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Biosecurity Risks in Southeast Asia Impacting on Human Food Supplies

Biosecurity Risks in Southeast Asia Impacting on Human Food Supplies

Rice biosecurity needs to be considered when conducting military exercises in Southeast Asia. This presentation highlights the importance of biosecurity and reasons why.

Adam H. Sparks

April 17, 2013
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  1. Biosecurity Risks in
    Southeast Asia Impacting
    on Human Food Supplies

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  2. Outline
    ¤ Importance of rice
    ¤ Causes of bio(in)security
    ¤ Actions
    ¤ Summary
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  3. Why is rice important?
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  4. A few numbers
    Rice is a food staple for >3.5 billion
    people
    90% of all rice is grown in Asia
    One fifth of the world’s population
    depends on rice for their livelihood
    In 2009, 640 million in Asia lived in
    poverty
    On average, for the extreme poor
    (earning less than $1.25/day)
    Rice accounts for nearly one-half of their food
    expenditures
    One-fifth of total household expenditures
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  5. Impact of price volatility
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  6. Price spike in 2008
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
    5
    10
    15
    20
    25
    30
    1990
    1991
    1992
    1993
    1994
    1995
    1996
    1997
    1998
    1999
    2000
    2001
    2002
    2003
    2004
    2005
    2006
    2007
    2008
    Price (Philippine Peso/Kg)
    Year
    S. Pandey, IRRI;
    Raw data: BAS, Philippines

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  7. Impact
    In 2008, when rice prices tripled, the
    World Bank estimated that an
    additional 100 million people were
    pushed into poverty
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  8. Impact
    Great Bengal Famine (1943)
    • An already poor crop
    • Cyclone
    • Three tidal waves
    • Brown spot
    • Impact
    • 1.5 to 4 million people died of starvation,
    malnutrition and disease, out of Bengal’s
    60.3 million population
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  9. Weeds, pests and pathogens
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  10. Yield losses
    Global Rice Production
    • Potential losses 77%
    • 40% of yield is saved
    • Actual losses >37%
    E.-C. OERKE, 2006
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  11. Weeds
    Potential yield losses: 37%
    Actual yield losses: 10.2%
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
    IRRI Images

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  12. Animal pests
    Potential yield losses: 8.7%
    Actual yield losses: 7.9%
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
    IRRI Images

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  13. Plant disease
    Competent
    Pathogen
    Susceptible
    Host
    Environment
    (T, RH, Precip)
    Disease!
    Potential yield losses: 18%
    Actual yield losses: 13%
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  14. Movements and introductions
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  15. Introductions
    Managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization 11
    However, data on the introductions of alien species into
    Europe highlight that not until 1800 AD was a progressive
    increase in the annual rate of alien mammal, invertebrate and
    plant introductions observed (Fig. 1). Similar trends are seen
    for plants in North America (Mack 2003). This ‘second
    phase’ of biological invasions coincides with the Industrial
    Revolution, a period of increased international trade across
    almost all continents facilitated by the construction of canals,
    highways and railways as well as the introduction of steam-
    ships (Findley & O’Rourke 2007). Furthermore, the spread of
    European species worldwide was undoubtedly aided by 50
    million Europeans who emigrated to distant shores between
    Fig. 1. Annual rates of increase in the establish-
    ment of alien mammals (data from Genovesi
    et al. 2009), invertebrates (data from Roques
    et al. 2009) and plants (data from Pyßek et al.
    2009) in Europe since 1500 AD.
    We move materials at
    unprecedented rates now.
    Annual rates of increase in the establishment of alien
    mammals (data from Genovesi et al. 2009), invertebrates
    (data from Roques et al. 2009) and plants (data from
    Pyšek et al. 2009) in Europe since 1500 ad.
    Hulme, P. Journal of Applied Ecology 2009, 46, 10–18
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  16. Unintentional movement
    Continent: North America
    Pest: Black Stem Rust
    Introduced: European Settlers
    Impact: 50%-70% yield losses over
    large regions
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
    University of Georgia Plant Pathology Archive,
    University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

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  17. Intentional movement
    Country: Philippines
    Pest: Golden Apple Snail
    Native to: South America
    Introduced: in 1982, 1983, 1984
    Reason: Supposed food and income
    source
    Escaped: Shortly after introduction, now
    endemic and a serious rice pest
    Impact: The amount spent from 1980-1998
    for molluscicides alone amounted to US$
    23 M
    Credit: IRRI Images
    A. G. Cagauan and R. C. Joshi. 2002.
    Golden Apple Snail Pomacea spp. in the Philippines
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  18. Weapons?
    Could plant pathogens be used as
    biological weapons?
    “It is unlikely that any
    plant-pathogenic
    bacterium can be justified
    realistically as a biological
    weapon. . .”
    Young et al. 2008. Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria as
    Biological Weapons – Real Threats? Phytopathology
    98:1060-1065.
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  19. Climate change
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  20. Plant disease
    Competent
    Pathogen
    Susceptible
    Host
    Environment
    (T, RH, Precip)
    Disease!
    MORE
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  21. Yield loss due to Leaf Blast
    B130
    B150
    A230
    A250
    Current
    Northern Tanzania
    The boundaries and names shown and designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IRRI.
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  22. Insect pests
    Insect reproduction is largely regulated by temperatures
    IRRI Images
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  23. Extreme weather events
    Typhoons
    Drought
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  24. Extreme weather events
    Flooding
    IRRI Images
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  25. Heat stress
    This map shows the frequency of years wherein temperature is too high
    during the reproductive to maturity stages from 1983-2011.
    A. Laborte, IRRI
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  26. Actions
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  27. Development of new varieties
    Flooding
    Salinity
    Disease
    Drought
    IRRI Images
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  28. Exclusion
    Australia – Department of
    Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry
    (DAFF) maintains a website:
    http://www.daff.gov.au/aqis/avm/military/cleani
    ng-requirements
    UNCONTROLLED IF PRINTED
    5-2
    Exterior of Vehicle
    5.3 The cleaning instructions for the Land Rover 4x4’s exterior, as illustrated in Figure 5–1,
    include the points detailed in Table 5–1.
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    7 6
    8
    Figure 5–1: Land Rover 4x4’s Exterior
    Table 5–1: Cleaning Instructions for the Land Rover 4x4’s Exterior
    Serial Comments or Tasks
    Technical
    Time (hours)
    1 Remove canopy and bows and clean with pressure washer.
    Clean the hollow sections of the canopy bows by using flushing water
    through the tubes with a pressure washer. CES and clean.
    2 Remove the side flares for cleaning. 0.5
    3 Remove the CES and clean.
    Ensure the hold down brackets and the nylon straps and buckle loops
    are separated and cleaned.
    4 Remove the grill and high-pressure air or pick clean the radiator to
    ensure there are no seed or insect debris embedded. Inspect behind
    number plate and tactical signage and flush hollow tubing on brush
    guard.
    5 Damaged lights or where light seals are compromised are to be
    removed and cleaned of all soil, plant or insect matter.
    0.5
    6 Remove the mudflaps and clean.
    If damaged dispose of in accordance with AQIS instructions.
    7 If vehicle is fitted with a winch, remove and clean the winch rope.
    Clean the winch drum.
    Ensure winch propeller shafts, uni joints, and pillow block bearing are
    clean and free from dirt, dust, plant and insect material.
    2.5
    8 Flush out behind mirrors – damaged mirrors are to be removed.
    9 If fitted, remove tread plates on top of front mudguards to facilitate
    cleaning.
    http://www.defence.gov.au/jlc/Documents/Cleaning%20Manual/05.pdf
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  29. Conclusion
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  30. Conclusion
    Rice
    • Plant pathogens
    • Insects
    • Weeds
    • Natural disasters
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  31. Conclusion
    Rice
    • Staple crop
    • 90% is grown in Asia
    • 1/5 of the world’s population
    depends on it for livelyhood
    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

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  32. Thank you for your kind attention
    Questions? Discussion.

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