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Biosecurity Risks in Southeast Asia Impacting on Human Food Supplies

Biosecurity Risks in Southeast Asia Impacting on Human Food Supplies

Rice biosecurity needs to be considered when conducting military exercises in Southeast Asia. This presentation highlights the importance of biosecurity and reasons why.

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Adam H. Sparks

April 17, 2013
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Transcript

  1. Biosecurity Risks in Southeast Asia Impacting on Human Food Supplies

  2. Outline ¤ Importance of rice ¤ Causes of bio(in)security ¤

    Actions ¤ Summary Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  3. Why is rice important? Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions

    | Conclusion
  4. A few numbers Rice is a food staple for >3.5

    billion people 90% of all rice is grown in Asia One fifth of the world’s population depends on rice for their livelihood In 2009, 640 million in Asia lived in poverty On average, for the extreme poor (earning less than $1.25/day) Rice accounts for nearly one-half of their food expenditures One-fifth of total household expenditures Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  5. Impact of price volatility Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions

    | Conclusion
  6. Price spike in 2008 Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions

    | Conclusion 5 10 15 20 25 30 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Price (Philippine Peso/Kg) Year S. Pandey, IRRI; Raw data: BAS, Philippines
  7. Impact In 2008, when rice prices tripled, the World Bank

    estimated that an additional 100 million people were pushed into poverty Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  8. Impact Great Bengal Famine (1943) • An already poor crop

    • Cyclone • Three tidal waves • Brown spot • Impact • 1.5 to 4 million people died of starvation, malnutrition and disease, out of Bengal’s 60.3 million population Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  9. Weeds, pests and pathogens Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions

    | Conclusion
  10. Yield losses Global Rice Production • Potential losses 77% •

    40% of yield is saved • Actual losses >37% E.-C. OERKE, 2006 Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  11. Weeds Potential yield losses: 37% Actual yield losses: 10.2% Importance

    of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion IRRI Images
  12. Animal pests Potential yield losses: 8.7% Actual yield losses: 7.9%

    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion IRRI Images
  13. Plant disease Competent Pathogen Susceptible Host Environment (T, RH, Precip)

    Disease! Potential yield losses: 18% Actual yield losses: 13% Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  14. Movements and introductions Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions |

    Conclusion
  15. Introductions Managing invasive species pathways in an era of globalization

    11 However, data on the introductions of alien species into Europe highlight that not until 1800 AD was a progressive increase in the annual rate of alien mammal, invertebrate and plant introductions observed (Fig. 1). Similar trends are seen for plants in North America (Mack 2003). This ‘second phase’ of biological invasions coincides with the Industrial Revolution, a period of increased international trade across almost all continents facilitated by the construction of canals, highways and railways as well as the introduction of steam- ships (Findley & O’Rourke 2007). Furthermore, the spread of European species worldwide was undoubtedly aided by 50 million Europeans who emigrated to distant shores between Fig. 1. Annual rates of increase in the establish- ment of alien mammals (data from Genovesi et al. 2009), invertebrates (data from Roques et al. 2009) and plants (data from Pyßek et al. 2009) in Europe since 1500 AD. We move materials at unprecedented rates now. Annual rates of increase in the establishment of alien mammals (data from Genovesi et al. 2009), invertebrates (data from Roques et al. 2009) and plants (data from Pyšek et al. 2009) in Europe since 1500 ad. Hulme, P. Journal of Applied Ecology 2009, 46, 10–18 Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  16. Unintentional movement Continent: North America Pest: Black Stem Rust Introduced:

    European Settlers Impact: 50%-70% yield losses over large regions Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion University of Georgia Plant Pathology Archive, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
  17. Intentional movement Country: Philippines Pest: Golden Apple Snail Native to:

    South America Introduced: in 1982, 1983, 1984 Reason: Supposed food and income source Escaped: Shortly after introduction, now endemic and a serious rice pest Impact: The amount spent from 1980-1998 for molluscicides alone amounted to US$ 23 M Credit: IRRI Images A. G. Cagauan and R. C. Joshi. 2002. Golden Apple Snail Pomacea spp. in the Philippines Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  18. Weapons? Could plant pathogens be used as biological weapons? “It

    is unlikely that any plant-pathogenic bacterium can be justified realistically as a biological weapon. . .” Young et al. 2008. Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria as Biological Weapons – Real Threats? Phytopathology 98:1060-1065. Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  19. Climate change Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

  20. Plant disease Competent Pathogen Susceptible Host Environment (T, RH, Precip)

    Disease! MORE Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  21. Yield loss due to Leaf Blast B130 B150 A230 A250

    Current Northern Tanzania The boundaries and names shown and designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by IRRI. Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  22. Insect pests Insect reproduction is largely regulated by temperatures IRRI

    Images Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  23. Extreme weather events Typhoons Drought Importance of Rice | Causes|

    Actions | Conclusion
  24. Extreme weather events Flooding IRRI Images Importance of Rice |

    Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  25. Heat stress This map shows the frequency of years wherein

    temperature is too high during the reproductive to maturity stages from 1983-2011. A. Laborte, IRRI Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  26. Actions Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

  27. Development of new varieties Flooding Salinity Disease Drought IRRI Images

    Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  28. Exclusion Australia – Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF)

    maintains a website: http://www.daff.gov.au/aqis/avm/military/cleani ng-requirements UNCONTROLLED IF PRINTED 5-2 Exterior of Vehicle 5.3 The cleaning instructions for the Land Rover 4x4’s exterior, as illustrated in Figure 5–1, include the points detailed in Table 5–1. 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 8 Figure 5–1: Land Rover 4x4’s Exterior Table 5–1: Cleaning Instructions for the Land Rover 4x4’s Exterior Serial Comments or Tasks Technical Time (hours) 1 Remove canopy and bows and clean with pressure washer. Clean the hollow sections of the canopy bows by using flushing water through the tubes with a pressure washer. CES and clean. 2 Remove the side flares for cleaning. 0.5 3 Remove the CES and clean. Ensure the hold down brackets and the nylon straps and buckle loops are separated and cleaned. 4 Remove the grill and high-pressure air or pick clean the radiator to ensure there are no seed or insect debris embedded. Inspect behind number plate and tactical signage and flush hollow tubing on brush guard. 5 Damaged lights or where light seals are compromised are to be removed and cleaned of all soil, plant or insect matter. 0.5 6 Remove the mudflaps and clean. If damaged dispose of in accordance with AQIS instructions. 7 If vehicle is fitted with a winch, remove and clean the winch rope. Clean the winch drum. Ensure winch propeller shafts, uni joints, and pillow block bearing are clean and free from dirt, dust, plant and insect material. 2.5 8 Flush out behind mirrors – damaged mirrors are to be removed. 9 If fitted, remove tread plates on top of front mudguards to facilitate cleaning. http://www.defence.gov.au/jlc/Documents/Cleaning%20Manual/05.pdf Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  29. Conclusion Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion

  30. Conclusion Rice • Plant pathogens • Insects • Weeds •

    Natural disasters Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  31. Conclusion Rice • Staple crop • 90% is grown in

    Asia • 1/5 of the world’s population depends on it for livelyhood Importance of Rice | Causes| Actions | Conclusion
  32. Thank you for your kind attention Questions? Discussion.