Enterprise Security Monitoring

Enterprise Security Monitoring

Presented at FIRST 2014, Boston, MA

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David J. Bianco

June 23, 2014
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  1. Copyright © 2014, FireEye, Inc. All rights reserved. | CONFIDENTIAL

    1 Enterprise Security Monitoring Comprehensive Intel-Driven Detection David J. Bianco David.Bianco@mandiant.com FIRST 2014
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    2 First There Was…
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    3 Then There Was…
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    4 Now There Is… Enterprise Security Monitoring (ESM)
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    5 Enterprise Security Monitoring ESM
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    6 ESM Architecture Threat Intelligence Technical Data HTTP Server & Proxy Logs Firewalls & Network Infrastructure IDS/NSM/ Endpoints OS & Application Logs Business Data Org Charts Employee DB Travel Plans Enterprise Security Monitor
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    7 •  Increased visibility across the organization •  Get more value out of existing systems •  Data aggregation is hunter friendly •  Better organization around: –  Detection platform coverage –  Detection planning •  General •  Threat-specific –  Prioritization of detection resources •  Quicker, more accurate incident detection and response •  Leverage your detection/response infra as an offensive capability Benefits of Enterprise Security Monitoring
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    8 Intel Lifecycle Direction Collection Analysis Dissemenation
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    9 Detection Process Observe Compare Alert Validate
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    10 Response Cycle Contain Investigate Remediate
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    11 The Intel-Driven Operations Cycle Direction Collection Analysis Dissemenation Observe Compare Alert Validate Contain Investigate Remediate Intelligence Detection Response Validated Alerts Quality Feedback
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    12 Wacky Wall Walker Intelligence The most common approach to “threat intel” I see is… THROW ALL OUR FACTS OUT THERE AND SEE WHAT STICKS. Pros Quick to implement Cons Too many alerts No confidence in results Gives your adversaries a laugh We can do better!
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    13 Let’s Be Clear… Most people confuse with intelligence.
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    14 Let’s Be Clear… Captain, I do not believe that to be the correct use of the term.
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    15 What is an Indicator? A piece of information that points to a certain conclusion
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    16 What is it Not? ≠
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    17 Common Indicator Data Types IPv4 Address Domain / FQDN Hash (MD5, SHA1) URL Transaction Element (User- Agent, MTA) File Name / Path Mutex Registry Value User Name Email Address
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    18 Indicator Characteristics Extractable Can I find this indicator in my data? Actionable If I find this indicator in my data, can I do something with that information? Purposeful To what use will I put this indicator?
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    19 Attribution • Who/what is responsible for this activity? Detection • If this event happens, I want to know about it. Profiling • What are the targeting parameters for this threat? Prediction • Given the current state, what can I expect from this threat in the future? Indicator Purposes
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    20 The Kill Chain Reconaissance Weaponization Delivery Exploitation Installation Command & Control (C2) Actions on Objectives “[…] a systematic process to target and engage an adversary to create desired effects.” Source: Intelligence-Driven Computer Network Defense Informed by Analysis of Adversary Campaigns and Intrusion Kill Chains”, Hutchins, Cloppert, Amin, http://www.lockheedmartin.com/content/dam/lockheed/data/corporate/documents/LM-White- Paper-Intel-Driven-Defense.pdf (Last checked August 2013)
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    21 Mandiant Attack Lifecycle Diagram
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    22 The Pyramid of Pain The Pyramid measures potential usefulness of your intel It also measures difficulty of obtaining that intel The higher you are, the more resources your adversaries have to expend. When you quickly detect, respond to and disrupt your adversaries’ activities, defense becomes offense.
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    23 The Bed of Nails Reconaissance Weaponization Delivery Exploitation Installation Command & Control (C2) Actions on Objectives
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    24 •  What scenarios do we need to be able to detect? •  What are our options for detecting them? •  What are the strengths and weaknesses of our detection program today? •  What is our detection stance against specific actors? •  What is our overall plan for detection across our enterprise? Intel-Driven Detection Planning
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    25 What Scenarios Do We Need to Detect? Reconaissance • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization • Code - Binary_Code • File • File - Path • URI - URL Delivery • Behavior • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - POST • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Behavior • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Hash - SSDEEP • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    26 Detection Options - Snort Reconaissance • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization • Code - Binary_Code • File • File - Path • URI - URL Delivery • Behavior • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - POST • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Behavior • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Hash - SSDEEP • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    27 Detection Options - HIPS Reconaissance • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization • Code - Binary_Code • File • File - Path • URI - URL Delivery • Behavior • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - POST • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Behavior • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Hash - SSDEEP • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    28 Detection Options – Email Gateway Logs Reconaissance • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization • Code - Binary_Code • File • File - Path • URI - URL Delivery • Behavior • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - POST • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Behavior • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Hash - SSDEEP • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    29 Score Card: Use of Available Indicators Reconaissance • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization • Code - Binary_Code • File • File - Path • URI - URL Delivery • Behavior • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - POST • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Behavior • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Hash - SSDEEP • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    30 Score Card: Pyramid Effectiveness of Indicators Reconaissance • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization • Code - Binary Code • File • File - Path • URI - URL Delivery • Behavior • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • URI - URL • HTTP - POST • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Behavior • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Hash - SSDEEP • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    31 Score Card: Effectiveness Against APT-π Reconaissance • URI – Domain Name • Address - ipv4- addr Weaponization Delivery • Email Header - Subject • Email Header - X- Mailer • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Exploitation • Win Registry Key • File - Name • File • URI - URL • Streetname - McAfee • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - cidr • Address - ipv4- addr Installation • Code - Binary_Code • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - User Agent String • Streetname - McAfee • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr Command & Control (C2) • Behavior • Win Process • Win Registry Key • File • URI - URL • HTTP - GET • HTTP - POST • HTTP - User Agent String • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Address - e-mail • Address - ipv4- addr Actions on Objectives • Behavior • Win Registry Key • Win Service • File - Full Path • File - Name • File • File - Path • URI - URL • Streetname - Sophos • URI - Domain Name • Hash - MD5 • Hash - SHA1 • Address - ipv4- addr
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    32 Enterprise Detection Plan
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    33 •  NSM:IDS :: ESM:NSM •  Collect and aggregate across your entire enterprise –  Increased visibility –  Maximum use of resources –  Better for hunting •  Organize intel for for better program insights •  Big improvements in detection & response capabilities for minimal investment •  Smart detection makes for frustrated adversaries! Summary
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    34 Questions? David J. Bianco David.Bianco@mandiant.com @DavidJBianco detect-respond.blogspot.com I <3 Feedback! I’d really love to hear from you. Questions, comments, stories about how this worked for you, citations referencing my work are all appreciated!