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NACIS 2014 Map Style Session: Old Map Styles

Vanessa KW
October 09, 2014

NACIS 2014 Map Style Session: Old Map Styles

How Technological Changes Aesthetically Defined Pre-1900s Maps: A Stylistic Look at Woodblock, Copperplate & Lithograph Maps

Vanessa KW

October 09, 2014
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  1. Vanessa Knoppke-Wetzel
    How Technological Changes Aesthetically Defined Pre-1900s Maps:
    A Stylistic Look at Woodblock, Copperplate & Lithograph Print Maps
    Vanessa Knoppke-Wetzel
    [email protected]

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  2. What am I talking about?
     Why?
     Research
    • questions
    • background
    • methods
    Findings
    • Styles!
    Questions?

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  3. Why?
     Why am I talking about cartographic styles?
    You might be thinking: they don’t already
    exist?
    After all…….

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  4. Guernica, Pablo Picasso, 1937
    Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

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  5. Starry Night, Vincent Van Gogh, 1889
    Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

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  6. Whaam, Roy Lichtenstein, 1963
    Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

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  7. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

    View full-size slide

  8. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

    View full-size slide

  9. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

    View full-size slide

  10. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

    View full-size slide

  11. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

    View full-size slide

  12. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic manner of expression or taste”
    Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea of beauty at a given time and place”

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  13. Reference map
    G O O G L E

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  14. N E W YO R K T I M E S
    Informative/news map

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  15. Viral map
    W I R E D .C O M

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  16. MacEachren, 1992
    Brewer, Harrower, Penn State
    Krygier & Wood, 2005
    B E R T I N
    B R E W E R
    M A C E A C H R E N

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  17. Aesthetics: “a set of principles governing the idea
    of beauty at a given time and place”

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  18. Style: “a distinctive, formal, or characteristic
    manner of expression or taste”

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  19. cartographic production & design is
    dependent on available technologies,
    as are the technical skills and media
    choices (?)

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  20. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    1. Were the general
    aesthetic styles of
    maps produced within
    the different printing
    technologies dissimilar
    enough to say that
    styles were dependent
    on the technology?
    2. If aesthetic styles were
    dependent on
    technology (1), what
    are the notable
    aesthetic elements
    that combine to define
    these respective
    styles?

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  21. 3 Printing Methods
    Woodblock
     Ink
     Lines and tools
     Wood
     Type
    • Black letter
    • Handcut, slot, stereotype
    Copperplate
     Lines and tools
     Pressure border
    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/20195/20195-h/images/imgfp5.jpg
    Lithograph
    Detail and type
    http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-
    n0yaIir2dyc/T2HxAiOjqMI/AAAAAAAAAFI/Op3eGe_zoDo/s1600/oldpress.jpg
    http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/20900/20909/cprpltprint_20909_sm.gif

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  22. Sampling
     20 maps from each
    Technology Era
    • Technology Era: or period of
    time in history characterized
    by a dominant technology
    and the resulting aesthetic
    styles of maps produced
    during this period
     9 digital archives
    • Antiquariat Reinhold Berg, Historic
    Cities, Osher Map Library, Afriterra:
    The Cartographic Free Library,
    Hemispheres: Antique Maps and
    Prints, Princeton University Library,
    David Rumsey Map Collection, Barry
    Lawrence Ruderman: Antique Maps
    Inc., and Paulus Swaen Old Map
    Auction and Galleries.

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  23. Research methods: Qualitative
    Map Aesthetics Key Codes
     Define key code based on
    aesthetic
     Placed within categories
    relating to technology (tool,
    ink, etc), & in relation to map
    element
     Total of 111 key codes
     Same key code recorded once
    per cell, but potentially
    multiple per map

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  24. Research methods: Quantitative
    Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA)
     A tree diagram visual output of the clustering calculations
     The dendrogram ordered the maps along the horizontal
    axis according to their relative distance in attribute space
    and then uses vertical lines of varying length to indicate
    the distance between two maps
     The farther the distance between two maps, the less
    similar they are
    Dendrogram

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  25. Aesthetic Element’s Dendrogram

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  26. Aesthetic Element’s Dendrogram
     Cluster A: woodblock
    maps (20/20)
     Cluster B: primarily
    lithograph maps (16/18)
     Cluster C: primarily
    copperplate maps (18/22)
     only 6 of the 60 maps, or
    10%, were incorrectly
    clustered, providing
    further evidence that
    aesthetic elements
    coincided closely with
    Technology Era.

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  27. 10 Most Frequently
    Clustered Key
    Codes
    clustering results matched the Tech Eras closely,
    it was useful to inspect the aesthetic elements
    most commonly key codes per Cluster
    Technologies Key Codes
    woodblock
    grainy, light_i, ink_squeeze, non_circular,
    partial, book, stereotype, slot, calligraphy,
    tittle, angular, handcut
    copperplate press, pressure_border
    lithography
    _g_, gradient, relief, spongy, pattern,
    contours, curved, kerning
    Unique key codes per Tech Era

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  28. Combined Technology and Cluster Key
    Codes

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  29. Defined Styles

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  30. woodblock copperplate

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