Angular Performance: Your App at the Speed of Light

Angular Performance: Your App at the Speed of Light

In this talk, we’ll have a look at common performance pitfalls in Angular applications and how to avoid them. We’ll have a look at different change detection strategies and ChangeDetectorRef, Zone.js and NgZone, lazy loading, server-side rendering and Service Worker support. Let’s make your Angular app blazing fast!

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Christian Liebel

October 19, 2019
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  1. 1.
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    Hello, it’s me. Christian Liebel Follow me: @christianliebel Email: christian.liebel

    @thinktecture.com Cross-Platform Development & Serverless Cloud Architectures Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Hi Angular! Basics // app.component.html <h1>Hi {{ title }}!</h1> //

    app.component.ts @Component({ /* … */ }) export class AppComponent { title = 'Angular'; } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection
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    Basics // app.component.html <h1>Hi {{ title }}!</h1> <button (click)="update()"> Update

    </button> // app.component.ts @Component({ /* … */ }) export class AppComponent { title = 'Angular'; update() { this.title = 'Foo'; } } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection Hi Foo! Hi Angular! Update
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    Basics Change detection… - is the magical part of Angular

    that makes data binding “just work” - is a very handy feature that helps a lot, but it can also work against you - is strongly related to Angular application performance Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection
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    Change Detector Tree AppComponent NavComponent ContentComponent ListComponent Angular Performance Your

    App at the Speed of Light Change Detection AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD CHANGE
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    Change Detector detectChanges() Called when an event has occured and

    bindings should be checked Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection this.title = 'Foo'; <h1>Hi {{ title }}!</h1>
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    Per default, each change in your application leads to… -

    A single CD cycle - From top to bottom (all components) - Unidirectional (no cycles allowed) Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection DEMO
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    First findings Reduce duration of a change detection cycle -

    Reduce amount of bindings (e.g. grids: virtual scrolling via CDK) - Avoid binding to (computationally intensive) getters or functions Keep CD cycle < 16 ms! Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection
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    Profiling // main.ts platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule).then(module => enableDebugTools(module.injector.get(ApplicationRef).components[0])); Execute ng.profiler.timeChangeDetection() to measure

    the duration of a change detection run (500ms or 5 change detection cycles) Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection DEMO
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    How to detect a change? AppComponent NavComponent ContentComponent ListComponent Angular

    Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Zone.js AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD CHANGE
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    A look at Angular’s dependencies "dependencies": { "@angular/common": "~8.2.5", "rxjs":

    "~6.4.0", "tslib": "^1.10.0", "zone.js": "~0.9.1" }, Zone.js Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    NgZone Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light

    Zone.js current (global) zone NgZone Angular boot
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    NgZone NgZone catches asynchronous operations from the Angular app When

    no tasks are remaining for the current VM turn, the NgZone will trigger a change detection cycle (tick) Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Zone.js NgZone setTimeout setInterval onclick Detect changes Detect changes Detect changes
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    Common Pitfalls Long CD cycles in combination with high-frequency events

    - mousemove - scroll - requestAnimationFrame - setInterval with short intervals (clocks!) Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Zone.js DEMO
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    NgZone Zone.js current (global) zone NgZone mousemove Detect changes mousemove

    Detect changes mousemove Detect changes mousemove Detect changes Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    NgZone Opt-Out constructor (ngZone: NgZone) { ngZone.runOutsideAngular(() => { //

    runs outside Angular zone, for performance-critical code ngZone.run(() => { // runs inside Angular zone, for updating view afterwards }); }); } Zone.js Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance ! View and model can get out of sync! DEMO
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    Disable Patches (polyfills.ts) (window as any).__Zone_disable_requestAnimationFrame = true; // disable

    patch requestAnimationFrame (window as any).__Zone_disable_on_property = true; // disable patch onProperty such as onclick (window as any).__zone_symbol__UNPATCHED_EVENTS = ['scroll', 'mousemove']; // disable patch specified eventNames Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Zone.js ! View and model can get out of sync!
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    Disable Zone (= disable async change detection!) platformBrowserDynamic().bootstrapModule(AppModule, { ngZone:

    'noop' }); constructor(applicationRef: ApplicationRef) { applicationRef.tick(); // trigger CD yourself } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Zone.js ! View and model can get out of sync!
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Overview Default Uses Zone.js for detecting changes and updates bindings

    OnPush Restricts change detection to changes of @Input parameters Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection Strategies AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD OnPush
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    OnPush <my-component [foo]="bar"> </my-component> @Component({ selector: 'my-component', template: '{{ foo

    }}', changeDetection: ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush }) export class MyComponent { @Input() public foo: string; } Change detection only reacts to changes of @Input parameters Angular compares the values passed to an @Input parameter (newValue === oldValue). If you are passing objects, make sure to pass in new instances! Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detection Strategies ! View and model can get out of sync! DEMO
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    OnPush & Detecting Changes What to do if a component

    changes unrelated to an @Input parameter? constructor(private dataService: DataService) {} ngOnInit() { this.dataService.updates$ .subscribe(newData => this.data = newData); // no update! } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detector
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    ChangeDetectorRef constructor(cdRef: ChangeDetectorRef) {} A reference to the ChangeDetector of

    your component - detectChanges() - markForCheck() - detach() - checkNoChanges() - reattach() Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detector
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    markForCheck() Explicitly marks a component as dirty/changed (when using OnPush)

    Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detector AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD DIRTY AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD OnPush
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    markForCheck() constructor(private dataService: DataService, private cdRef: ChangeDetectorRef) {} ngOnInit() {

    this.dataService.updates$.subscribe(newData => { this.data = newData; this.cdRef.markForCheck(); }); } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detector
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    Detaching Components changeDetector.detach(); changeDetector.reattach(); Angular Performance Your App at the

    Speed of Light Change Detector AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD AppComponent CD NavComponent CD ContentComponent CD ListComponent CD ! View and model can get out of sync!
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    Local Change Detection constructor(cdRef: ChangeDetectorRef) { cdRef.detach(); // detaches this

    view from the CD tree // cdRef.detectChanges(); // detect this view & children // cdRef.reattach(); } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detector
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    Findings Reduce amount of change detection cycles - Disable Zone.js

    (not a good idea in most cases) - Opt-out of NgZone (for operations that should not affect bindings) - Disable Zone.js patches (in case you can’t opt-out, e.g. 3rd party libs) - ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush (good default, but be careful) - Local change detection via ChangeDetectorRef (for the few components that do not have to respond to changes from outside) Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Change Detector
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Overview Takes observables, promises or synchronous values {{ data$ |

    async }} Waits for the observable to emit/promise to resolve and then displays the value Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Async Pipe
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    Advantages For observables: - Async Pipe subscribes for you -

    Async Pipe takes care of unsubscribing from the observable - Async Pipe calls markForCheck for each update – perfect match for OnPush! Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Async Pipe
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    Simplifying OnPush constructor(private dataService: DataService, private cdRef: ChangeDetectorRef) {} ngOnInit()

    { this.dataService.updates$.subscribe(newData => { this.data = newData; this.cdRef.markForCheck(); }); } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Async Pipe
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    Simplifying OnPush // component.ts data$: Observable<string>; constructor(dataService: DataService) { this.data$

    = this.dataService.updates$; } // component.html {{ data$ | async }} Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Async Pipe
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    The Problem Angular’s development directory structure is hard to •

    deploy • serve • cache • … Lots of files, lots of requests Angular and its dependencies are large in size, apps use only a fragment Bundling Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    The Problem Goal: Angular app - with all components pre-compiled

    - combined in a single (or few) file(s) - without redundant/unused code - uglified, compressed Bundling Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    JiT Compilation Bundling Component @Component({ … }) class UserComponent {

    user = { name: 'Chris' }; } Template <div>hello {{ user.name }}</div> Server Client Component @Component({ … }) class UserComponent { user = { name: 'Chris' }; } Template <div>hello {{ user.name }}</div> View Class var v = this.comp.user.name; Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    AoT Compilation Bundling Component @Component({ … }) class UserComponent {

    user = { name: 'Chris' }; } Template <div>hello {{ user.name }}</div> Server Client Component @Component({ … }) class UserComponent { user = { name: 'Chris' }; } View Class var v = this.comp.user.name; Template <div>hello {{ user.name }}</div> View Class var v = this.comp.user.name; Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Tree Shaking “A Tree Shaker walks the dependency graph, top

    to bottom, and shakes out unused code like dead needles in a Christmas tree.” Bundling Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    !function(){ var obj = { foo: function () { //

    Hi there! }, bar: function () { this.baz(); }, baz: function () { // stub } }; obj.foo(); }(); Tree Shaking Principle Bundling Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Differential Loading ES5: function add(a,b){return a+b} ES 2015: add=(a,b)=>a+b ES

    2015 introduced shorter syntax (smaller footprint/saves bandwidth) Detect the platform and only deliver files required for this platform Larger ES5 bundles are only delivered to legacy browsers Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Bundling
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    Differential Loading // index.html <!doctype html> <html lang="en"><body> <script src="runtime-es2015.b948044840398824f16e.js"

    type="module"></script> <script src="runtime-es5.b948044840398824f16e.js" nomodule defer> </body></html> Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Bundling
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Overview Angular router supports lazy loading components transparently Lazy loaded

    components are not delivered to/loaded by the client on boot, but on purpose Reduces load & perceived loading time Lazy Loading Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Architecture Lazy Loading is module-based Module is resolved via a

    dynamic import: import('./feature.module').then(m => m.FeatureModule) Routing is delegated to the feature module called Lazy Loading Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Overview const ROUTES: Routes = [{ path: 'admin', loadChildren: ()

    => import('app/admin/admin.module') .then(a => a.AdminModule) }]; Lazy Loading Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Configuring Lazy Loading NoPreloading - does not preload any route

    by default - advantage: low size footprint - disadvantage: takes some time after clicking a link to the lazy-loaded module, not offline capable PreloadAllModules - automatically preloads all modules after the application has launched (still better loading time!) - advantage: lazy-loaded modules now load instant (also on the first click), offline capable - disadvantage: higher footprint Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Preloading Strategies
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    Configuration @NgModule({ imports: [RouterModule.forRoot(routes, { preloadingStrategy: PreloadAllModules, })], exports: [RouterModule]

    }) export class AppRoutingModule { } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Preloading Strategies
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    Custom Strategy It’s also possible to provide a custom strategy

    - when modules belong to each other - it’s expected that the user will access a certain module next (e.g. checkout after cart module) Developer can decide which modules should be preloaded on a navigation event Developer gets access to the modules which have not been preloaded yet Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Preloading Strategies
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    Custom Strategy preload(route: Route, fn: () => Observable<any>): Observable<any> {

    // decide based on route (or other external information) // call fn to preload the module // otherwise, return of(null) } Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Preloading Strategies
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Angular Universal Pre-render the website using the same sources that

    are served Once Angular kicks in, the view is replaced with the client-rendered one Supports Node.js (Express), ASP.NET Core, Hapi.js & plain sockets JiT and AoT support (AoT strictly recommended for production) Server-Side Rendering Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Principle Server-Side Rendering Component @Component({ … }) class UserComponent {

    user = { name: 'Chris' }; } Template <div>hello {{ user.name }}</div> Server Client Component @Component({ … }) class UserComponent { user = { name: 'Chris' }; } View Class var v = this.comp.user.name; Template <div>hello {{ user.name }}</div> View Class var v = this.comp.user.name; index.html <!DOCTYPE html><head>… Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    ng add @nguniversal/express-engine --clientProject perf-demo npm run build:ssr npm run

    serve:ssr Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Server-Side Rendering
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    Runtime Performance Bundling Lazy Loading Preloading Strategies Server-Side Rendering Service

    Worker Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Agenda Change Detection Basics Zone.js & NgZone Change Detection Strategies Change Detector Async Pipe Load Time Performance
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    Idea: Never load the same resource twice Download resources once

    and store them in a local cache The next time the user wants to open the application, load the contents from there Makes your application sources offline-capable Significantly improves loading time Angular Performance Your App at the Speed of Light Service Worker
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    Key Technology Service Worker Service Worker Internet Website HTML/JS Cache

    fetch Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    @angular/service-worker Service Worker implementation provided by the Angular team Features

    - Caching - Offline Availability - Push Notifications Service Worker is generated by the CLI (prod builds only) Service Worker Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance
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    Features ng add @angular/pwa ng build --prod cd dist/browser npx

    lite-server Service Worker Your App at the Speed of Light Angular Performance