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下世代能源燃料的新寵兒:高能金屬微粒 - 李約亨 副教授

E17ffa0def65f841ae5dcdf2557a48e7?s=47 learnenergy
September 22, 2020

下世代能源燃料的新寵兒:高能金屬微粒 - 李約亨 副教授

下世代能源燃料的新寵兒:高能金屬微粒 - 李約亨 副教授

E17ffa0def65f841ae5dcdf2557a48e7?s=128

learnenergy

September 22, 2020
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  1. 下世代能源燃料的新寵兒 - 高能 金屬微粒 演講者: 李約亨 副教授 ( Yueh-Heng Li)

    副國際長 國際事務處 國立成功大學 航空太空工程學系 國立成功大學 Date: 2020/9/22
  2. 2 Combustion & Energy Electric Propulsion Gas Turbine Engine Zic

    and Partners’ Lab
  3. 3 https://www.tellerreport.com/life/2020-09-10-us-west-coast--three-dead-in-northern-california-forest-fires.rygxcVkQw4v.html

  4. 4 https://www.fire.ca.gov/incidents/

  5. 5 https://metro.co.uk/2020/01/05/devastating-extent-australias-bushfires-seen-space-12003553/

  6. 6 https://www.bbc.com/news/world-51500692 https://www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/52752919

  7. 7 https://www.tv7israelnews.com/locust-disaster-averted-in-east-africa-says-fao/

  8. 8 https://www.dw.com/en/china-floods-sichuan-buddha/a-54622058 https://cn.nytimes.com/china/20200703/china-floods- rain/zh-hant/dual/

  9. 9 https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jun/11/giant-african-baobab-trees-die-suddenly-after-thousands-of-years https://www.swahilimodern.com/products/recycled-wire-baobab-tree https://www.atacora.com/baobab-blog/baobab-african-tree-of-life

  10. 10 https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2018/feb/01/polar-bears-climate-change

  11. 11 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/05/coral-decline-in-great-barrier-reef-unprecedented

  12. 12 https://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov/satellite/bleachingoutlook_cfs/weekly_60.php https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/05/coral-decline-in-great-barrier-reef-unprecedented

  13. The relationship btw CO2 and global temperature http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121011151433.htm#. UHjfwLGMBx0.blogger http://www.ablemesh.co.uk/thoughtsinconvenienttruth.html

  14. Earth’s energy balance 14 407 ppm 96% 95% http://moodle.monashores.net/mod/page/view.php?id=41596 http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/students/courselinks/fall12/atmo336/lectures/sec5/pleistocene.html

    https://climate.ncsu.edu/edu/EnergyBalance
  15. What is greenhouse gas (GHG)? 15 Triatomic molecule Compound Formula

    Contribution (%) Water vapor and clouds H2 O 36 – 72% Carbon dioxide CO2 9 – 26% Methane CH4 4–9% Ozone O3 3–7% https://www.icbf.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/ISAG_170717.pdf https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-difference-between-carbon-and-carbon-dioxide
  16. The relationship btw CO2 and global temperature 16 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121011151433.htm# .UHjfwLGMBx0.blogger

    http://www.ablemesh.co.uk/thoughtsinconvenienttruth.html
  17. Nature Carbon Fixation and Carbon Cycle 17 Uptake by ocean

    Photosynthesis https://aka.weightwatchers.ca/templates/print.aspx?PageId=1388041&PrintFlag=yes&previewDate=1/5/2017 (Right) https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/travel/ymx2njb.html (Left) https://www.tiempo.com/ram/mejor-comprension-del-ciclo-global-del-carbono.html https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-forest-image8437160
  18. Carbon footprint 18 A single tree can absorb CO2 at

    a rate of 22 kg per year. https://heiko-gaertner.com/baum_hintergrund-vollhd-3/
  19. Carbon footprint 19 Carbon footprint refers to the Greenhouse gas

    emissions that are released into the environment by using Energy https://publiciota.com/category/informations
  20. 20 Invisible CO2 emission in your life Carbon footprint https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3Gt-

    m9a3vU&feature=emb_title
  21. 21 Humans exhale 1 kg of CO2 per day. Each

    person generates approximately 2.3 tons of CO2 per year. Carbon footprint <a href="https://www.freepik.com/vectors/people">People vector created by freepik - www.freepik.com</a>
  22. 22 Humans exhale 1 kg of CO2 per day. Each

    person generates approximately 2.3 tons of CO2 per year. Carbon footprint ~105 trees <a href="https://www.freepik.com/vectors/people">People vector created by freepik - www.freepik.com</a> http://images.clipartpanda.com/tree-clipart-tree_tiny_green_shaded.png
  23. 23 Airplanes release 1 ton of CO2 per 3318 km

    (Taipei to Singapore) Carbon footprint https://www.uokpl.rs/rsvi/ibxmhhm_small-plane-cliparts/ https://pnghut.com/png/GVMu1Ss6mw/airplane-cessna-citation-x-clip-art-air-travel-transparent-png
  24. 24 Airplanes release 1 ton of CO2 per 3318 km

    (Taipei to Singapore) Carbon footprint ~45 trees https://www.uokpl.rs/rsvi/ibxmhhm_small-plane-cliparts/ https://pnghut.com/png/GVMu1Ss6mw/airplane-cessna-citation-x-clip-art-air-travel-transparent-png http://images.clipartpanda.com/tree-clipart-tree_tiny_green_shaded.png
  25. 25 Cars release 3.66 kg of CO2 per 10 km.

    Bus or Train traveling for 10 to 20 km releases 1 kg of CO2 . Carbon footprint https://www.pinterest.com/pin/333055334926407996/
  26. 26 Cars release 3.66 kg of CO2 per 10 km.

    Bus or Train traveling for 10 to 20 km releases 1 kg of CO2 . Carbon footprint Tainan to Taipei (316 km) 5 0.7-1.4 https://www.pinterest.com/pin/333055334926407996/ http://images.clipartpanda.com/tree-clipart-tree_tiny_green_shaded.png
  27. 27 Using Computers for 32 hours releases 1 kg of

    CO2 . Carbon footprint http://clipart-library.com/clipart/pc7rxAy9i.htm
  28. 28 5 plastic bags or 2 plastic bottles release 1

    kg of CO2 . Carbon footprint
  29. 29 American cheeseburger releases 2.85 to 3.1 kg of CO2

    . Carbon footprint
  30. 30 American cheeseburger releases 2.85 to 3.1 kg of CO2

    . Carbon footprint This includes a myriad of factors, from growing the feed for the cattle for the beef and cheese, growing the produce, storing and transporting the components, as well as cooking them all. https://twitter.com/missearth_sa
  31. 31 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-020-0797-x

  32. 32 Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the

    COVID-19 forced confinement https://www.icos-cp.eu/gcp-covid19
  33. Fossil fuel demand 33  Fossil fuels, such as coal,

    natural gas, and oil, still dominate as primary energy sources to produce electricity. [1] International Energy Agency (IEA), 2019 https://www.iamrenew.com/green-energy/abandoning-coal-japan-scraps-another- thermal-power-plant-lessons-for-india/attachment/world-map-for-coal-plants/ Source : IEA Electricity Information 2017
  34. Energy carrier 34 Storage type Specific energy (MJ/kg) Wood 16.2

    Natural gas 46.4 Petroleum ~46.0 Coal 24.0 Battery, Li-ion rechargeable 0.36 – 0.875
  35. Energy conversion 35 reactant Formation enthalpy Formation enthalpy product Energy

    level Enthalpy difference Enthalpy difference Chemical reaction Energy release System boundary Heat Work Energy conversion Heat release by chemical reaction Water steam absorbing heat from flame Steam pressure makes a lid moving
  36. Renewable energy 36 Advantages:  No harmful emission  Free

    sources energy Challenges for Clean Energy  Territory area and site selection  Expensive storage material (e.g. Lithium)  Environmental condition [2] The hydrogen energy company (THEC) , 2020 https://expatguideturkey.com/turkish-citizenship-by-investment/turkey-became- popular-for-clean-energy-investment/
  37. Introduction − Metal fuels 37 Advantages  High energy carrier

    that it is safe to be transported  Easy and Safe enough to be stored for long term  Relatively cheap and has the similar or higher energy density compared with hydrocarbon [2] Bergthorson et al., 2015
  38. Introduction − Metal flames 38 Stabilized flames of different metal

    powders burning with air, compared to a methane-air flame https://www.mcgill.ca/newsroom/channels/news/could-metal-particles-be-clean-fuel-future-257172
  39. Introduction − Metal Fuels 39 [2] Bergthorson et al., 2015

    Schematic of a generic electro fuel cycle • Produced using clean renewable energy/nuclear energy, they can have low net carbon-dioxide emissions. • The product of fuel combustion, or oxidation, must be recycled back into the fuel with minimal loss to the environment https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2017/se/c7se00004a#!divAbstract
  40. Introduction − Recycle process 40 [2] Bergthorson et al., 2015

    Hematite Fe2 O3 →Fe3 O4 → Fe (below 570oC) Magnetite Fe3 O4 → Fe (below 570oC) Wustite FeO→ Fe3 O4 → Fe (below 570oC) Redox reaction for Fe • 3α-Fe2 O3 + H2 = 2Fe3 O4 + H2 O • 2(Fe3 O4 + 4H2 = 3Fe + 4 H2 O) • 2(Fe3 O4 + H2 = 3FeO + H2 O) • 6(FeO + H2 = Fe+H2 O)
  41. Metal combustion application 41  Metal powders are often used

    as additives in propellants because of their high enthalpy of combustion[3,4]  Solid propellant for rocket enhances combustion stability[4,5]  Different metal powders have different energy densities compare to hydrocarbon fuels [3] Divekar et al., 2003 [4] Kuo et al., 1984 [5] Summerfield et al., 1969 NASA, Penn State, Purdue Join research rocket with ALICE (Aluminum-Ice)
  42. Metal combustion application 42 https://star-ale.com/

  43. Metal combustion application 43 [6] Bergthorson et al, 2018 

    Wet Cycle, the high-temperature metal might react with water, leading to exothermicity and hydrogen production.  Aluminum mixed with water as an oxidizer has 4,212 Whkg-1 of the specific energy and 11,374 WhL-1  Dry Cycle, direct combustion with air and hydrocarbon fuel for an external combustion heat engine. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Schematic-diagram-of-the-metal-fuel-concept- showing-the-different-routes-for-power_fig5_327372687
  44. Metal-driven recyclable fuel 44  External heating engine  Rankine

    Cycle, Boiler and Steam turbine  Residential, commercial heating [6] Bergthorson et al., 2018 https://afl.mcgill.ca/AFL-Research.html Credit: J. Palecka
  45. Metal-driven power generator 45 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2018 Credit:

    J. Palecka
  46. Metal combustion 46 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2015 Type A:

    Vapor Phase Droplet Combustion, e.g., Al, Mg. Micro flame Nano-oxide • Vapor phase droplet combustion • Micro flame will appeared in the metal vapor region • Homogeneous combustion reaction
  47. Metal combustion 47 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2015 Type A:

    Vapor Phase Droplet Combustion, e.g., Al, Mg.
  48. Metal combustion 48 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2015 Type B:

    Heterogeneous combustion with gaseous and sub oxides, e.g., B and Si. Sub-oxide reaction /condensation zone Micro flame Nano-oxide • Forming a gaseous oxide and sub-oxide • Micro flame will occurred in the metal droplet surface • Homogeneous reaction appear in mode a and mode b, the metal oxide will become smaller than its initial condition https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915011071
  49. Metal combustion 49 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2015 Type B:

    Heterogeneous combustion with gaseous and sub oxides, e.g., B and Si. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915011071
  50. Introduction − Combustion 50 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2015 Type

    C: Heterogeneous combustion with porous oxide shell, e.g., Fe. • Completely react in heterogeneous combustion • Produce larger metal oxide • Easier to capture for recyclability purpose https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915011071
  51. Metal Oxide 51 [6] Bergthorson et al., 2015 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261915011071

  52. Experimental apparatus 52

  53. Solid fuels 53 Material D10 D50 D90 Mean size [μm]

    Intensity Volume Number Fe 1.183 2.712 6.216 2.245 2.548 2.192 Fe−Coal 1.262 1.755 2.440 1.836 1.876 1.826 Fe−Al 1.082 1.176 2.319 1.270 1.393 1.352 (a) (b) (c) Fe Fe Al Coal Fe Fe Fe-Al Fe-Coal
  54. Results and Discussion − Flame 54  Single Fuel Hybrid

    Combustion  Coupled flame for Fe and Al at 250 mm/hr 27.69 g/h  No Al particles after passed the flame cone  Blue methane flame still appeared for coal combustion Fe Al Coal
  55. Results and Discussion − Flame 55  Flame behavior Fe

    hybrid combustion  (a) 5.53 g/h (b)27.69 g/h (a) Low feeding rate (b) High feeding rate Coupled flame front
  56. Results and Discussion − Flame 56  Flame behavior Fe-Al

    hybrid combustion  (a) 5.53 g/h (b)27.69 g/h (a) Low feeding rate (b) High feeding rate Coupled flame front
  57. Results and Discussion − Flame 57  Flame behavior Fe-Coal

    hybrid combustion  (a) 5.53 g/h (b)27.69 g/h (a) Low feeding rate (b) High feeding rate Coupled flame front
  58. Results and Discussion 58  Solid particle shape evolution Fe

    Fe-Al Fe-Coal
  59. Results and Discussion 59  Single fuel combustion characteristic

  60. Results and Discussion 60  Micro explosion phenomena in Fe-Coal

     The exploded particle may trigger other particles near the first explosion to be explode
  61. Results and Discussion 61  Proposed micro explosion mechanism

  62. Results and Discussion 62  FeO-MOF Hybrid Combustion (a) 90%:10%

    (b) 80%:20% (c) 70%:30% Fe ion (Fe3+) with Benzene- 1,3,5- tricarboxylic acid (H3 BTC)
  63. Thank you for attention Yueh-Heng Li (Zic) 李約亨 ZAP Lab:

    http://zap-lab.tw