano
February 14, 2020

第二言語習得と外国語教育における 「文法知識」の位置づけ

LET関西支部メソドロジー研究部会
@ビジネスセンター Keep Front
2020. 2. 16.

Bac20b7719109838d6be162a560272a0?s=128

Ken Urano

February 14, 2020
Tweet

Transcript

  1. Ӝ໺ݚʢ๺ւֶԂେֶʣ urano@hgu.jp https://www.urano-ken.com/research/methoken2020 ୈೋݴޠशಘͱ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δ ʮจ๏஌ࣝʯͷҐஔ͚ͮ LETؔ੢ࢧ෦ϝιυϩδʔݚڀ෦ձ ˏϏδωεηϯλʔ Keep Front ɹɹ2020.

    2. 16.
  2. ͸͡Ίʹ

  3. Yoichi doesn’t have a driver’s license. Luckily, his apartment is

    close to his workplace, so he walk to his office every day. Please read the following passage.
  4. Did you notice any grammatical error in the passage? Question

  5. Yoichi doesn’t have a driver’s license. Luckily, his apartment is

    close to his workplace, so he walk to his office every day. walks
  6. Please look at the following picture.

  7. Mike Robert R M http://www.flickr.com/photos/rockmixer/2832611130/

  8. Mike said that Robert shaved him. Mike Robert R M

    http://www.flickr.com/photos/rockmixer/2832611130/ Mike said that Robert shaved himself.
  9. Steven Dan http://www.flickr.com/photos/skylerbug/334385169/ D S

  10. Steven said that Dan shaved him. Steven Dan http://www.flickr.com/photos/skylerbug/334385169/ D

    S Steven said that Dan shaved himself.
  11. ڭ͑ͯ΋਎ʹ͔ͭͳ͍஌ࣝ ڭ͑ͳͯ͘΋਎ʹͭ͘஌ࣝ

  12. ෆࢥٞͰ͢Ͷ

  13. ୈೋݴޠशಘͱ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δ ʮจ๏஌ࣝʯͷҐஔ͚ͮ

  14. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ จ๏ɹ≠ɹgrammar

  15. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ “[Grammatical competence] will be understood to include knowledge of

    lexical items and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence-grammar semantics, and phonology.” (Canale & Swain, 1980, p. 29)
  16. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ grammar lexis morphology syntax semantics phonology

  17. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ จ๏ lexis morphology syntax semantics phonology

  18. ͜͜Ͱ͍͏ʮจ๏ʯ จ๏ɹʹɹ౷ޠɾܗଶૉͷنଇ

  19. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ • ౷ޠɾܗଶૉʹؔ͢Δݸʑͷنଇʹ͍ͭͯ ஌͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ • ਖ਼͍͠ܗͱޡͬͨܗΛ۠ผͰ͖Δ͜ͱ • ޡΓΛࢦఠͰ͖Δ͜ͱ

  20. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ • ౷ޠɾܗଶૉʹؔ͢Δݸʑͷنଇʹ͍ͭͯ ஌͍ͬͯΔ͜ͱ • ਖ਼͍͠ܗͱޡͬͨܗΛ۠ผͰ͖Δ͜ͱ • ޡΓΛࢦఠͰ͖Δ͜ͱ

  21. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ ʮ஌͍ͬͯΔʯͱ͸ʁ

  22. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ • ʮओޠ͕̏ਓশ୯਺Ͱɺ੍͕࣌ݱࡏͷͱ͖ ಈࢺʹ –s Λ෇͚Δʯͱ͍͏نଇΛ • આ໌Ͱ͖Δ͜ͱʁ • ࣮ࡍʹ࢖͑Δ͜ͱʁ

  23. จ๏ͷʮ஌ࣝʯ • ʮ͓ன͸օͰڶഴ԰ʹೖΓ·ͨ͠ɻͰ΋ࢲ͕͏ ͲΜΛ஫จ͠·ͨ͠ɻʯͱฉ͍ͨͱ͖ • ʮࢲ͕ʯͰ͸ͳ͘ʮࢲ͸ʯ͕ਖ਼͍͠ͱ ࢦఠͰ͖Δ͜ͱʁ • ͳͥͦ͏ͳͷ͔આ໌Ͱ͖Δ͜ͱʁ

  24. จ๏஌ࣝͷཧ࿦తഎܠ • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ • એݴత஌ࣝɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝ

  25. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝʢexplicit knowledgeʣ • ҙࣝతʢconsciousʣͰ આ໌తʢexplanatoryʣͳ஌ࣝ • ྫʣͲ͏͍͏࣌ʹ̏୯ݱ ‒s

    ͕෇͍ͯ Ͳ͏͍͏࣌ʹ෇͔ͳ͍͔ʹ͍ͭͯઆ໌Ͱ͖Δ
  26. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝʢimplicit knowledgeʣ • ͋Δจ͕จ๏త͔൱͔Λɺࠜڌ͸આ໌Ͱ͖ͳ ͯ͘ ΋௚ײతʢintuitiveʣʹ൑அͰ͖Δ஌ࣝ • ྫʣʮࢲʢ͸ʛ͕ʣ͏ͲΜΛ஫จ͠·ͨ͠ʯ

    ͷҧ͍ʹ͍ͭͯͷ೔ຊޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀͷ஌ࣝ
  27. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ • ୈೋݴޠʢL2ʣͰίϛϡχέʔγϣϯΛߦ͏ ্Ͱத৺తͳ໾ׂΛՌͨ͢ͷ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝ ʢe.g., Ellis, 2005, p. 143ʣ

  28. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • εΩϧशಘཧ࿦ʢSkill Acquisition Theoryʣʹ جͮ͘ • ୈೋݴޠशಘ͸ଞͷӡಈٕೳͷशಘͱಉ͡Α͏ ͳϓϩηεΛͨͲΔͱ͢Δཱ৔ʹجͮ͘

  29. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • એݴత஌ࣝʢdeclarative knowledgeʣ • نଇʹ͍ͭͯ໌ࣔతʹઆ໌Λड͚ͯཧղͯ͠ ಘΒΕͨ஌ࣝ • ྫʣࣗಈंڭशॴͰंͷӡసํ๏ʹ͍ͭͯ આ໌Λड͚Δ͜ͱͰಘͨ஌ࣝ

  30. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • खଓ͖త஌ࣝʢprocedural knowledgeʣ • એݴత஌ࣝΛ࣮ࡍʹӡ༻͢Δ͜ͱͰແҙࣝԽ ͨ͠΋ͷɻϊ΢ϋ΢ɻ • ྫʣӡసͷ࿅शΛ܁Γฦ͢͜ͱͰɺखॱΛ֬ ೝ͠ͳͯ͘΋ӡస͕Ͱ͖ΔΑ͏ʹͳͬͨঢ়ଶ

  31. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • จ๏نଇͷशಘखॱʢe.g., DeKeyser, 2007ʣ • نଇΛ໌ࣔతʹֶΜͰએݴత஌ࣝΛशಘ • ࣮ࡍʹ࢖ͬͯΈΔ͜ͱͰ஌͕ࣝखଓ͖Խ •

    ࿅शΛ܁Γฦ͢͜ͱͰखଓ͖త஌͕ࣝࣗಈԽ
  32. એݴత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • จ๏نଇͷशಘखॱʢe.g., DeKeyser, 2007ʣ • ͍ΘΏΔPPPܕࢦಋͷج൫

  33. ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱએݴత஌ࣝ • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱએݴత஌ࣝ͸ಉٛͱݴ͑ͦ͏

  34. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ͸ಉٛͰ͋Δͱ͢Δ ݚڀऀ΋͍Δʢe.g., Bowles, 2011ʣ • ྆ऀ͸࣭తʹҟͳΔͱ͢Δݚڀऀ΋͍Δʢe.g., Hulstijn, 2002ʣ

  35. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • DeKeyser ΋྆ऀ͸ผ෺Ͱ͋Δͱ͍ࣔࠦͯ͠Δ • ͞Βʹએݴత஌͕ࣝखଓ͖త஌ࣝʹม༰͢Δ ͱ΋ݴ͍ͬͯͳ͍ • “Existing declarative

    knowledge, via practice, plays a causal role in the development of procedural knowledge.” (DeKeyser, 2015, p. 103)
  36. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • ฼ޠ࿩ऀͷ࣋ͭจ๏஌ࣝ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝ • ໌ࣔతɾએݴత஌ࣝͷशಘ΋ͳ͚Ε͹ͦΕʹ ൐͏࿅श΋ߦΘΕ͍ͯͳ͍ • खଓ͖త஌ࣝͰ͸ͳ͍ • ྫʣ೔ຊޠͷॿࢺʢ͸ʛ͕ʣͷ࢖͍෼͚

  37. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • ୈೋݴޠֶशऀͷ࣋ͭจ๏஌ࣝ͸ʁ • ໌ࣔతɾએݴత஌ࣝΛशಘޙɺ࿅शΛܦͯ खଓ͖త஌ࣝΛशಘ͢Δ͜ͱ΋͋Δ • ͨͩ͠฼ޠ࿩ऀͷ࣋ͭ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱ͸ผ෺ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ͸Մೳ͔ʁ

  38. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • ୈೋݴޠֶशऀ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ͕Ͱ͖Δ • ྫʣKrashen (1981, 1985) • ฼ޠ࿩ऀͱಉ͡҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ͸Ͱ͖ͳ͍ •

    ྫʣBley-Vroman (1989)
  39. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ • ΠϯϓοτԾઆʢKrashen, 1985ʣ • Πϯϓο τʢԻ੠·ͨ͸จࣈͰఏࣔ͞ΕΔҙ ຯΛ࣋ͬͨݴޠࢿྉʣΛཋͼɺͦͷҙຯ಺༰ Λཧղ͢ΔதͰɺҙຯͱܗࣜͷϚοϐϯά͕ ߦΘΕΔͱ͖ʹ҉ࣔత஌͕ࣝशಘ͞ΕΔɻ

  40. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ • ΠϯλϥΫγϣϯԾઆʢLong, 1983ʣ • ΠϯϓοτΛཋͼΔ͚ͩͰͳ͘ɺֶशऀ΋ҙ ຯަবʹࢀՃ͢Δ͜ͱͰɺΠϯϓοτͷཧղ ͕ਐΈɺݴޠܗࣜ΁ͷؾ͖ͮ΋ଅ͞ΕΔɻ͜ Ε͕҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘʹͭͳ͕Δɻ

  41. ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘ • Ξ΢τϓοτԾઆʢSwain, 1985ʣ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘʹ͸Πϯϓοτ͚ͩͰ͸ෆ े෼Ͱ͋ΓɺΞ΢τϓοτ΋ඞཁɻ

  42. %#* $(' !&(' ) !&(' ('    

    ,"  ,"  +         *(' ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͱखଓ͖త஌ࣝ ਤ̍ɽએݴతɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝͱ໌ࣔతɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷؔ܎
  43. ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊ • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝ͸҉ࣔత஌ࣝʹม༰͠͏Δ͔

  44.          

    ਤ̎ɽڧ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔ ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊
  45.          

    ਤ̏ɽϊʔɾΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔ ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊
  46.          

    ਤ̐ɽऑ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔ ΠϯλʔϑΣΠε໰୊
  47. ୈೋݴޠशಘݚڀʹ͓͚Δจ๏஌ࣝ • ೝ஌Պֶͱͯ͠ͷୈೋݴޠशಘݚڀͰ͸ɺେਓ ͷL2ֶशऀ͕฼ޠ࿩ऀͱಉ͡ʢ҉ࣔతʣ஌ࣝΛ शಘͰ͖Δ͔Ͳ͏͔͸ॏཁͳݚڀ՝୊ɻ • ྟքظɾහײظɺόΠϦϯΨϦζϜɺݴޠো ֐౳ͱͷؔ࿈Λ୳Δɻ • ͦͷͨΊʹ͸ɺ໌ࣔత஌ࣝͱ҉ࣔత஌ࣝΛ੾

    Γ෼͚Δඞཁ͕͋Δɻ
  48. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δจ๏஌ࣝ • L2ֶशऀ͕฼ޠ࿩ऀͱಉ͡஌ࣝΛशಘͰ͖Δ͔ Ͳ͏͔͸ͦΕ΄ͲॏཁͰ͸ͳ͍ɻ • L2ͰίϛϡχέʔγϣϯΛߦ͏͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Ε ͹ɺͲͷΑ͏ͳछྨͷ஌ࣝͰ͋ͬͯ΋Α͍ɻ

  49. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝɾએݴత஌ࣝɿ࢖͑ͳ͍ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝɿ࢖͑Δ • ʢࣗಈԽ͞Εͨʣखଓ͖త஌ࣝɿ࢖͑Δ

  50. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͰ͢΂ͯΛΧόʔ͢Δͷ͸ࠔ೉ • Πϯϓοτྔ͕গͳ͍

  51. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝΛशಘͰ͖ͳ͍จ๏نଇͷଘࡏ • ྫʣ೔ຊޠ฼ޠ࿩ऀͷӳޠͷ਺ʢnumberʣ ͷशಘ͸೉͍͠orෆՄೳʢe.g., Wakabayashi, 1997ʣ

  52. ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ • ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷशಘͷΈΛ໨ࢦ͢֎ࠃޠڭҭ͸ ݱ࣮తͰͳ͍ • ࿅शΛ௨ͯ͠΋໌ࣔత஌͕ࣝ҉ࣔత஌ࣝʹมΘ Δ͜ͱ͸ͳ͍͕ɺࣗಈԽ͞Εͨखଓ͖త஌ࣝ͸ ͦͷ୅ସͱͯ͠ར༻Ͱ͖ΔʢDeKeyser, 2015ʣ

  53. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ • खଓ͖త஌ࣝͷशಘͱͦͷࣗಈԽʹ͸ʮ࿅शʯ ͕ෆՄܽ • ̎छྨͷ࿅श • એݴత஌ࣝΛجʹͦͷจ๏نଇΛ࢖ͬͯΈΔ ࿅शʢखଓ͖త஌ࣝͷशಘ͕໨తʣ •

    खଓ͖త஌ࣝͷࣗಈԽͷͨΊͷ࿅श
  54. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ • “We define practice as specific activities in the

    second language engaged in systematically, deliberately, with the goal of developing knowledge of and skills in the second language.” (DeKeyser, 2007, p.1)
  55. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ • ؇΍͔ͳఆٛͰ͋ΓɺԿ͕࿅शͰԿ͕࿅शͰͳ ͍͔ͷઢҾ͖͕೉͍͠ɻ

  56. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ • εΩϧशಘཧ࿦ʹج͚ͮ͹ɺ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚ Δ࿅श͸ɺίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͷखஈͱͯ͠࢖ ͏΋ͷͰ͋Δ΂͖ɻ • ྫʣࣗಈंͷϒϨʔΩ͚ͩΛ౿Ή࿅श vs ӡసΛ͠ͳ͕ΒඞཁʹԠͯ͡ϒϨʔΩΛ౿Ή ࿅श

  57. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ • υϦϧత࿅शʢe.g., ύλʔϯɾϓϥΫςΟεʣ ΑΓ΋ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯʹ͍ۙ࿅शʢe.g., λ εΫʣΛɻ • शಘͨ͠ʢએݴతʣจ๏஌ࣝΛίϛϡχέʔ γϣϯͰ࢖͏࿅शΛɻ

  58. ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ • ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯ͸࢈ग़ͷΈͰ͸ͳ͍ɻ • ௌ͘ɾಡΉ࿅श΋ඞཁ • Πϯϓοτॲཧ׆ಈʢVanPatten, 1996ʣ

  59. %#* $(' !&(' ) !&(' ('    

    ,"  ,"  +         *(' ·ͱΊ ਤ̑ɽએݴతɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝͱ໌ࣔతɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝͷؔ܎ ʢऑ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔ʣ
  60. Summary ·ͱΊ • จ๏نଇͷཧ࿦తഎܠ • ໌ࣔత஌ࣝɾ҉ࣔత஌ࣝ • એݴత஌ࣝɾखଓ͖త஌ࣝ • ऑ͍ΠϯλʔϑΣΠεͷཱ৔

    • ίϛϡχέʔγϣϯͰʮ࢖͑Δʯจ๏஌ࣝ • ֎ࠃޠڭҭʹ͓͚Δʮ࿅शʯ Ken Urano urano@hgu.jp https://www.urano-ken.com/research/methoken2020 ≠ =
  61. • Bley-Vroman, R. (1989). What is the logical problem of

    foreign language learning? In S. M. Gass & J. Schachter (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition (pp. 41–68). Cambridge University Press. • Bowles, M. A. (2011). Measuring implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge: What can heritage language learners contribute? Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 247–271. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0272263110000756 • Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of communicative approaches to second language teaching and testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, 1–47. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/i.1.1 • DeKeyser, R. M. (Ed.). (2007). Practice in a second language: Perspective from applied linguistics and cognitive psychology. Cambridge University Press. • DeKeyser, R. M. (2015). Skill Acquisition Theory. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (2nd ed.) (pp. 94–112). London: Routledge. • Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141–172. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050096 • Ellis, R., Loewen, S., Elder, C., Erlam, R., Philp, J., & Reinders, H. (2009). Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. • Hulstijn , J. H . (2002). Towards a unified account of the representation, processing, and acquisition of second language knowledge. Second Language Research, 18, 193–223. https://doi.org/10.1191/0267658302sr207oa • Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon. • Krashen, S. D. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman. • Long, M. H. (1983). Does second language instruction make a difference? A review of research. TESOL Quarterly, 17, 359–82. https://doi.org/10.2307/3586253 • VanPatten, B. (1996). Input processing and grammar instruction: Theory and research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. • Wakabayashi, S. (1997). The acquisition of functional categories by learners of English. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Cambridge. References