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(re)discovering the SPL - PHP|Tek 12

(re)discovering the SPL - PHP|Tek 12

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Joshua Thijssen

May 24, 2012
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  1. (re)discovering PHP|Tek - Chicago - USA May 24, 2012 the

    Standard PHP Library
  2. Joshua Thijssen Freelance consultant, developer and trainer @ NoxLogic /

    Techademy Development in PHP, Python, Perl, C, Java.... Blog: http://adayinthelifeof.nl Email: jthijssen@noxlogic.nl Twitter: @jaytaph 2 Oh hai!
  3. 3 History

  4. ➡ Interfaces ➡ Iterators ➡ Data structures ➡ Exceptions ➡

    Miscellaneous functionality 4 Standard PHP Library
  5. 5 Let’s not talk about that.

  6. 6 Let’s talk about the fun and freaky stuff!

  7. 7 Don’t get scared! The SPL is awesomesauce!

  8. 8 SPL Documentation http://www.php.net/spl

  9. 9

  10. ➡ Not enough documentation. ➡ Very few examples. ➡ Wrong

    / missing in some cases. 10
  11. ➡ Adaption of the SPL will only occur when developers

    can become familiar with it. ➡ There is currently no real way to familiarize yourself with the SPL. ➡ :( 11
  12. 12 INTERFACES

  13. ➡ Predefined interfaces ➡ “SPL” interfaces ➡ Some interfaces will

    “hook” into the PHP core. 13
  14. 14 Traversable

  15. ➡ Traversable cannot be implemented. ➡ Traversable can be detected

    (instanceof). ➡ foreach() will use traversable interfaces. 15
  16. 16 Countable

  17. countable $a = array(1, 2, 3); $it = new myIterator($a);

    print count($it); 1 17
  18. countable class myCountableIterator extends myIterator implements Countable { function count()

    { return count($this->_arr); } } $a = array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5); $it = new myCountableIterator($a); print count($it); 5 18
  19. countable class myCountableIterator extends myIterator implements Countable { function count()

    { return count($this->_arr); } } $a = array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5); $it = new myCountableIterator($a); $it = new limitIterator($it, 0, 3); print count($it); 1 19
  20. 20 SeekableIterator

  21. ➡ It’s not an iterator, it’s an interface. ➡ seek()

    ➡ Implementing “seekableIterator” can speed up other iterators. ➡ LimitIterator makes use of “seekableIterator” 21
  22. 22 Iterator

  23. Iterators $dir = opendir("."); while (($file = readdir($dir)) !== false)

    { print "file: $file\n"; } Let’s read directory content 23
  24. Iterators $dir = opendir("."); while (($file = readdir($dir)) !== false)

    { if (! preg_match('|\.mp3$|i', $file)) { continue; } print "file: $file\n"; } 24 Filter on *.mp3
  25. Iterators ➡ Filter all MP3 and all JPG files. ➡

    Filter all MP3 files that are larger than 6MB. ➡ Do not filter at all. ➡ Search sub-directories as well. ➡ Search multiple directories. 25
  26. Iterators ➡ How to test? ➡ How to maintain? ➡

    How to reuse? 26 $dir = opendir("."); while (($file = readdir($dir)) !== false) { if (! preg_match('|\.mp3$|i', $file)) { continue; } print "file: $file\n"; }
  27. Iterators $it = new DirectoryIterator("."); foreach ($it as $fi) {

    print "File: ".$fi->getPathname()."\n"; } 27 Directory Iterator
  28. Iterators $it = new DirectoryIterator("."); $it = new RegexIterator($it, "/\.mp3$/i");

    foreach ($it as $fi) { print "File: ".$fi->getPathname()."\n"; } 28 Directory Iterator + filtering
  29. Iterators $it = new DirectoryIterator("."); $it = new RegexIterator($it, "/\.mp3$/i");

    $it = new FilesizeIterator($it, 6 * 1024 * 1024); $it = new LimitIterator($it, 10, 5); foreach ($it as $fi) { print "File: ".$fi->getPathname()."\n"; } 29 Iterator chaining
  30. Iterators ✓ Reusable We can use iterators where ever we

    want. ✓ Testable Iterators can be tested separately. ✓ Maintainable No need to adapt our business logic. 30
  31. Iterators Iterator extends Traversable { /* Methods */ abstract public

    mixed current ( void ) abstract public scalar key ( void ) abstract public void next ( void ) abstract public void rewind ( void ) abstract public boolean valid ( void ) } 31
  32. Iterators reset($a); while (current($a) !== false) { $key = key($a);

    $current = current($a); print “K: $key C: $current\n”; next($a); } Rewind() valid() 32
  33. 33 ITERATORS

  34. SPL Iterators ➡ AppendIterator ➡ ArrayIterator ➡ CachingIterator ➡ CallbackFilterIterator

    ➡ DirectoryIterator ➡ EmptyIterator ➡ FilesystemIterator ➡ FilterIterator ➡ GlobIterator ➡ InfiniteIterator ➡ IteratorIterator ➡ LimitIterator ➡ MultipleIterator ➡ NoRewindIterator ➡ ParentIterator ➡ RecursiveArrayIterator ➡ RecursiveCachingIterator ➡ RecursiveCallbackFilterIterator ➡ RecursiveDirectoryIterator ➡ RecursiveFilterIterator ➡ RecursiveIteratorIterator ➡ RecursiveRegexIterator ➡ RecursiveTreeIterator ➡ RegexIterator ➡ SimpleXMLIterator 34
  35. SPL Iterators 35 http://lxr.php.net/xref/PHP_5_3/ext/spl/internal/

  36. ➡ IteratorIterator? ➡ RecursiveIterator? ➡ RecursiveIteratorIterator? ➡ RecursiveCallbackFilterIterator? ➡ Really!?!?

    36
  37. 37 IteratorIterator

  38. 38 Turns traversable “things” into an iterator

  39. 39 $it = new myIterator(); if ($it instanceof IteratorAggregate) {

    $it = $it->getIterator(); } $it = new LimitIterator($it, 5, 10);
  40. 40 $it = new myIterator(); $it = new IteratorIterator($it); $it

    = new LimitIterator($it, 5, 10);
  41. 41 Recursive*Iterator

  42. 42 $it = new ArrayIterator( array(“foo”, “bar”, array(“qux”, “wox”), “baz”));

    foreach ($it as $v) { print $v . “\n”; } foo bar Array baz
  43. 43 $it = new RecursiveArrayIterator( array(“foo”, “bar”, array(“qux”, “wox”), “baz”));

    foreach ($it as $v) { print $v . “\n”; } foo bar Array baz
  44. 44 $it = new RecursiveArrayIterator( array(“foo”, “bar”, array(“qux”, “wox”), “baz”));

    $it = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($it); foreach ($it as $v) { print $v . “\n”; } foo bar qux wox baz
  45. 45 “Recursive” iterators add the POSSIBILITY to recursively iterate over

    data. You still need to implement it!
  46. 46 RecursiveCallbackFilterIterator

  47. ➡ Enables recursivity ➡ Is a filter iterator (does not

    necessarily return all the elements) ➡ Filters through a callback function. 47
  48. 48 $it = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator(“/”); $it = new RecursiveCallbackFilterIterator($it, function

    ($value, $key, $it) { if ($value->isDir()) { return true; } return ($value->getSize() < 1024); }); $it = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($it); foreach ($it as $item) { print $item->getSize() . “ “ . $item->getPathName().”\n”; }
  49. 49 CachingIterator

  50. 50 2 for the price of 1

  51. 51 ➡ Lookahead iterator ➡ Caches values ➡ Powerful __tostring()

    functionality
  52. 52 $alphaIterator = new ArrayIterator(range("A", "Z")); $it = new CachingIterator($alphaIterator);

    foreach ($it as $v) { if (! $it->hasNext()) { print "last letter: "; } print $v . "\n"; } // A // ... // Y // last letter: Z
  53. 53 $alphaIterator = new ArrayIterator(range("A", "Z")); $it = new CachingIterator($alphaIterator);

    foreach ($it as $v) { if (! $it->hasNext()) { print "last letter: "; } print $v . "\n"; } print "The fourth letter of the alphabet is: ".$it[3]."\n";
  54. 54 It doesn’t use the cached data!

  55. 55 DATA STRUCTURES

  56. SPL Data Structures 56 ➡ SplDoublyLinkedList ➡ SplStack ➡ SplQueue

    ➡ SplHeap ➡ SplMinHeap ➡ SplMaxHeap ➡ SplPriorityQueue ➡ SplFixedArray ➡ SplObjectStorage
  57. SPL Data Structures 57 ➡ Every data structure has its

    strength and weaknesses. ➡ Big-Oh O(1), O(n), O(log n) etc... ➡ Balance between time (CPU) and space (memory) ➡ PHP arrays aren’t bad! ➡ But sometimes other data structures are better.
  58. SPL Data Structures 58 Quiz

  59. SPL Data Structures 59 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sostark/26697448/ SplStack

  60. SPL Data Structures 60 SplQueue

  61. SPL Data Structures 61 http://www.flickr.com/photos/blogchef/4764248456/sizes/z/in/photostream/ Spl(Doubly)LinkedList

  62. SPL Data Structures 62 http://www.flickr.com/photos/pediddle/54326823/ SplObjectStorage

  63. 63 SplPriorityQueue

  64. SPL Data Structures 64 http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3224/3072017987_ee454536da.jpg SplHeap

  65. SPL Data Structures 65 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:USA.NM.VeryLargeArray.02.jpg SplFixedArray

  66. SPL Data Structures 66 ➡ Use wisely: ➡ Don’t use

    SplStack / SplQueue for random reads. ➡ Don’t use FixedArrays when you need speed boosts
  67. 67 SplObjectStorage

  68. 68 $map = new SplObjectStorage(); $map[$obj1] = $info1; $map[$obj2] =

    $info2; print_r ($map[$obj2]); $set = new SplObjectStorage(); $set->attach($obj1); print_r ($set->contains($obj1)); splObjectStorage as a set splObjectStorage as a map
  69. 69 class MyStorage extends SplObjectStorage { function getHash($object) { return

    $object->type; } } $obj1 = new StdClass(); $obj1->type = “foo”; $obj2 = new StdClass(); $obj2->type = “bar”; $obj3 = new StdClass(); $obj3->type = “foo”; $store = new MyStorage(); $store->attach($obj1); // Added $store->attach($obj2); // Added $store->attach($obj3); // Not added:same type (thus hash) already present! Defining what to store:
  70. 70 EXCEPTIONS

  71. SPL Exceptions ➡ BadFunctionCallException ➡ BadMethodCallException ➡ DomainException ➡ InvalidArgumentException

    ➡ LengthException ➡ LogicException ➡ OutOfBoundsException ➡ OutOfRangeException ➡ OverflowException ➡ RangeException ➡ RuntimeException ➡ UnderflowException ➡ UnexpectedValueException 71
  72. SPL Exceptions ➡ BadFunctionCallException ➡ BadMethodCallException ➡ DomainException ➡ InvalidArgumentException

    ➡ LengthException ➡ OutOfRangeException 72 Logic Exceptions Runtime Exceptions ➡ OutOfBoundsException ➡ OverflowException ➡ RangeException ➡ UnderflowException ➡ UnexpectedValueException
  73. 73 function foo($str) { if ($str == “The Spanish Inquisition”)

    { throw new \UnexpectedValueException(“Nobody expects ”.$str); } ... }
  74. 74 function foo($str) { if ($str == “The Spanish Inquisition”)

    { throw new \InvalidArgumentException(“Nobody expects ”.$str); } ... } Logic, not runtime
  75. 75 function foo($str, $int) { if (! is_string($str)) { throw

    new \InvalidArgumentException(“Invalid type”); } if ($int < 0 || $int > 10) { throw new \OutOfRangeException(“should be between 0 and 10); } ... }
  76. 76 class InvalidDateException extends DomainException { } class ChristmasException extends

    DomainException { } class Calendar { function addAppointment(DateTime $date, $appointment) { if ($date->format("dm") == "2512") { throw new \ChristmasException( "Cannot add appointment on christmas day"); } $weekday = $date->format("N"); if ($weekday >= 6) { throw new \InvalidDateException( "Cannot add appointment in the weekend"); } .... } }
  77. 77 Never throw “Exception” Always catch “Exception”

  78. 78 Exceptions should not be part of your flow... They’re:

    exceptions
  79. 79 MISC

  80. ➡ SPL Autoloading ➡ SplFileInfo class ➡ Spl(Temp)FileObject ➡ ArrayObject

    ➡ SplObserver / SplSubject 80
  81. 81 Autoloader

  82. 82 spl_autoload_register(“spl_autoload_call”); Throws logicException

  83. 83 spl_autoload_unregister(“spl_autoload_call”); Removes ALL the autoloaders!

  84. 84 ArrayObject

  85. 85 ArrayObjects are not objects that acts like arrays ArrayObjects

    are objects that acts like arrays
  86. 86 $a = array("foo", "bar"); $b = $a; $b[] =

    "baz"; print_r ($a); print_r ($b); Array ( [0] => foo [1] => bar ) Array ( [0] => foo [1] => bar [2] => baz )
  87. 87 $a = new ArrayObject(); $a[] = "foo"; $a[] =

    "bar"; $b = $a; $b[] = "baz"; print_r (iterator_to_array($a)); print_r (iterator_to_array($b)); Array ( [0] => foo [1] => bar [2] => baz ) Array ( [0] => foo [1] => bar [2] => baz )
  88. 88 How can we make using the SPL easier? http://noscope.com/photostream/albums/various/I_Want_To_Believe_01.jpg

  89. ➡ PHP|Architect’s “guide into the SPL” ➡ Written by me!

    ➡ Talks about the SPL and how to use it (properly). ➡ Available soon... 89
  90. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/73/163450213_18478d3aa6_d.jpg Questions? 90

  91. Please rate my talk on joind.in: http://joind.in/6481 Thank you 91

    Find me on twitter: @jaytaph Find me for development and training: www.noxlogic.nl Find me on email: jthijssen@noxlogic.nl Find me for blogs: www.adayinthelifeof.nl