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Lecture 2 - Introduction to self-driving cars

Lecture 2 - Introduction to self-driving cars

"Software Testing for Complex Intelligent Systems and Autonomous Vehicles" online course.

The lecture is available via the link: https://youtu.be/RlUgfrNXoIU
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March 05, 2021
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  1. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com The History of Autonomous

    Vehicles
  2. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com The Flying Carpet

  3. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com First Autonomous Vehicle Prototypes

    RCA Labs self-driving car 1957
  4. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com When was this picture

    taken? • Autonomous vehicle • Computer-assisted operation • Computer vision algorithms • Road marking recognition • Speed of up to 30 km/h 1967? 1977? 1987? 1997?
  5. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com 1977 When was this

    picture taken? • Autonomous vehicle • Computer-assisted operation • Computer vision algorithms • Road marking recognition • Speed of up to 30 km/h Tsukuba Mechanical Engineering Lab, Japan, 1977
  6. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Lancia Thema – ARGO

    Project Universities of Parma and Pavia 2000 km across Italy Autonomously 94% of the time 1996 When did this happen?
  7. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Robot and Drone Control

  8. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com LiDAR - coherent Light

    Detecting And Ranging Controller Area Network (CAN) — an industry communication standard aimed at integrating devices and sensors into a network. The sensors, as well as the steering wheel, breaks and accelerator control system are connected to the CAN bus. CAN Node Microcontroller CAN Controller CAN Transceiver Bus Data Link Layer ISO 11898-0 Medium Access Unit (Electrical Levels) ISO 11898-2, 3
  9. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com LIDAR - coherent Light

    Detecting And Ranging
  10. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Control Cycle 1. Localisation

    – Where I am 2. Perception — What is around me 3. Prediction — Where everything is going 4. Planning — What to do next Gayathiri Somasundaram, Kavitha, K.I.Ramachandran Sensor Image Processing Controller Vehicle image capture detected lane vehicle movement steering command
  11. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com What distance does a

    vehicle cover in 1 second while moving at 36 km/h? Question 20 centimeters? 1 meter? 5 meters? 10 meters? insider.com
  12. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com What distance does a

    vehicle cover in 1 second while moving at 36 km/h? Question 10 meters insider.com
  13. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Computer Autonomy: from Device

    to Master 1. Computer offers a complete set of action alternatives 2. Computer narrows the selection down to a few choices 3. Computer suggests a single action 4. Computer executes that action if a human approves 5. Computer allows the human limited time to veto before automatic execution 6. Computer executes automatically, then informs the human 7. Computer decides everything and acts autonomously, ignoring the human Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory - based on Levels of automation of Decision and Action Selection (Sheridan & Verplanck, 1978)
  14. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Levels of Autonomy (SAE

    Classification) у NO AUTOMATION DRIVER ASSISTANCE PARTIAL AUTOMATION CONDITIONAL AUTOMATION HIGH AUTOMATION FULL AUTOMATION Steering and acceleration/ deceleration Monitoring Of driving environment Fallback when automation fails Automated system is in control Human driver monitors the road Automated driving system monitors the road N/A SOME DRIVING MODES SOME DRIVING MODES SOME DRIVING MODES SOME DRIVING MODES 0 1 2 3 4 5 For on-road vehicles Human driver Automated system
  15. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com “The occasional use imperative”*

    https://ya62.ru/ “Such inefficiencies arise because we purchase automobiles that are massively overbuilt for the purposes we most frequently use them.” - Lawrence D. Burns - Average speed in congested cities can run as low as 12 mph. - Less than 30 percent of the energy from the gasoline you put in your car is used to move it down the road. - Only about 5 percent of the gasoline energy translated into motion is used to move the driver, it amounts to just 1.5 percent of the total energy in gasoline. - American automobiles sit unused about 95 percent of the time. * Waymo CEO John Krafcik
  16. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Approximately 1.35 million people

    die in road crashes each year, on average 3,700 people lose their lives every day on the roads. Association for Safe International Road Travel Annual Global Road Crash Statistics https://ya62.ru/
  17. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com A Framework for Automated

    Driving System Testable Cases and Scenarios Proceed to the US Department of Transportation website
  18. Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Join our Telegram chat,

    meet your peers, ask questions and get new software testing skills with Exactpro. Thank you!
  19. 19 Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Useful links

  20. 20 Build Software to Test Software exactpro.com Useful links ✔

    Lawrence D. Burns, Autonomy: The Quest to Build the Driverless Car - and How It Will Reshape Our World – https://www.amazon.com/Autonomy -Quest-Driverless-Car-Reshape/dp/00 62661124 ✔ Autopilot Saves Model S (video by Joshua Brown) – https://youtu.be/9I5rraWJq6E ✔ Wikipedia article on self-driving cars – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-driv ing_car ✔ A Framework for Automated Driving System Testable Cases and Scenarios – https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.d ot.gov/files/documents/13882-autom ateddrivingsystems_092618_v1a_tag. pdf