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A broad look at charcoal rot in the Northern Region broadacre crops through soil sampling and in-crop surveys

Adam H. Sparks
September 05, 2018

A broad look at charcoal rot in the Northern Region broadacre crops through soil sampling and in-crop surveys

In this paper, we present findings from soil sampling and end-of-season disease assessments for charcoal rot in sorghum paddocks across northern New South Wales (NNSW), south eastern Queensland (SEQ) and central Queensland (CQ) during the 2016/17 and 2017/18 summer cropping seasons.

Adam H. Sparks

September 05, 2018
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  1. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    A broad look at charcoal rot in the Northern Region broadacre crops
    through soil sampling and in-crop surveys

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  2. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    What is charcoal rot (and why should I care)?
    Photo: Kansas State University
    Stalk rot infected (left) vs healthy sorghum (right)
    Macrophomina phaseolina

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  3. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    • Common after prolonged drought
    and heat stress during grain fill
    • Any form of stress due to
    agronomic factors also predispose
    the crop
    • First obvious sign usually lodging
    near maturity
    • Ash-grey stalk tissue with
    microsclerotes
    • Survives in soil and on stubble of
    over 400 crop and weed hosts for
    up to 4+ years
    • Widely occurring, endemic
    Charcoal Rot
    Photo: USQ CCH Summer Crops Pathology
    Charcoal rot symptoms

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  4. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Sorghum lesion photo
    Image: Precila Gonzales, USQ CCH
    Sorghum

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  5. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    PREDICTA®B Macrophomina Tests
    Know before
    you sow
    Cereal root diseases cost grain growers in excess of $200 million annually in lost production.
    Much of this loss can be prevented.
    Using PreDicta®B North soil tests and advice from your local accredited agronomist, these diseases can be
    detected and managed before losses occur.
    PreDicta®B North is a DNA based
    soil testing service to assist growers
    PreDicta®B North tests for the two major damaging
    Pratylenchus species and the pathogens causing crown

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  6. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081

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  7. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Sampling Method Development
    2016/17 and 2017/18 Summer Seasons

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  8. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    The sampling strategy developed needs to be repeatable and
    rigorous and take into consideration:
    Sampling Strategy Development
    Initial Assessment and Sampling
    Soil sample
    SARDI molecular
    analysis
    Meet growers
    and survey
    • different stubble management systems;
    • location of new crop row;
    • where to sample;
    • quantity of stubble required in sample,
    • in-paddock variability.

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  9. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    N.T.
    S.A.
    Qld.
    N.S.W.
    Vic.
    A.C.T.
    40°S
    35°S
    30°S
    25°S
    20°S
    15°S
    10°S
    130°E 135°E 140°E 145°E 150°E 155°E
    Longitude
    Latitude
    Paddocks 2.5 5.0 7.5
    Data: Naturalearthdata and DAQ00186
    2017/18 Summer Season
    Sampling Locations (n = 73)
    Three regions
    cQld
    sQld
    nNSW

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  10. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Sampling Development Results

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  11. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Population density categories

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  12. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Sampling strategies
    1. Soil collected from
    previous crop row with
    no (0) stubble pieces
    2. Soil collected from
    previous crop row with
    15 stubble pieces
    3. Soil collected from
    previous crop row with
    30 stubble pieces
    4. Soil collected from off
    the plant row
    5. Soil collected from off
    the plant row with 30
    pieces of stubble from
    weeds or previous
    crops at the location
    PREDICTA®B Sampling Strategy Results
    p < 0.05
    n = 73

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  13. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    PREDICTA®B Population Density Results

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  14. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    End of Season
    Assessment prior
    to harvest
    Macrophomina
    lesion
    measurement
    Lodging
    assessment
    Yield data
    request
    End of Season

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  15. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    PREDICTA®B End of Season Assessment

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  16. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    PREDICTA®B End of Season Assessment

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  17. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Central Queensland
    •Few sorghum crops in 2016/17 season
    •Hot dry conditions, however
    •Little charcoal rot developed, likely due to in-crop rainfall from ex-
    cyclone Debbie
    Southeast Queensland
    •Hot dry conditions likely limited the crop yields reducing the
    impact of charcoal rot
    Results 2016/17

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  18. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Results 2017/18
    Central Queensland
    •Highest population densities of M. phaseolina
    •Low incidence of infection
    Southeast Queensland
    •High population densities
    •Highest levels of lodging and infection
    Northern New South Wales
    •Lowest population densities of M. phaseolina
    •Also lowest lodging

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  19. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Conclusions

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  20. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    p < 0.05

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  21. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    However…
    Assessment prior
    to harvest
    Macrophomina
    lesion
    measurement
    Lodging
    assessment
    Yield data
    request
    End of Season

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  22. CRICOS: QLD00244B NSW02225M TEQSA: PRV12081
    Special thanks to sorghum growers for allowing
    access to their paddocks for sample collection.
    Acknowledgments
    GRDC Projects DAQ00186 and DAS00137

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