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ソーシャルメディアにおけるフェイクニュース検出と対策

 ソーシャルメディアにおけるフェイクニュース検出と対策

2022年8月9日に行われてたセキュリティ・キャンプのAIセキュリティクラスの授業で用いた資料(一部公開用に修正)です。
主にフェイクニュース検出と最近のフェイクニュースが引き起こす問題について記述しています。

taichi_murayama

August 08, 2022
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  1. ιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞʹ͓͚Δ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͱରࡦ 5BJDIJ .VSBZBNB "*ηΩϡϦςΟΫϥε

  2. 2 l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ٕज़ʹ͍ͭͯͷ֓؍Λཧղ l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ٕज़ͷݶքʹ͍ͭͯཧղ l ۙ೥ͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεରࡦͷਐలʹ͍ͭͯཧղ ໨ඪ

  3. 3 l'BLF/FXTzͱ͸ʁ

  4. 4 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT &YBNQMF &BSMZ'BLF/FXT Great Moon Hoax in 1835 by

    The Sun German Corpse Factory in WWI by The Times of London
  5. 5 ೥ΞϝϦΧେ౷ྖબڍ l બڍલϲ݄Ͱ໿ສճɺީิऀਓ τϥϯϓࢯ ΫϦϯτϯ ࢯ ͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔε͕'BDFCPPLͰ֦ࢄ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT &YBNQMF

    1. Allcott, Hunt, and Matthew Gentzkow. "Social media and fake news in the 2016 election." Journal of economic perspectives 31.2 (2017): 211-36.
  6. 6 $07*%ͱ'BLF/FXT 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT &YBNQMF Vitamin C cures COVID-19 5G network

    spreads COVID-19
  7. 7 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO

  8. 8 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO ໌֬ͳίϨͱ͍͏ఆٛ͸ଘࡏ͠ͳ͍

  9. 9 Secretary Brunnell Declares Fake News About His People is

    Being Telegraphed Over the Country. —Cincinnati Commercial Tribune (Concinnati, OH), 7 Jun. 1890 Fake News. The following is handed to us for publication: Sunday’s Enterprise says that I and a companion were run over by the Neptune and thrown into the water. As can be proved by more than one, we did not so much as get our feet wet, nor were we helped into the Neptune. Clarence Collins. —The Kearney Daily Hub (Kearney, NE), 7 Jul. 1890 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO 2. https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/the-real-story-of-fake-news
  10. 10 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO 2. https://www.merriam-webster.com/words-at-play/the-real-story-of-fake-news

  11. 11 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l &"7*ͷUZQFT 3. https://eavi.eu/beyond-fake-news-10-types-misleading-info/

  12. 12 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l $MBJSF8BSEMFͷUZQFTPGNJT BOEEJTJOGPSNBUJPO 4. https://firstdraftnews.org/fake-news-complicated/

  13. 13 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l 3FTFBSDI"SFB l ޿͍ఆٛ 'BLFOFXTJTGBMTFOFXT 

    ޡ৘ใͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͕ཁ݅ l ڱ͍ఆٛ 'BLFOFXTJTBOFXTBSUJDMFUIBUJTJOUFOUJPOBMMZ BOEWFSJGJBCMZGBMTF  ੡࡞ऀ͕ҙਤతͰ͋ΓޡͬͯΔ৘ใͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͕ཁ݅ 5. Zhou, Xinyi, and Reza Zafarani. "A survey of fake news: Fundamental theories, detection methods, and opportunities." ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 53.5 (2020): 1-40. 6. Lazer, David MJ, et al. "The science of fake news." Science 359.6380 (2018): 1094-1096. 7. Shu, Kai, et al. "Fake news detection on social media: A data mining perspective." ACM SIGKDD explorations newsletter 19.1 (2017): 22-36. 8. Allcott, Hunt, and Matthew Gentzkow. "Social media and fake news in the 2016 election." Journal of economic perspectives 31.2 (2017): 211-36.
  14. 14 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l 3FTFBSDI"SFB l ޿͍ఆٛ 'BLFOFXTJTGBMTFOFXT 

    ޡ৘ใͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͕ཁ݅ l ڱ͍ఆٛ 'BLFOFXTJTBOFXTBSUJDMFUIBUJTJOUFOUJPOBMMZ BOEWFSJGJBCMZGBMTF  ੡࡞ऀ͕ҙਤతͰ͋ΓޡͬͯΔ৘ใͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͕ཁ݅ 5. Zhou, Xinyi, and Reza Zafarani. "A survey of fake news: Fundamental theories, detection methods, and opportunities." ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 53.5 (2020): 1-40. 6. Lazer, David MJ, et al. "The science of fake news." Science 359.6380 (2018): 1094-1096. 7. Shu, Kai, et al. "Fake news detection on social media: A data mining perspective." ACM SIGKDD explorations newsletter 19.1 (2017): 22-36. 8. Allcott, Hunt, and Matthew Gentzkow. "Social media and fake news in the 2016 election." Journal of economic perspectives 31.2 (2017): 211-36. ࣮ࡍ͸ ɾ৘ใ͕ޡΓͰ͋Δ͔Ͳ͏͔ ɾϑΝΫτνΣοΫαΠτʹ൑அ͞Ε͔ͨ ͱ͍͏ཁૉͰ'BLF/FXTͱݺ͹ΕΔ͜ͱ͕΄ͱΜͲ
  15. 15 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l l'BLF/FXTzͱ͍͏༻ޠͷᐆດੑ l $MBJSF8BSEMFl'BLFOFXTJTXPFGVMMZJOBEFRVBUFUPEFTDSJCF UIFSFMBUFEJTTVFTBOEEJTUJOHVJTIFTCFUXFFOJOGPSNBUJPO DPOUFOUQSPCMFNTz

    l ӳࠃ੓෎ͷެࣜจॻͰz'BLF/FXTzͱ͍͏༻ޠΛ༻͍ͳ͍͜ͱͷܾఆ 9. https://money.cnn.com/2017/11/03/media/claire-wardle-fake-news-reliable-sources-podcast/index.html
  16. 16 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l ҟͳΔ؍఺Ͱͷ੔ཧ l %JTJOGPSNBUJPO ҙਤతʹޡͬͨ৘ใ l

    .JTJOGPSNBUJPO ҙਤతͰ͸ͳ͍͕ޡͬͨ৘ใ
  17. 17 'BLF/FXTͱ͸ʁ 8IBU`T'BLF/FXT %FGJOJUJPO l ҟͳΔ؍఺Ͱͷ੔ཧ l %JTJOGPSNBUJPO ҙਤతʹޡͬͨ৘ใ l

    .JTJOGPSNBUJPO ҙਤతͰ͸ͳ͍͕ޡͬͨ৘ใ ݸਓతʹ͸z'BLF/FXTzͱ͍͏༻ޠΛ༻͍ͣɺ͜ͷ؍఺Ͱޡͬͨ৘ใΛ ෼ྨ͍ͯ͘͠ͷ͕੔ཧ͠΍͍͢
  18. 18 ͳͥɺ'BLF/FXTΛ ରࡦ͢Δͷ͔ʁ

  19. 19 ͳͥ'BLF/FXTΛରࡦ͢Δͷ͔ʁ 10. https://www.newsweek.com/2017/06/16/big-data-mines-personal-info-manipulate-voters-623131.html

  20. 20 ͳͥ'BLF/FXTΛରࡦ͢Δͷ͔ʁ 11. https://www.npr.org/2018/07/18/629731693/fake-news-turns-deadly-in-india

  21. 21 ͳͥ'BLF/FXTΛରࡦ͢Δͷ͔ʁ 12. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2013/04/23/syrian-hackers-claim-ap-hack-that-tipped-stock-market-by-136-billion-is-it-terrorism/

  22. 22 ͳͥ'BLF/FXTΛରࡦ͢Δͷ͔ʁ 13. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/11/tackling-covid-19-misinformation-who/

  23. 23 ͳͥ'BLF/FXTΛରࡦ͢Δͷ͔ʁ 14. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASN2X6CXLN2XULFA03L.html 15. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASQ5D7X35Q5BULEI00R.html

  24. 24 'BLF/FXTͱιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞ ωοτ ͷ਌࿨ੑͷߴ͞ l ΞϝϦΧࡏॅͷେਓҎ্͕χϡʔεΛ4PDJBM.FEJB͔Βऔಘ l ೔ຊͰ΋ωοτΛ௨ͨ͡χϡʔεऔಘ͕૿Ճ 16. https://www.pewresearch.org/journalism/2021/01/12/news-use-across-social-media-platforms-in-2020/

    17. https://www.soumu.go.jp/johotsusintokei/linkdata/h27_06_houkoku.pdf
  25. 25 'BLF/FXTͱιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞ ωοτ ͷ਌࿨ੑͷߴ͞ l ถେ౷ྖબڍͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔε͕ϚέυχΞͰ࡞੒͞Ε ສυϧՔ͙ 18. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/fake-news-how-partying-macedonian-teen-earns-thousands-publishing-lies-n692451

  26. 26 l ೔ຊͰ͸ϛυϧϝσΟΞͷଘࡏ͕ιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞͰͷϑΣΠ Ϋχϡʔε֦ࢄͷҰ໾Λ୲͍ͬͯΔͱ͍͏ࢦఠ 19. https://www.soumu.go.jp/main_content/000749423.pdf 'BLF/FXTͱιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞ ωοτ ͷ਌࿨ੑͷߴ͞

  27. 27 l ʮڞ༗ʯ 3FUXFFU΍4IBSF ͱ͍͏γεςϜʹΑͬͯͭͷ౤ߘ ͕ଟ͘ͷਓؒͷ໨ʹ;ΕΔՄೳੑ͕ߴ͍ l 'BLF/FXT͸ਖ਼͍͠৘ใΑΓ΋଎͘఻ΘΓ΍͍͢ l &DIP$IBNCFS΍1PMBSJ[BUJPOͳͲͷޮՌ΋ؔ܎

    'BLF/FXTͱιʔγϟϧϝσΟΞ ωοτ ͷ਌࿨ੑͷߴ͞ 20. Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral. "The spread of true and false news online." science 359.6380 (2018): 1146-1151.
  28. 28 ೔ຊͷ'BLF/FXT

  29. 29 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO

  30. 30 ྫτΠϨοτϖʔύʔ૽ಈ JO$07*% 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO ೥݄೔͔Β೥݄೔ͷτΠϨοτϖʔύʔ͕ ؚΉ UXFFUT

  31. 31 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO

  32. 32 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO $07*%ʹΑΔτΠϨοτϖʔύʔ඼੾Ε౤ߘ 35ҎԼ ࡟আࡁΈ

  33. 33 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO ʮ$07*%ʹΑͬͯτΠϨοτϖʔύʔ͕඼ബ͸ޡΓʯ ͱ͍͏౤ߘ͕ສҎ্ͷ35

  34. 34 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO τΠϨοτϖʔύʔͷ඼੾Εͷใࠂ 21. より詳細な分析: ⿃海不⼆夫, 榊剛史, and 吉⽥光男. "ソーシャルメディアを⽤いた新型コロナ禍における感情変化の分析."

    ⼈⼯知能学会論⽂誌 35.4 (2020): F-K45_1.
  35. 35 ϑΝΫτνΣοΫػؔ'BDU$IFDL*OJUJBUJWF 'BLF/FXTJO+BQBO l ϑΝΫτνΣοΫͱ͸ɺൃ৴͞Εͨ৘ใ͕٬ ؍తࣄ࣮ʹجͮ͘΋ͷͳͷ͔Λௐࠪ͠ɺਖ਼֬ ͳ৘ใΛਓʑͱڞ༗͢Δߦҝɻ ਅِݕূ l ೔ຊͰ͸'BDU$IFDL*OJUJBUJWF+BQBO

    l ΞϝϦΧͰ͸4OPQFT΍1PMJUJGBDUͳͲ͕༗໊ l ϑΝΫτνΣοΫͷࠃࡍݪଇ
  36. 36 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ख๏ͷͨΊ l 2ͲͷΑ͏ͳ৘ใ͕͋Ε͹ಛఆͷ౤ߘ͕ʢਓ޻஌ೳ ػցֶश ʹΑͬͯʣϑΣΠΫχϡʔεͰ͋Δͱ൑அͰ͖Δ͔ʁ l 2ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεΛൃݟɾରࡦ͢ΔͨΊʹݕग़Ҏ֎ʹඞཁͳ ͜ͱ͸ʁ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ʹ޲͚ͯ

  37. 37 'BLF/FXT ݕग़Ϟσϧ

  38. 38 جຊతʹఏҊ͞ΕΔϞσϧͰ͸ҎԼͷ؍఺ͷ޻෉͕ߦΘΕΔ l ͲͷΑ͏ͳಛ௃Λ༻͍Δͷ͔ʁ l ༻͍ͨಛ௃Λ্ख͘׆༻Ͱ͖Δ͔ػցֶशϞσϧΛͲͷΑ͏ʹߏங ͢Δͷ͔ʁ l ʢ࠷ۙ͸ʣͲͷΑ͏ͳ෇ՃՁ஋ΛՃ͑Δͷ͔ʁʢ৴པੑͳͲʣ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ϟσϧͷ֓ཁ

    機械学習モデル フェイクニュースの 可能性のある投稿に 関する情報 (特徴量) ⼊⼒ 出⼒ Fake or True
  39. 39 l ೥ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ݚڀ͕੝ΜʹͳΓ࢝ΊΔ l d೥ࠒ ಛ௃ྔͷ࡞੒ͲͷΑ͏ͳಛ௃Λ༻͍Δͷ͔ʁ༻͍Δಛ௃ΛͲͷΑ ͏ʹ࡞੒͢Δͷ͔ʁ 'FBUVSF ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ϟσϧͷ֓ཁ

    機械学習モデル フェイクニュースの 可能性のある投稿に 関する情報 (特徴量) ⼊⼒ 出⼒ Fake or True 22. Castillo, Carlos, Marcelo Mendoza, and Barbara Poblete. "Information credibility on twitter." Proceedings of the 20th international conference on World wide web. 2011.
  40. 40 l ೥ࠒ dਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ "SDIJUFDUVSF l ೖྗͱ͞ΕΔಛ௃ΛʮͲͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠ʯޮ཰ྑ͘૊Έ߹ΘͤΔͷ͔ʁ l ಛ௃ྔͱͯ͠ར༻͠ʹ͔ͬͨ͘৘ใͷ׆༻ ը૾΍,OPXMFEHFHSBQI

    ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ϟσϧͷ֓ཁ 機械学習モデル フェイクニュースの 可能性のある投稿に 関する情報 (特徴量) ⼊⼒ 出⼒ Fake or True
  41. 41 l ೥ࠒ dݕग़ਫ਼౓Ҏ֎ͷՁ஋ͷ୳ࡧ l ৴པ౓ɾղऍੑͷ޲্ l ڭࢣͳ͠ʹΑΔϑΣΠΫχϡʔε୳ࡧ l ελϯεݕग़΍੓࣏ۃੑݕग़ͳͲͷଞλεΫͱಉֶ࣌श

    l σϞͳͲʹΑΔՄࢹԽ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ϟσϧͷ֓ཁ 機械学習モデル フェイクニュースの 可能性のある投稿に 関する情報 (特徴量) ⼊⼒ 出⼒ Fake or True 23. Shu, Kai, et al. "defend: Explainable fake news detection." Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery & data mining. 2019. 24. Gangireddy, Siva Charan Reddy, Cheng Long, and Tanmoy Chakraborty. "Unsupervised fake news detection: A graph-based approach." Proceedings of the 31st ACM conference on hypertext and social media. 2020. 25. Ghanem, Bilal, Paolo Rosso, and Francisco Rangel. "Stance detection in fake news a combined feature representation." Proceedings of the first workshop on fact extraction and VERification (FEVER). 2018. 26. Yang, Fan, Shiva K. Pentyala, Sina Mohseni, Mengnan Du, Hao Yuan, Rhema Linder, Eric D. Ragan, Shuiwang Ji, and Xia Hu. "Xfake: Explainable fake news detector with visualizations." In The World Wide Web Conference, pp. 3600-3604. 2019.
  42. 42 l 5XJUUFSͷ౤ߘ܈͔Βநग़ͨ͠ಛ௃ྔ͔Β5SVFͱ'BMTFΛ൑ఆɻ Ϟσϧ͸47.΍ܾఆ໦ͳͲΛར༻ ॳظϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ϟσϧl*OGPSNBUJPO$SFEJCJMJUZPO5XJUUFSz 27. Castillo, Carlos, Marcelo Mendoza,

    and Barbara Poblete. "Information credibility on twitter." Proceedings of the 20th international conference on World wide web. 2011. Message User Topic Propagation
  43. 43 ݕग़Ϟσϧͷ 'FBUVSF

  44. 44 ςΩετΛػցֶशʹೖྗ͢Δͱ͖ʹසൟ ʹ༻͍ΒΕΔྫ l #BHPGXPSET ޠΛҰҙͷ஋ʹׂΓ౰ͯΔ l /HSBNT ࿈ଓͨ͠ฒͼΛ֬཰Ͱදݱ l

    5'*%' ޠͷॏཁ౓ͷࢦඪ ୯ޠͷग़ݱස౓ͱจষؒͷ௝͠͞Ͱࢉग़ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ -FYJDPO US researchers discover a huge cat!!!! Over 5 meters… User A @userA \l64z  lSFTFBSDIFSTz  lEJTDPWFSz ʜ^ 1 lSFTFBSDIFSTzcl64z   1 lEJTDPWFSzczSFTFBSDIFSTz  l64zͷશग़ݱճ਺ º l64z͕ग़ݱ͢Δ௝͠͞
  45. 45 ߏจ໦ͷ׆༻ l 1BSU0G4QFFDI5BHT l $POUFYU'SFF(SBNNBST $'(T ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 4ZOUBY 28.

    Feng, Song, Ritwik Banerjee, and Yejin Choi. "Syntactic stylometry for deception detection." Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers). 2012. // lIPUFMz lBOZUIJOHz %5 lUIJTz /1 ˠ %5// 71 ˠ7#;/1
  46. 46 1TZDIPMJOHVJTUJDXPSETͷ׆༻ l ޠኮͷΧςΰϦࣙॻ -JOHVJTUJD*ORVJSZBOE8PSE$PVOU -*8$  ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 4FNBOUJD 29.

    Zhou, Xinyi, et al. "Fake news early detection: A theory-driven model." Digital Threats: Research and Practice 1.2 (2020): 1-25. 30. https://www.liwc.app/ 1PTJUJWFMPWF OJDF TXFFU /FHBUJWFIVSU VHMZ OBTUZ "OYJUFUZXPSSJFE GFBSGVM *OTJHIUUIJOL LOPX $BVTBUJPOCFDBVTF FGGFDU %JTDSFQBODZTIPVME XPVME
  47. 47 l 3FBEBCJMJUZࢦඪͷ׆༻ จষͷ௕͞΍ൃԻه߸ɺ୯ޠͷ೉͔͠͞ΒಡΈ΍͢͞Λ਺஋Խ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 4FNBOUJD 4XFBSGVDL EBNO TIJU /FUTQFBLCUX

    MPM UIY "TTFOUBHSFF 0, ZFT /POGMVFODJFTFS IN VNN
  48. 48 l ෼ࢄදݱͷ׆༻ l ޠΛϕΫτϧදݱͱͯ͠දͨ͠΋ͷ XPSEFNCFEEJOHͱ΋ l ʮ୯ޠͷҙຯ͸ɼपғͷ୯ޠʹΑͬͯܗ੒͞ΕΔʯͱ͍͏෼෍Ծઆʹجͮ ͍ͯɺޠͷҙຯදݱΛϕΫτϧͱֶͯ͠श l

    lLJOHr NBO XPNBORVFFOzͷΑ͏ͳ ྨਪ͕Մೳ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 4FNBOUJD
  49. 49 l ෼ࢄදݱͷ׆༻ l ޠͷ෼ࢄදݱͱͯ͠ͷ୅දྫ8PSE7FD l จॻͷ෼ࢄදݱͱͯ͠୅දྫ%PD7FD ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 4FNBOUJD ೣ

    ݘ ύϯμ Bag of Words Word2Vec ೣ\   ʜ^ ݘ\   ʜ^ ύϯμ\   ʜ^ ࣍ݩ 31. Mikolov, Tomas, et al. "Efficient estimation of word representations in vector space." arXiv preprint arXiv:1301.3781 (2013) 32. Le, Quoc, and Tomas Mikolov. "Distributed representations of sentences and documents." International conference on machine learning. PMLR, 2014.
  50. 50 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 29. Zhou, Xinyi, et al. "Fake news early

    detection: A theory-driven model." Digital Threats: Research and Practice 1.2 (2020): 1-25.
  51. 51 ͦͷଞͷςΩετಛ௃ྔ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧςΩετಛ௃ྔ 33. Zhou, Xinyi, and Reza Zafarani. "Fake

    news: A survey of research, detection methods, and opportunities." arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.00315 2 (2018).
  52. 52 Ϣʔβಛ௃ྔ l Ұ෦ͷϢʔβ͕සൟʹϑΣΠΫ χϡʔεΛ֦ࢄ͍ͯ͠Δ l #PUͳͲ΋ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε֦ࢄ ͷ໾ׂΛ୲͏ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧϢʔβಛ௃ྔ 34.

    Rath, Bhavtosh, Aadesh Salecha, and Jaideep Srivastava. "Detecting fake news spreaders in social networks using inductive representation learning." 2020 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). IEEE, 2020. 35. Murthy, Dhiraj, et al. "Automation, algorithms, and politics| Bots and political influence: A sociotechnical investigation of social network capital." International journal of communication 10 (2016): 20. 36. Ferrara, Emilio, et al. "The rise of social bots." Communications of the ACM 59.7 (2016): 96-104.
  53. 53 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ 37. Ma, Jing, et al. "Detect rumors using

    time series of social context information on microblogging websites." Proceedings of the 24th ACM international on conference on information and knowledge management. 2015. @userA CIKM2015 “Detect rumors using time series of social context information on microblogging websites” 旅⾏が⼤好き。旅⾏の写真を挙げます! アメリカ|インド|ロシア横断|アフリカ お腹が空いにゃん ペコペコだ たけし@旅⾏好き たけし@旅⾏好き @userA
  54. 54 ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεͱ௨ৗͷχϡʔεͰ͸఻ൖύλʔϯ͕ҟͳΔ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ 20. Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy,

    and Sinan Aral. "The spread of true and false news online." science 359.6380 (2018): 1146-1151.
  55. 55 ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεͱ௨ৗͷχϡʔεͰ͸఻ൖύλʔϯ͕ҟͳΔ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ 38. Kwon, Sejeong, et al.

    "Prominent features of rumor propagation in online social media." 2013 IEEE 13th international conference on data mining. IEEE, 2013.
  56. 56 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ 38. Zhou, Xinyi, and Reza Zafarani. "Fake news:

    A survey of research, detection methods, and opportunities." arXiv preprint arXiv:1812.00315 2 (2018). )PQCBTFEDBTDBEF 5JNFCBTFEDBTDBEF l ఻ൖάϥϑͷ࡞੒
  57. 57 l )BOEDSBGUFEGFBUVSFTͷநग़ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ 39. Kwon, Sejeong, et al. "Prominent

    features of rumor propagation in online social media." 2013 IEEE 13th international conference on data mining. IEEE, 2013.
  58. 58 l )BOEDSBGUFEGFBUVSFTͷநग़ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ -BSHFTUDPOOFDUFE DPNQPOFOU -$$  ωοτϫʔΫͷ࠷େ݁ ߹੒෼

    39. Kwon, Sejeong, et al. "Prominent features of rumor propagation in online social media." 2013 IEEE 13th international conference on data mining. IEEE, 2013.
  59. 59 l άϥϑΧʔωϧΛ༻͍ͨ఻ൖύλʔϯͷྨࣅ౓ʹΑΔ෼ྨ l 1SPQBHBUJPO5SFFಉ࢜ͷྨࣅ౓Λ3BOEPN8BML(SBQI,FSOFMΛ༻͍ ͯܭࢉ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ৘ใ఻೻ύλʔϯ 40. Wu, Ke,

    Song Yang, and Kenny Q. Zhu. "False rumors detection on sina weibo by propagation structures." 2015 IEEE 31st international conference on data engineering. IEEE, 2015.
  60. 60 ࣌ؒύλʔϯ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ࣌ؒύλʔϯ 41. Kwon, Sejeong, et al. "Prominent features

    of rumor propagation in online social media." 2013 IEEE 13th international conference on data mining. IEEE, 2013.
  61. 61 ࣌ؒύλʔϯ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ࣌ؒύλʔϯ 41. Kwon, Sejeong, et al. "Prominent features

    of rumor propagation in online social media." 2013 IEEE 13th international conference on data mining. IEEE, 2013. 42. Murayama, Taichi, Shoko Wakamiya, and Eiji Aramaki. "Fake news detection using temporal features extracted via point process." arXiv preprint arXiv:2007.14013 (2020). l ײછ঱ϞσϧʹΑΔϞσϧԽ l ఺աఔϞσϧʹΑΔϞσϧԽ
  62. 62 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧը૾৘ใ 43. Zhou, Xinyi, Jindi Wu, and Reza Zafarani.

    "Safe: similarity-aware multi-modal fake news detection (2020)." Preprint. arXiv 200304981 (2020). 44. Wang, Y., Tahmasbi, F., Blackburn, J., Bradlyn, B., De Cristofaro, E., Magerman, D., ... & Stringhini, G. (2021, June). Understanding the Use of Fauxtography on Social Media. In ICWSM (pp. 776-786). Fake news with image43 fauxtography44 ը૾৘ใ
  63. 63 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧը૾৘ใ 45. Jin, Zhiwei, et al. "Novel visual and

    statistical image features for microblogs news verification." IEEE transactions on multimedia 19.3 (2016): 598-608. ͭͷಛ௃ྔΛநग़ͯ͠ར༻ l 7JTVBM$MBSJUZ4DPSFը૾ͷ෼෍ͱίʔύ ε಺ͷը૾ͷ෼෍ͷҧ͍ l 7JTVBM$PIFSFODF4DPSFχϡʔεهࣄத ͷը૾ϖΞͷฏۉྨࣅ౓ l 7JTVBM4JNJMBSJUZ%JTUSJCVUJPO)JTUPHSBN ը૾ྨࣅ౓ͷ෼෍ώετάϥϜ l 7JTVBM%JWFSTJUZ4DPSFը૾ϖΞؒͷ EJTTJNJMBSJUZͷՃॏฏۉ l 7JTVBM$MVTUFSJOH4DPSFχϡʔεهࣄͷ ը૾Ϋϥελ਺ )BOEDSBGUFEը૾ಛ௃ʹΑΔϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़
  64. 64 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧωοτϫʔΫ৘ใ 5. Zhou, Xinyi, and Reza Zafarani. "A survey

    of fake news: Fundamental theories, detection methods, and opportunities." ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 53.5 (2020): 1-40. ωοτϫʔΫ৘ใ
  65. 65 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͷͨΊͷಛ௃ྔͷ୳ࡧ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ʹΑ͘༻͍ΒΕΔಛ௃ l ςΩετ৘ใ l Ϣʔβ৘ใ l ৘ใ఻ൖΧεέʔυ l

    ࣌ؒ৘ใ l ը૾ l ωοτϫʔΫ৘ใ
  66. 66 ݕग़Ϟσϧͷ "SDIJUFDUVSF

  67. 67 සൟʹ༻͍ΒΕΔਂ૚ֶशϞσϧ l 3FDVSSFOU/FVSBM/FUXPSL 3// l $POWPMVUJPOBM/FVSBM/FUXPSL $// l (SBQI/FVSBM/FUXPSL

    (// l 5SBOTGPSNFSCBTFE/FVSBM/FUXPSL ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ
  68. 68 3FDVSSFOU/FVSBM/FUXPSL 3// ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ Value Times l ࣌ؒͷભҠΛଊ͑ΔͨΊͷϞσϧɻ͜Ε·Ͱͷೖྗ͕কདྷͷ஋ʹ ӨڹΛ༩͑Δ

  69. 69 3FDVSSFOU/FVSBM/FUXPSL 3// ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 私 は うなぎ の 洋⾷

  70. 70 3FDVSSFOU/FVSBM/FUXPSL 3// ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 46, https://www.simplilearn.com/tutorials/deep-learning-tutorial/rnn l -45.΍(36ͳͲ΋ͦͷҰछ

  71. 71 $POWPMVUJPOBM/FVSBM/FUXPSL $// ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 47. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/convolutional-neural-networks l ৞ΈࠐΈχϡʔϥϧωοτϫʔΫͱ΋ l ը૾ͷҰ෦ྖҬΛϑΟϧλΛద༻͠ѹॖͨ͠ϕΫτϧΛ࡞੒

  72. 72 $POWPMVUJPOBM/FVSBM/FUXPSL $// ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 48. Borovykh, Anastasia, Sander Bohte, and

    Cornelis W. Oosterlee. "Dilated convolutional neural networks for time series forecasting." Journal of Computational Finance, Forthcoming (2018). l ը૾͚ͩͰͳ͘ɺςΩετ΍࣌ؒ৘ใʹ΋ద༻Մೳ SFG%JBMUFE $// Value Times
  73. 73 (SBQI/FVSBM/FUXPSL (// l ϊʔυͱΤοδͰߏ੒͞ΕΔάϥϑͷ৘ใΛଊ͑ΔͨΊͷϞσϧ l ΤοδΛ௨ͯ͡ߦΘΕΔ৘ใͷ఻ൖΛ༷ʑͳΞʔΩςΫνϟΛ༻ ͍ͯදݱ ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 49.

    Zhang, Ziwei, Peng Cui, and Wenwu Zhu. "Deep learning on graphs: A survey." IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (2020).
  74. 74 (SBQI/FVSBM/FUXPSL (// l $//CBTFEͷྫ֤ϊʔυͷ͙͢ྡͷϊʔυͱڞʹ৞ΈࠐΈ ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 49. Zhang, Ziwei, Peng

    Cui, and Wenwu Zhu. "Deep learning on graphs: A survey." IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering (2020).
  75. 75 5SBOTGPSNFSCBTFE/FVSBM/FUXPSL l ͜͜਺೥Ͱࣗવݴޠॲཧɺը૾ॲཧͷϝΠϯͱ ͳ͍ͬͯΔΞʔΩςΫνϟ l 1PTJUJPOBM&ODPEJOH .VMUJIFBE4FMG BUUFOUJPOͱ'FFE'PSXBSEͷ૊Έ߹ΘͤͰߏ੒ l

    5SBOTGPSNFS͸࣌ܥྻσʔλΛҰ౓ʹֶश ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ
  76. 76 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 4FMGBUUFOUJPO ⼊⼒系列の 潜在表現 系列⻑ × 次元数 Key :

    K Query: Q 𝑊! 𝑊" Value: V Attention Map : M 系列⻑ × 系列⻑ 𝑊# 𝑊$%& Output 𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥( 𝑄𝐾' 𝑑 )
  77. 77 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ 4FMGBUUFOUJPO ⼊⼒系列の 潜在表現 系列⻑ × 次元数 Key :

    K Query: Q 𝑊! 𝑊" Value: V Attention Map : M 系列⻑ × 系列⻑ 𝑊# 𝑊$%& Output 𝑠𝑜𝑓𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥( 𝑄𝐾' 𝑑 ) 興味があれば: https://qiita.com/enoughspacefor/items/c9810d1065741a7f461c த਎͸Ұ୴ஔ͍ͱ͍ͯɺɺɺ
  78. 78 "UUFOUJPO ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ l ֶशϞσϧ͕ॏࢹ͍ͯ͠Δ෦෼ ͷՄࢹԽ͕Մೳ

  79. 79 5SBOTGPSNFSCBTFE/FVSBM/FUXPSL 5SBOTGPSNFSʹΑͬͯೖྗ৘ใΛฒྻతʹଊ͑Δ͜ͱͰ l $//Ͱ͸ہॴతͳ෦෼͔͠ଊ͑ΒΕͳ͔ͬͨ l 3//Ͱ͸ޯ഑ফࣦ΍ܭࢉ࣌ؒͷ໰୊͕͋ͬͨ ͱ͍ͬͨ໰୊ʹରॲ ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷಋೖ

  80. 80 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 50. MA, Jing, et al. "Detecting rumors from

    microblogs with recurrent neural networks.(2016)." Proceedings of the 25th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2016). *+$"*.BFUBM (36 l ਂ૚ֶशϕʔεͷϞσϧΛ༻͍ͨ ॳظͷݚڀ l 3//CBTFEͰ͋Δ3//ʹ౤ߘΛೖྗ                  % #  %   %.  /      ! #&    %%((&&&                %/  0#      #$ $   &          ") * +               % ! #'  %%((&&&   %.  /      ! #&    %%((&&&
  81. 81 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 51. Ma, Jing, Wei Gao, and Kam-Fai Wong.

    "Rumor detection on twitter with tree-structured recursive neural networks." Association for Computational Linguistics, 2018. "$-.BFUBM 3W// l ໦ߏ଄ֶ͕शͰ͖Δ3FDVSTJWFOFVSBM OFUXPSLTΛ༻͍ͯ౤ߘ಺༰ͱฦ৴Χεέʔυ ͷܦ࿏Λೖྗͱֶͯ͠श l ฦ৴Ϣʔβ͸ɼϑΣΠΫχϡʔε΍ਖ਼͍͠ ৘ใΛ൱ఆ͢ΔϢʔβʹରͯ͠ҟΛএ͑ͨΓ ٙ໰Λ๊͘܏޲͕͋Δͱ͍͏ΞΠσΞ l Χεέʔυߏ଄Λద੾ʹֶशͰ͖ΔϞσϧΛ ద༻͢Δ͜ͱΛॳΊͯఏҊ True or Fake
  82. 82 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 52. Shu, Kai, et al. "defend: Explainable fake

    news detection." Proceedings of the 25th ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery & data mining. 2019. $*,.4IV,BJFUBM E&'&/% l "UUFOUJPOʹج͍ͮͯχϡʔεͷ಺༰ͱͦͷ ίϝϯτ͔ΒਅِΛ൑ఆ l "UUFUJPOΛ༻͍Δ͜ͱͰɺͦͷχϡʔεهࣄ͕ ϑΣΠΫͱ൑ఆ͞Εͨཧ༝ͱͳΔ্Ґͷ ίϝϯτΛಛఆ͢Δ͜ͱ͕Մೳ
  83. 83 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 53. Lu, Yi-Ju, and Cheng-Te Li. "GCAN: Graph-aware

    Co-Attention Networks for Explainable Fake News Detection on Social Media." Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 2020. "$- -V:J+VFUBM ($"/ l 35ͨ͠ϢʔβͷॱংΛ$//ͱ(36 ͰɺϢʔβؒͷؔ܎Λ(SBQI$//Ͱ ֶश l ౤ߘ಺༰ͱ35ΛߦͬͨϢʔβ ͷ৘ใͱ͍͏ݶΒΕͨ৘ใͰ ౤ߘͷਅِͷ༧ଌ͕Մೳͳ఺͕ಛ௃ RTしたユーザの情報
  84. 84 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 54. Shu, Kai, Suhang Wang, and Huan Liu.

    "Beyond news contents: The role of social context for fake news detection." Proceedings of the twelfth ACM international conference on web search and data mining. 2019. 84%.4IV,BJFUBM 5SJ'/
  85. 85 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 84%.4IV,BJFUBM 5SJ'/

  86. 86 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 55. Tian, Lin, Xiuzhen Jenny Zhang, and Jey

    Han Lau. "DUCK: Rumour Detection on Social Media by Modelling User and Comment Propagation Networks." Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies. 2022. /""$- 5JBO-JO FUBM %6$, l ίϝϯτΛ5SBOTGPSNFSϕʔεͷϞσϧͰɺίϝϯτΛߦͬͨϢʔβ ͷΧεέʔυΛ(SBQI"UUFOUJPO/FUXPSLTͰֶश
  87. 87 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 56. Wang, Yaqing, et al. "Eann: Event adversarial

    neural networks for multi-modal fake news detection." Proceedings of the 24th acm sigkdd international conference on knowledge discovery & data mining. 2018. ,%% 5JBO-JO FUBM &"// l ը૾ͱςΩετ͔Β$//ϕʔεͷϞσϧΛ༻͍ͯɺϑΣΠΫχϡʔε ͔Ͳ͏͔Λ൑ఆ͢Δॳظͷݚڀ
  88. 88 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 57. Qian, Shengsheng, et al. "Hierarchical multi-modal contextual

    attention network for fake news detection." Proceedings of the 44th International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. 2021. 4*(*3 2JBO 4IFOHTIFOH FUBM 4QPU'BLF
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  91. 91 ϑΝΠϧ ϑΝΠϧ l .PEFMQSFQSPDFTTJOH .PEFMͷͨΊʹར༻͢Δσʔληοτ 5XJUUFS ͷલॲཧ l .PEFM

    5XJUUFSͷσʔλΛ༻͍ͯϑΣΠΫχϡʔε෼ྨ l .PEFM σʔληοτ $POTUSBJOU Λ༻͍ͯ#&35ʹΑΔϑΣΠΫχϡʔε෼ྨ l 1SBDUJDF/-1 
  92. 92 σʔληοτ ϑΝΠϧ l 5XJUUFS5XJUUFS GPS.PEFM  l 5XJUUFS5XJUUFSϑΥϧμJEQJDLMF KTPOͰ֤౤ߘͷ৘ใ

    l UXJUUFSMBCFMUYU֤ྻʹɺzJE ϥϕϧzؚ͕·ΕΔ l 5XJUUFSQSPDFTTJOHQJDLMF લॲཧࡁΈσʔλɻ -JTUσʔλͰอଘ͞Εɺ֤Ϧετʹ\JE MBCFM <౤ߘɺϢʔβಛ௃ྔ>^ؚ͕ ·ΕΔ l $POTUSBJOU GPS.PEFM  58. Ma, Jing, Wei Gao, and Kam-Fai Wong. "Detect rumors in microblog posts using propagation structure via kernel learning." Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017. 59. Patwa, Parth, et al. "Overview of constraint 2021 shared tasks: Detecting english covid-19 fake news and hindi hostile posts." International Workshop on Combating On line Ho stile Posts in Regional Languages during Emergency Situation. Springer, Cham, 2021.
  93. 93 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़        

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  94. 94 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ 58. Liu, Yang, and Yi-Fang Wu. "Early detection

    of fake news on social media through propagation path classification with recurrent and convolutional networks." Proceedings of the AAAI conference on artificial intelligence. Vol. 32. No. 1. 2018. """*-JV :BOH FUBM 11$
  95. 95 ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧCBTFEͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ .PEFM

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  97. 97 σʔληοτ ϑΝΠϧ l 5XJUUFS5XJUUFS GPS.PEFM  l 6TFSGFBUVSFT

  98. 98 ೔ຊޠͰͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ l ӳޠͰ͸ଟ͘ଘࡏ͢Δ ͕ɺ೔ຊޠͰ࢖͑Δσʔληοτ Ϧι ʔε͕΄ͱΜͲଘࡏ͠ͳ͍ ·ͩ·ͩݚڀతͳ։୓ͷ༨஍͕͋Δ l 'BLF/FXT%FUFDUJPO

    /JTIJLBגࣜձࣾ  ίϯϖςΟγϣϯ༻ͷσʔληοτɻੜ੒΋ͰΔ HQU Ͱ࡞੒͞Εͨϑ ΣΠΫχϡʔεͷͨΊɺ࣮ࡍͷϑΣΠΫχϡʔεͰ͸ͳ͍ɻ l +BQBOFTF 'BLF/FXT%BUBTFU '$*Λݩʹ࡞੒ͨ͠σʔληοτɻΞϊςʔγϣϯϥϕϧͷఏҊ͕ϝΠϯ ͨͩɺݕग़ϞσϧΛߏங͢Δʹ͸σʔλ͕গͳ͗͢Δɻ ʢݱࡏɺ௥Ճ༧ఆʜʣ 64. Murayama, Taichi. "Dataset of fake news detection and fact verification: A survey." arXiv preprint arXiv:2111.03299 (2021). 65. https://www.nishika.com/competitions/27/summary 66, Murayama, Taichi, et al. "Annotation-Scheme Reconstruction for" Fake News" and Japanese Fake News Dataset." arXiv preprint arXiv:2204.02718 (2022).
  99. 99 ࣮ࡍʹϑΣΠΫχϡʔεΛݕग़͢ΔͨΊʹ l 2 ࠓճ঺հͨ͠Α͏ͳػցֶशϞσϧͰ͸ݱ࣮ͷϑΣΠΫχϡ ʔεΛݕग़͢Δͷʹ͍͔ͭ͘՝୊͕͋Δɻߟ͑ΒΕΔ՝୊ͱ͸ʁ l 2ͦͷ՝୊Λղܾ͢ΔͨΊʹߟ͑ΒΕΔରࡦ΍ख๏ͱ͸ʁ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ʹ޲͚ͯ

  100. 100 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ l ೥ͷશͯͷ5XJUUFS౤ߘ਺ԯ౤ߘҎ্ l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε͸ਖ਼͍͠χϡʔεͷഒ଎͘5XJUUFSͰ֦ࢄ͞Ε Δ 59. https://blog.twitter.com/official/en_us/a/2014/the-2014-yearontwitter.html 20.

    Vosoughi, Soroush, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral. "The spread of true and false news online." science 359.6380 (2018): 1146-1151. શͯͷωοτίϯςϯπΛݕূ͢Δͷ͸ෆՄೳʂ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεͷݕग़͸ૣΊʹߦΘͳ͚Ε͹͙֦͢ࢄ͢Δʂ
  101. 101 ݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ 'BDU7FSJGJDBUJPO

  102. 102 ྫ$-&'$IFDL5IBU-BC 60. Nakov, Preslav, et al. "Overview of the

    CLEF–2021 CheckThat! lab on detecting check-worthy claims, previously fact-checked claims, and fake news." International Conference of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum for European Languages. Springer, Cham, 2021. ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ
  103. 103 $IFDL8PSUIJOFTTFTUJNBUJPO ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$IFDL8PSUIJOFTTFTUJNBUJPO l େྔͷ$MBJNT ౤ߘ ͷத͔Βݕূ͢΂͖ٙΘ͍͠ओுΛൃݟ  ϥϯΫ෇͚

  104. 104 ݕূ͢΂͖ओுͱ͸ʁ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$IFDL8PSUIJOFTTFTUJNBUJPO l ֦ࢄ͞Ε͍ͯΔ l ݕূՄೳͳࣄ࣮ͷओுؚ͕·Ε͍ͯΔ͔ʁ l Ͳͷఔ౓ޡΓͷ౤ߘʹݟ͑Δ͔ʁ l

    ࣾձ΍ݸਓʹରͯ͠༗֐͔ʁ l ͦͷओுΛϓϩ͕ϑΝΫτνΣοΫ͢΂͖͔ʁ ҎԼͷ৚݅Λຬͨ͢΋ͷ 60. Nakov, Preslav, et al. "Overview of the CLEF–2021 CheckThat! lab on detecting check-worthy claims, previously fact-checked claims, and fake news." International Conference of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum for European Languages. Springer, Cham, 2021.
  105. 105 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$IFDL8PSUIJOFTTFTUJNBUJPO /""$-+BSBEBU *TSBBFUBM $MBJN3BOL l ೖྗͨ͠ςΩετͷ֤จষΛɺݕূ͢΂͖͔ग़ྗ͢ΔϞσϧσϞΛ࡞੒ l σΟϕʔτσʔλͱχϡʔεϝσΟΞͷݕূ݁ՌͰֶश 61.

    Jaradat, Israa, et al. "ClaimRank: Detecting Check-Worthy Claims in Arabic and English." Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations. 2018.
  106. 106 7FSJGJFE$MBJNSFUSJFWBM ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ7FSJGJFEDMBJNSFUSJFWBM l աڈͷϑΝΫτνΣοΫهࣄͳͲͰɺͦͷओு͕طʹݕূ͞Εͯ ͍Δ͔Ͳ͏͔Λݕࡧ͢ΔλεΫ

  107. 107 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ7FSJGJFEDMBJNSFUSJFWBM "$-4IBBS 4IBEFOFUBM ,OPXO-JF l 7FSJGJFEDMBJNSFUSJFWBMλεΫΛॳΊͯఆࣜԽ l 3BOLJOHख๏Λ༻͍Δ͜ͱͰɺςΩετྨࣅ౓ΑΓ΋ߴ͍ਫ਼౓Ͱݕग़Ͱ͖Δ ͜ͱΛࣔ͢

    62. Shaar, Shaden, et al. "That is a Known Lie: Detecting Previously Fact-Checked Claims." Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 2020.
  108. 108 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ7FSJGJFEDMBJNSFUSJFWBM &./-17P /HVZFO FUBM ."/ l ը૾Λ૊Έ߹ΘͤΔ͜ͱͰΑΓߴ͍ਫ਼౓ͰݕূࡁΈ͔Ͳ͏͔Λݕग़ 63. Vo,

    Nguyen, and Kyumin Lee. "Where Are the Facts? Searching for Fact-checked Information to Alleviate the Spread of Fake News." Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP). 2020.
  109. 109 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ7FSJGJFEDMBJNSFUSJFWBM $*,.4IFOH 2JBOB 1SFG'&/% 64. Sheng, Qiang, et al.

    "Integrating pattern-and fact-based fake news detection via model preference learning." Proceedings of the 30th ACM International Conference on Information & Knowledge Management. 2021. l ϑΝΫτνΣοΫʹج͍ͮͨݕग़ͱ ύλʔϯʹΑΔݕग़Λ૊Έ߹Θͤͨ ಈత(SBQI/FUXPSLϞσϧͷఏҊ
  110. 110 4VQQPSUJOHFWJEFODFSFUSJFWBM ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ4VQQPSUJOHFWJEFODFSFUSJFWBM l 8FC্͔ΒओுΛิڧ͢ΔFWJEFODFΛ୳ࡧ͢ΔλεΫ

  111. 111 4VQQPSUJOHFWJEFODFSFUSJFWBM ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ4VQQPSUJOHFWJEFODFSFUSJFWBM l $MBJNWFSJGJDBUJPOλεΫͱηοτʹͳΔ ͜ͱ͕ଟ͍ l DMBJNWFSJGJDBUJPOλεΫͷFWJEFODFͱͯ͠8FCݕࡧϖʔδ͕ఏڙ l 8FCϖʔδͷ୅ΘΓʹ8JLJQFEJBϖʔδ͕༻͍ΒΕΔ

    l λεΫఆ͕ٛ೉͍͠ PS$MBJNWFSJGJDBUJPOʹแׅ͞Ε͍ͯΔͨΊ ͜ͷλεΫ୯ମͷΈͰऔΓ૊·ΕΔ͜ͱ͸΄ͱΜͲͳ͍
  112. 112 $MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO l 'BLF/FXTݕग़ͱൺݞ͢ΔॏཁλεΫ ࠷ۙͰ͸ͪ͜Βͷํ͕ओྲྀ

  113. 113 $MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO

  114. 114 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO "$-4IFOH 2JBOB 4FNBOUJD-FWFM(SBQI 67. Zhong, Wanjun, et al.

    "Reasoning Over Semantic-Level Graph for Fact Checking." Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 2020.
  115. 115 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO "$-4IFOH 2JBOB 4FNBOUJD-FWFM(SBQI 67. Zhong, Wanjun, et al.

    "Reasoning Over Semantic-Level Graph for Fact Checking." Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 2020.
  116. 116 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO "$-4IFOH 2JBOB 4FNBOUJD-FWFM(SBQI 67. Zhong, Wanjun, et al.

    "Reasoning Over Semantic-Level Graph for Fact Checking." Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics. 2020.
  117. 117 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO *$-3$IFO 8FOIV FUBM5BC'BDU l ςʔϒϧσʔλΛFWJEFODFͱͨ͠GBDUWFSJGJDBUJPOλεΫ 68. Chen, Wenhu,

    et al. "TabFact: A Large-scale Dataset for Table-based Fact Verification." International Conference on Learning Representations. 2019.
  118. 118 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO *$-3$IFO 8FOIV FUBM5BC'BDU l ςʔϒϧσʔλΛFWJEFODFͱͨ͠GBDUWFSJGJDBUJPOλεΫ 68. Chen, Wenhu,

    et al. "TabFact: A Large-scale Dataset for Table-based Fact Verification." International Conference on Learning Representations. 2019.
  119. 119 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO "$-(VQUB 1SBLIBS FUBM%JBM'BDU l ର࿩σʔλΛFWJEFODFͱͨ͠GBDUWFSJGJDBUJPOλεΫͷఏҊ 69. Gupta, Prakhar,

    et al. "DialFact: A Benchmark for Fact-Checking in Dialogue." Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers). 2022.
  120. 120 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO &./-18BEEFO %BWJE FUBM 4$*'"$5 l Պֶ࿦จΛFWJEFODFͱͨ͠GBDUWFSJGJDBUJPOλεΫͷఏҊ 70. Wadden,

    David, et al. "Fact or Fiction: Verifying Scientific Claims." Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP). 2020.
  121. 121 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ҏ֎ͷλεΫ$MBJN7FSJGJDBUPO'BDU7FSJJGBUJPO 84%.7FEVMB /JLIJUB FUBM 'BDFLFH l ,OPXMFEHF#BTF͔Βؔ࿈஌ࣝάϥϑΛ࡞੒͠DMBJNͷਖ਼͠ ͞Λݕূ͢ΔϞσϧ 71.

    Vedula, Nikhita, and Srinivasan Parthasarathy. "Face-keg: Fact checking explained using knowledge graphs." Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Web Search and Data Mining. 2021.
  122. 122 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ l 2ػցֶशʹΑΔϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़΍'BDU7FSJGJDBUJPOͷ ݁ՌΛϢʔβ͸৴͡Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δͷ͔ʁ ʢ৴ͤ͡͞ΔͨΊͷࢪࡦͱ͸ʁʣ l 2ͦ΋ͦ΋ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε͕ੜ·Εͳ͍ʢ཈੍͢Δʣ౔৕͸ ͲͷΑ͏ʹͯ͠࡞ΕΔͷ͔ʁ l

    2ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε͕ੜ·ΕͨޙʹͦͷӨڹΛ؇࿨͢ΔͨΊʹ ͸ͲͷΑ͏ͳख๏͕ߟ͑ΒΕΔ͔ʁ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ
  123. 123 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ

  124. 124 ػցֶशϞσϧͷݶք l ೥ͷσʔλͰߏஙͨ͠ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़Ϟσϧ͕ ೥ͷσʔλʹରԠͰ͖Δͷ͔ʁ EJBDISPOJDCJBTͷଘࡏ l ϞσϧΛຖ೥ߋ৽͠ଓ͚Δͱ͍͏ͷ͸େม l ߏங͞ΕΔػցֶशϞσϧͷ൑அ͸ਖ਼͍͠Θ͚Ͱ͸ͳ͍

    l ਖ਼͍͠৘ใΛϑΣΠΫͱࢦఠ͢Δةݥੑʹ͍ͭͯ ِཅੑ΍ِӄੑ l ػցֶशϞσϧͷϒϥοΫϘοΫε໰୊ l ൑அͷࠜڌ΍࢓૊Έ͕Θ͔Βͳ͍ͱਓؒ͸ͦͷϞσϧΛ৴͖͡Εͳ͍ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ 72. Jones-Jang, S. Mo, Tara Mortensen, and Jingjing Liu. "Does media literacy help identification of fake news? Information literacy helps, but other literacies don’t." American Behavioral Scientist 65.2 (2021): 371-388.
  125. 125 ࣌ؒతͳྲྀΕʹͲͷΑ͏ʹରԠ͢Δ͔ʁ l /&-"(5γϦʔζຖ೥σʔληοτΛߋ৽ɾެ։ l ਂ૚ֶशϞσϧͷਐల l $POUJOVPVT-FBSOJOH l -JGFMPOH-FBSOJOH

    l ,OPXMFEHFCBTFE.PEFM ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ 72. Gruppi, Maurício, Benjamin D. Horne, and Sibel Adalı. "NELA-GT-2021: A Large Multi-Labelled News Dataset for The Study of Misinformation in News Articles." arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.05659 (2022). 73. Laal, Marjan, and Peyman Salamati. "Lifelong learning; why do we need it?." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 31 (2012): 399-403.
  126. 126 ϦςϥγʔͱϑΣΠΫχϡʔε ϦςϥγʔΛͭʹ෼ྨ l ϝσΟΞϦςϥγʔϝσΟΞ৘ใΛ෼ੳɾൃ৴͢Δೳྗ l χϡʔεϦςϥγʔχϡʔεΛݕࡧɾࣝผ͢Δೳྗ l σδλϧϦςϥγʔΠϯλʔωοτʹؔ͢Δ৘ใΛಡΈऔΓɺॻ͖ࠐΈɺදࣔɺ࡞੒͢ Δೳྗ

    l ৘ใϦςϥγʔ৘ใΛద੾ʹ൑அ͠ɺͦΕʹج͍ܾͮͯఆ͢Δೳྗ ͜ͷ͏ͪɺ৘ใϦςϥγʔ͕ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεΛݟ෼͚ΔՄೳੑΛ༗ҙʹߴΊ Δ͜ͱΛࣔ͢ 㱺ϦςϥγʔΛߴΊΔ͜ͱ͕ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε֦ࢄ཈੍ʹ༗ޮ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ 74. Jones-Jang, S. Mo, Tara Mortensen, and Jingjing Liu. "Does media literacy help identification of fake news? Information literacy helps, but other literacies don’t." American Behavioral Scientist 65.2 (2021): 371-388.
  127. 127 (VBSEJBOͷ׆༻ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ       

     l (VBSEJBOϑΣΠΫχϡʔεΛࢦఠ͢Δ Ϣʔβ l (VBSEJBOΛࣗಈతʹൃݟɺੜ੒͢Δ ͜ͱͰϑΝΫτνΣοΫίετͷ࡟ݮ l గਖ਼Ϣʔβ͕ެࣜΞΧ΢ϯτͳͲͰ͋Δ ͱޡใͷࢦఠΛ৴͡ΔՄೳੑ͕Ξοϓ 75 Hannak, Aniko, et al. "Get back! you don’t know me like that: The social mediation of fact checking interventions in twitter conversations." Eighth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media. 2014. 76. Vo, Nguyen, and Kyumin Lee. "Learning from fact-checkers: analysis and generation of fact-checking language." Proceedings of the 42nd International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. 2019. 77 Seo, Haeseung, et al. "If You Have a Reliable Source, Say Something: Effects of Correction Comments on COVID-19 Misinformation." Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Vol. 16. 2022.
  128. 128 ϓϥοτϑΥʔϜͷରࡦ'BDFCPPL ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ 78 https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-52309094

  129. 129 ϓϥοτϑΥʔϜͷରࡦ5XJUUFS ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ 79. https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/social-media/twitter-launches-birdwatch-forum-combat-misinformation-n1255552 80. https://www.npr.org/2020/10/09/922028482/twitter-expands-warning-labels-to-slow-spread-of-election-misinformation

  130. 130 ϓϥοτϑΥʔϜܯࠂͷ༗ޮੑ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ l ܯࠂΛ୯७ʹఏࣔ͢ΔΑΓ΋ɺܯࠂϥϕϧ Λੜ੒͢Δཧ༝Λఏࣔ͢Δ͜ͱͰܯࠂϥϕ ϧΛ৴͡ΔՄೳੑ্͕ঢ l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़ͳͲͷ౤ߘγεςϜ ʹ͓͍ͯ"UUFOUJPOͳͲͷՄࢹԽ͸ͦ͜·Ͱ

    ༗ޮͰ͸ͳ͍ 81. Epstein, Ziv, et al. "Do explanations increase the effectiveness of AI-crowd generated fake news warnings?." Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. Vol. 16. 2022. 82. Mohseni, Sina, et al. "Machine Learning Explanations to Prevent Overtrust in Fake News Detection. Proceedings of the International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media. 2021.
  131. 131 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε؇࿨ख๏ͷݕ౼ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεݕग़λεΫͷҰาઌ 83. Abouzeid, Ahmed, et al. "Learning automata-based

    misinformation mitigation via Hawkes processes." Information Systems Frontiers 23.5 (2021): 1169-1188. 84: Abouzeid, Ahmed, et al. "Socially Fair Mitigation of Misinformation on Social Networks via Constraint Stochastic Optimization." arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.12537 (2022). ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε.JUJHBUJPOͷͨΊͷཧ࿦తݚڀ͕ ۙ೥૿Ճ l ਅͷ৘ใΛ֦ࢄͯ͠ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεʹର߅͢Δ ϑϨʔϜϫʔΫͷఏҊ l ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεʹײછͨ͠ϢʔβΛൃݟ͠ɺҟ ͳΔίϛϡχςΟΛਪન͢ΔϑϨʔϜϫʔΫͷఏ Ҋ ࣮ূݚڀ΋ͦΖͦΖग़͖ͯͦ͏ʜ
  132. 132 ϑΣΠΫχϡʔε ʹؔ࿈͢Δ໰୊

  133. 133 ΤίʔνΣϯόʔ ෼ۃԽ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεʹؔ࿈͢Δ໰୊ 85. Jamieson, Kathleen Hall, and Joseph

    N. Cappella. Echo chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the conservative media establishment. Oxford University Press, 2008. 86. Cossard, Alessandro, et al. "Falling into the echo chamber: the Italian vaccination debate on Twitter." Proceedings of the International AAAI conference on web and social media. Vol. 14. 2020. l lൃ৴͞ΕͨϝοηʔδΛ֦େ͠ɺ൓࿦͕དྷͳ͘ͳΔՄೳੑΛ࣋ͭࣅͨ΋ͷ ಉ࢜Ͱܨ͕ͬͨด͟͞Εۭͨؒz
  134. 134 ΤίʔνΣϯόʔ ෼ۃԽ ϑΣΠΫχϡʔεʹؔ࿈͢Δ໰୊ 87. Cinelli, Matteo, et al. "The

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