Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Historical relations between words and their implication for phylogenetic reconstruction

Historical relations between words and their implication for phylogenetic reconstruction

Talk, held at the School of Oriental and African Studies (2016/10/13, London, University of London)

Johann-Mattis List

October 13, 2016
Tweet

More Decks by Johann-Mattis List

Other Decks in Science

Transcript

  1. Beyond Cognacy
    Historical Relations Between Words and Their Implication for
    Phylogenetic Reconstruction
    Johann-Mattis List
    DFG research fellow
    Centre des recherches linguistiques sur l’Asie Orientale
    Team Adaptation, Integration, Reticulation, Evolution
    EHESS and UPMC, Paris
    2016/10/13
    1 / 45

    View full-size slide

  2. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  3. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  4. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  5. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  6. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  7. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  8. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  9. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  10. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  11. Background
    2 / 45

    View full-size slide

  12. Background
    Background
    3 / 45

    View full-size slide

  13. Background
    Background
    3 / 45

    View full-size slide

  14. Background
    Background
    3 / 45

    View full-size slide

  15. Background
    Background
    3 / 45

    View full-size slide

  16. Background
    Background
    3 / 45

    View full-size slide

  17. Language History
    Language History
    4 / 45

    View full-size slide

  18. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophilia
    August Schleicher
    (1821-1868)
    5 / 45

    View full-size slide

  19. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophilia
    August Schleicher
    (1821-1868)
    “These assumptions, which follow
    logically from the results of our re-
    search, can be best illustrated by the
    image of a branching tree.” (Schle-
    icher 1853: 787)
    5 / 45

    View full-size slide

  20. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophilia
    Schleicher (1853)
    6 / 45

    View full-size slide

  21. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophobia
    Johannes Schmidt
    (1843-1901)
    7 / 45

    View full-size slide

  22. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophobia
    Johannes Schmidt
    (1843-1901)
    “You can turn it as you want, but as long
    as you stick to the idea that the his-
    torically attested languages have been
    developing by multiple furcations of an
    ancestral language, that is, as long as
    you assume that there is a Stammbaum
    [family tree] of the Indo-European lan-
    guages, you will never be able to explain
    all facts which have been assembled in
    a scientifically satisfying way.” (Schmidt
    1872: 17, my translation)
    7 / 45

    View full-size slide

  23. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophobia
    Johannes Schmidt
    (1843-1901)
    “I want to replace [the tree] by the im-
    age of a wave that spreads out from
    the center in concentric circles be-
    coming weaker and weaker the far-
    ther they get away from the center.”
    (Schmidt 1872: 27, my translation)
    8 / 45

    View full-size slide

  24. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophobia
    Schmidt (1875)
    9 / 45

    View full-size slide

  25. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Dendrophobia
    Meillet (1908)
    Hirt (1905)
    Bloomfield (1933)
    Bonfante (1931)
    9 / 45

    View full-size slide

  26. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  27. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    they are difficult to
    reconstruct............
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  28. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    they are difficult to
    reconstruct............
    languages do not always
    split............ .......... ............
    ............
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  29. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    they are difficult to
    reconstruct............
    languages do not always
    split............ .......... ............
    ............
    they are boring, since they only
    model the vertical aspects of
    language history ............
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  30. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    they are difficult to
    reconstruct............
    languages do not always
    split............ .......... ............
    ............
    they are boring, since they only
    model the vertical aspects of
    language history ............
    Waves are bad, because
    nobody knows how to
    reconstruct them
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  31. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    they are difficult to
    reconstruct............
    languages do not always
    split............ .......... ............
    ............
    they are boring, since they only
    model the vertical aspects of
    language history ............
    Waves are bad, because
    nobody knows how to
    reconstruct them
    languages still diverge, even if
    not necessarily in split
    processes
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  32. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Trees are bad, because...
    they are difficult to
    reconstruct............
    languages do not always
    split............ .......... ............
    ............
    they are boring, since they only
    model the vertical aspects of
    language history ............
    Waves are bad, because
    nobody knows how to
    reconstruct them
    languages still diverge, even if
    not necessarily in split
    processes
    they are boring, since they only
    model the horizontal aspects of
    language history
    10 / 45

    View full-size slide

  33. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Hugo Schuchardt
    (1842-1927)
    11 / 45

    View full-size slide

  34. Language History Modeling Language History
    Modeling Language History: Phylogenetic Networks
    Hugo Schuchardt
    (1842-1927)
    “We connect the branches and twigs
    of the tree with countless horizon-
    tal lines and it ceases to be a tree.”
    (Schuchardt 1870 [1900]: 11)
    11 / 45

    View full-size slide

  35. Language History Modeling Language History
    Phylogenetic Networks
    12 / 45

    View full-size slide

  36. Language History Modeling Language History
    Phylogenetic Networks
    12 / 45

    View full-size slide

  37. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  38. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  39. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  40. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    Romance
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  41. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    soːlikul-
    SMALL SUN
    Romance
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  42. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl̩- sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    soːlikul-
    SMALL SUN
    Romance
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  43. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    'soh₂-wl◌̩
    - sh₂uˈen-
    SUN
    Indo-European
    soːwel- sunːoː-
    SUN
    Germanic
    soːl-
    SUN
    soːlikul-
    SMALL SUN
    Romance
    solej
    SUN
    French
    sol
    SUN
    Spanish
    zɔnə
    SUN
    German
    suːl
    SUN
    Swedish
    SEM
    ANTIC
    SHIFT
    M
    O
    RPH
    O
    LO
    G
    ICAL
    CH
    AN
    G
    E
    M
    O
    R
    PH
    O
    LO
    G
    ICA
    L
    CH
    A
    N
    G
    E
    MORPHOLOGICAL
    CHANGE
    MORPHOLOGICAL
    CHANGE
    13 / 45

    View full-size slide

  44. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    arbre
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  45. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    form
    "meaning"
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  46. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    arbre
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  47. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  48. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    arbre
    MEANING
    FORM
    LANGUAGE
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  49. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    FORM
    LANGUAGE
    MEANING
    arbre
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  50. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    arbre
    MEANING
    FORM
    LANGUAGE
    MEANING
    FORM
    LANGUAGE
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  51. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    SEMANTIC CHANGE
    MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGE
    S
    T
    R
    A
    T
    IC
    C
    H
    A
    N
    G
    E
    Gévaudan (2007)
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  52. Language History Lexical Change
    Lexical Change
    kop
    Kopf
    Kopf
    köpfen
    World
    Cup Welt-
    ccup
    Old High German Standard German
    MORPHOLOGICAL
    CHANGE
    SEMANTIC
    CHANGE
    SEMANTIC
    CHANGE
    STRATIC
    CHANGE
    MORPHOLOGICAL
    CHANGE
    14 / 45

    View full-size slide

  53. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics
    Biological Approaches
    in
    Historical Linguistics
    15 / 45

    View full-size slide

  54. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past
    The Geological Evidences
    of
    The Antiquity of Man
    with Remarks on Theories of
    The Origin of Species by Variation
    By Sir Charles Lyell
    London
    John Murray, Albemarle Street
    1863
    16 / 45

    View full-size slide

  55. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past
    If we new not-
    hing of the existence
    of Latin, - if all
    historical documents
    previous to the fin-
    teenth century had
    been lost, - if tra-
    dition even was si-
    lent as to the former
    existance of a Ro-
    man empire, a me-
    re comparison of the
    Italian, Spanish,
    Portuguese, French,
    Wallachian, and
    Rhaetian dialects
    would enable us to
    say that at some
    time there must ha-
    ve been a language,
    from which these
    six modern dialects
    derive their origin
    in common.
    16 / 45

    View full-size slide

  56. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Uniformitarianism (C. Lyell)
    17 / 45

    View full-size slide

  57. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Uniformitarianism (C. Lyell)
    Uniformity of Change: Laws of change are uniform. They have
    applied in the past as they apply now and will apply in the future,
    no matter at which place.
    17 / 45

    View full-size slide

  58. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Uniformitarianism (C. Lyell)
    Uniformity of Change: Laws of change are uniform. They have
    applied in the past as they apply now and will apply in the future,
    no matter at which place.
    Graduality of Change: Change proceeds gradually, not abrupt.
    17 / 45

    View full-size slide

  59. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Uniformitarianism (C. Lyell)
    Uniformity of Change: Laws of change are uniform. They have
    applied in the past as they apply now and will apply in the future,
    no matter at which place.
    Graduality of Change: Change proceeds gradually, not abrupt.
    Abductive Reasoning: We can infer past events and processes
    by investigating patterns observed in the present, which becomes
    the “key to the interpretation of some mystery in the archives of
    remote ages” (Lyell 1830: 165)
    17 / 45

    View full-size slide

  60. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Uniformitarianism (A. Schleicher)
    Language Change
    is a gradual process (Schleicher 1848: 25).
    is a law-like process (Schleicher 1848: 25).
    is a natural process which occurs in all languages (Schleicher
    1848: 25).
    universal process which occurs in all times (Schleicher
    1863[1873]: 10f).
    allows us to infer past processes and extinct languages by
    investigating the languages of the present (see Schleicher 1848:
    25).
    18 / 45

    View full-size slide

  61. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Summary
    It was not the direct exchange of ideas that lead to the de-
    velopment of similar approaches in biology and linguistics,
    but the astonishing fact that scholars in both fields would
    at about the same time detect striking parallels between
    both disciplines, both regarding their theoretical founda-
    tions and the processes they were investigating.
    19 / 45

    View full-size slide

  62. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Summary
    It was not the direct exchange of ideas that lead to the de-
    velopment of similar approaches in biology and linguistics,
    but the astonishing fact that scholars in both fields would
    at about the same time detect striking parallels between
    both disciplines, both regarding their theoretical founda-
    tions and the processes they were investigating.
    And linguists were the first to draw trees!
    19 / 45

    View full-size slide

  63. Biological Approaches in Historical Linguistics Keys to the Past
    Keys to the Past: Summary
    1700 1800
    1750 1850
    List et al. (2016, Biology Direct)
    Stiernhielm's
    Lingua Nova
    1671
    Gallet's
    Arbre
    ca. 1800
    Darwin's
    Origins
    1859
    De Buffon's
    Table
    1755
    Schleicher's
    Stammbaum
    1853
    Darwin's
    Tree Sketch
    1837
    Lamarck's
    Tableaux
    1809
    Čelakovský's
    Rodový Kmen
    1853
    Rühling's
    Tabula
    1774
    Hicke's
    Affinitas
    1689
    Schottels's
    Tabelle
    1663
    20 / 45

    View full-size slide

  64. The Quantitative Turn
    The Quantitative Turn
    “Indo-European and computational cladistics” (Ringe, Warnow and Taylor
    2002)
    “Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of
    Indo-European origin” (Gray und Atkinson 2003)
    “Language classification by numbers” (McMahon und McMahon 2005)
    “Curious Parallels and Curious Connections: Phylogenetic Thinking in
    Biology and Historical Linguistics” (Atkinson und Gray 2005)
    “Automated classification of the world’s languages” (Brown et al. 2008)
    “Indo-European languages tree by Levenshtein distance” (Serva and
    Petroni 2008)
    “Networks uncover hidden lexical borrowing in Indo-European language
    evolution” (Nelson-Sathi et al. 2011)
    22 / 45

    View full-size slide

  65. The Quantitative Turn
    The Quantitative Turn
    “Indo-European and computational cladistics” (Ringe, Warnow and Taylor
    2002)
    “Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of
    Indo-European origin” (Gray und Atkinson 2003)
    “Language classification by numbers” (McMahon und McMahon 2005)
    “Curious Parallels and Curious Connections: Phylogenetic Thinking in
    Biology and Historical Linguistics” (Atkinson und Gray 2005)
    “Automated classification of the world’s languages” (Brown et al. 2008)
    “Indo-European languages tree by Levenshtein distance” (Serva and
    Petroni 2008)
    “Networks uncover hidden lexical borrowing in Indo-European language
    evolution” (Nelson-Sathi et al. 2011)
    22 / 45

    View full-size slide

  66. The Quantitative Turn
    The Quantitative Turn: Words as Genes
    Basic Concept German ID English ID Italian ID French ID
    HAND Hand 1 hand 1 mano 2 main 2
    BLOOD Blut 3 blood 3 sangue 4 sang 4
    HEAD Kopf 5 head 6 testa 7 tête 7
    TOOTH Zahn 8 tooth 8 dente 8 dent 8
    TO SLEEP schlafen 9 sleep 9 dormir 10 dormir 10
    TO SAY sagen 11 say 11 dire 12 dire 12
    ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
    23 / 45

    View full-size slide

  67. The Quantitative Turn
    The Quantitative Turn: Words as Genes
    Basic Concept German ID English ID Italian ID French ID
    HAND Hand 1 hand 1 mano 2 main 2
    BLOOD Blut 3 blood 3 sangue 4 sang 4
    HEAD Kopf 5 head 6 testa 7 tête 7
    TOOTH Zahn 8 tooth 8 dente 8 dent 8
    TO SLEEP schlafen 9 sleep 9 dormir 10 dormir 10
    TO SAY sagen 11 say 11 dire 12 dire 12
    ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
    23 / 45

    View full-size slide

  68. The Quantitative Turn
    The Quantitative Turn: Words as Genes
    ID Proto-Form Basic Concept German English Italian French
    1 PGM *xanda- HAND 1 1 0 0
    2 LAT mānus HAND 0 0 1 1
    3 PGM *blođa- BLOOD 1 1 0 0
    4 LAT sanguis BLOOD 0 0 1 1
    5 PGM *kuppa- HEAD 1 0 0 0
    6 PGM *xawbda- HEAD 0 1 0 0
    7 LAT tēsta HEAD 0 0 1 1
    8 PIE *h3
    dont- TOOTH 1 1 1 1
    9 PGM *slēpan- TO SLEEP 1 1 0 0
    10 LAT dormīre TO SLEEP 0 0 1 1
    11 PGM *sagjan- TO SAY 1 1 0 0
    12 LAT dīcere TO SAY 0 0 1 1
    ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
    23 / 45

    View full-size slide

  69. The Quantitative Turn
    The Quantitative Turn: Words as Genes
    English
    111
    German
    101
    French
    000
    Italian
    001
    101 001
    001
    + B
    − C
    +
    A
    Char. English German French Italian
    A 1 1 0 0
    B 1 0 0 0
    C 1 1 0 1
    23 / 45

    View full-size slide

  70. Analogies and Parallels
    Analogies and Parallels
    Parallels between Species and Languages (Pagel 2009)
    aspect species languages
    unit of replication gene word
    replication asexual und sexual
    reproduction
    learning
    speciation cladogenesis language split
    forces of change natural selection and
    genetic drift
    social selection and
    trends
    differentiation tree-like tree-like
    24 / 45

    View full-size slide

  71. Analogies and Parallels
    Analogies and Parallels
    25 / 45

    View full-size slide

  72. Analogies and Parallels
    Analogies and Parallels
    25 / 45

    View full-size slide

  73. Analogies and Parallels
    Analogies and Parallels
    Differences between Species and Languages (Geisler & List 2013)
    Aspect Species Languages
    domain Popper’s World I Popper’s World III
    relation between
    form and function
    mechanical arbitrary
    origin monogenesis unclear
    sequence similarity universal (indepen-
    dent of species)
    language-specific
    differentiation tree-like network-like
    26 / 45

    View full-size slide

  74. Differences
    Differences in the Alphabets
    27 / 45

    View full-size slide

  75. Differences
    Differences in the Alphabets
    • universal • language-specific
    27 / 45

    View full-size slide

  76. Differences
    Differences in the Alphabets
    • universal • language-specific
    • limited • widely varying
    27 / 45

    View full-size slide

  77. Differences
    Differences in the Alphabets
    • universal • language-specific
    • limited • widely varying
    • constant • mutable
    27 / 45

    View full-size slide

  78. Differences
    Differences in the Processes
    GENES <=> WORDS
    HOMOLOGS <=> COGNATES
    28 / 45

    View full-size slide

  79. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    The term homology was coined by Richard Owen (1804–1892),
    who distinguished ‘homologues’, as ‘the same organ in different
    animals under every variety of form and function’ (Owen 1843:
    379), from from ‘analogues’ as an ‘organ in one animal which has
    the same function as another part or organ in a different animal’
    (ibid.: 374).
    29 / 45

    View full-size slide

  80. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    The term homology was coined by Richard Owen (1804–1892),
    who distinguished ‘homologues’, as ‘the same organ in different
    animals under every variety of form and function’ (Owen 1843:
    379), from from ‘analogues’ as an ‘organ in one animal which has
    the same function as another part or organ in a different animal’
    (ibid.: 374).
    Nowadays, it commonly denotes a ‘relationship of common descent
    between any entities, without further specification of the
    evolutionary scenario’ (Koonin 2005: 311).
    29 / 45

    View full-size slide

  81. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    The term homology was coined by Richard Owen (1804–1892),
    who distinguished ‘homologues’, as ‘the same organ in different
    animals under every variety of form and function’ (Owen 1843:
    379), from from ‘analogues’ as an ‘organ in one animal which has
    the same function as another part or organ in a different animal’
    (ibid.: 374).
    Nowadays, it commonly denotes a ‘relationship of common descent
    between any entities, without further specification of the
    evolutionary scenario’ (Koonin 2005: 311).
    With respect to specific scenarios of common descent, molecular
    biologists characterize relationships between homologous genes
    further by distinguishing between orthology, paralogy, and
    xenology.
    29 / 45

    View full-size slide

  82. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    B
    A C D
    duplication
    speciation
    lateral
    transfer
    D
    D
    orthologs
    paralogs
    xenologs
    B
    C
    D
    B
    A
    A
    B
    A B
    List (2016)
    30 / 45

    View full-size slide

  83. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    Historical Relations
    Terminology
    Biology Linguistics
    common descent
    direct
    homology
    orthology
    cognacy....
    ?
    oblique
    cognacy
    indirect paralogy
    involving lateral
    transfer
    xenology ?
    Linguistics
    indirect cognate
    relation
    (oblique cognacy)
    cognate relation
    (cognacy)
    ?
    ?
    ?
    30 / 45

    View full-size slide

  84. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    Historical Relations
    Terminology
    Biology Linguistics
    common descent
    direct
    homology
    orthology
    cognacy....
    ?
    oblique
    cognacy
    indirect paralogy
    involving lateral
    transfer
    xenology ?
    Linguistics
    direct cognate relation
    etymological relation
    indirect cognate
    relation
    (oblique cognacy)
    indirect etymological
    relation
    cognate relation
    (cognacy)
    List (2014)
    30 / 45

    View full-size slide

  85. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    Relation Biol. Term continuity
    traditional notion of cognacy - + +/- +/-
    cognacy à la Swadesh - + +/- +
    direct cognate relation orthology + + +
    oblique cognate relation paralogy (?) + - +
    etymological relation homology +/- +/- +/-
    oblique etymological relation xenology - +/- +/-
    ... ... ... ... ...
    Stratic
    Morpho-
    logical
    Seman-
    tic
    List (2016)
    30 / 45

    View full-size slide

  86. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Homology
    Italian
    dare
    French
    donner
    Indo-European
    *deh₃-
    *deh₃-no-
    Latin
    dare
    dōnum
    dōnāre
    Italian
    sole
    French
    soleil
    Swedish
    sol
    German
    Sonne
    Germanic
    *sōwel-
    *sunnō-
    Latin
    sol
    soliculus
    Indo-European
    *sóh₂-wl̩ -
    *sh₂én-
    A B
    List (2016)
    30 / 45

    View full-size slide

  87. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Semantic Change
    hand
    arm
    foot
    day
    m
    eat
    animal
    day
    sand
    moon
    leg
    T₁
    31 / 45

    View full-size slide

  88. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Semantic Change
    hand
    arm
    foot
    day
    m
    eat
    animal
    day
    sand
    moon
    leg
    T₁
    hand
    arm
    foot
    day
    m
    eat
    animal
    day
    sand
    moon
    leg
    T₂
    31 / 45

    View full-size slide

  89. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Semantic Change
    hand
    arm
    foot
    day
    m
    eat
    animal
    day
    sand
    moon
    leg
    T₂
    ?
    ?
    ?
    31 / 45

    View full-size slide

  90. Differences
    Differences in the Processes: Semantic Change
    hand
    arm
    foot
    day
    m
    eat
    animal
    day
    sand
    moon
    leg
    T₂
    hand
    arm
    foot
    day
    m
    eat
    animal
    sun
    sand
    moon
    leg
    31 / 45

    View full-size slide

  91. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction
    Shifting the Paradigm
    32 / 45

    View full-size slide

  92. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    33 / 45

    View full-size slide

  93. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    Fúzhōu ŋ u o ʔ ⁵ - - - - - - - - - -
    Měixiàn ŋ i a t ⁵ - - - - - k u o ŋ ⁴⁴
    Guǎngzhōu j - y t ² l - œ ŋ ²² - - - - -
    Běijīng - y ɛ - ⁵¹ l i ɑ ŋ - - - - - -
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    33 / 45

    View full-size slide

  94. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    Fúzhōu ŋ u o ʔ ⁵ - - - - - - - - - -
    Měixiàn ŋ i a t ⁵ - - - - - k u o ŋ ⁴⁴
    Guǎngzhōu j - y t ² l - œ ŋ ²² - - - - -
    Běijīng - y ɛ - ⁵¹ l i ɑ ŋ - - - - - -
    1 2 3 4
    number of morphemes per word
    0.0
    0.2
    0.4
    0.6
    0.8
    1.0
    relative frequency
    all words
    nouns
    Compounds in the basic vocabulary (Swadesh1952) across
    23 Chinese dialects (data by Hamed and Wang 2006)
    30%
    50%
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    33 / 45

    View full-size slide

  95. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    German m oː n t -
    English m uː n - -
    Danish m ɔː n - ə
    Swedish m oː n - e
    Fúzhōu ŋ u o ʔ ⁵ - - - - - - - - - -
    Měixiàn ŋ i a t ⁵ - - - - - k u o ŋ ⁴⁴
    Guǎngzhōu j - y t ² l - œ ŋ ²² - - - - -
    Běijīng - y ɛ - ⁵¹ l i ɑ ŋ - - - - - -
    "MOON"
    "MOON"
    "SHINE" "LIGHT"
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    33 / 45

    View full-size slide

  96. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    33 / 45

    View full-size slide

  97. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    BO
    RRO
    W
    ING
    LO
    SS
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    33 / 45

    View full-size slide

  98. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    34 / 45

    View full-size slide

  99. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    34 / 45

    View full-size slide

  100. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    34 / 45

    View full-size slide

  101. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Fúzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Běijīng
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    34 / 45

    View full-size slide

  102. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    LOSS
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    INNO
    VATIO
    N
    BORROWING
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    34 / 45

    View full-size slide

  103. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    We cannot model partial cognacy sufficiently when restricting our
    analyses to binary gain-loss models, as they are common in
    Bayesian phylogenetic analyses.
    Partial cognacy is too frequent to be ignored, not only in
    Sino-Tibetan languages, but also in many other language families
    (Austro-Asiatic, Hmong-Mien, Tai-Kadai).
    If we define binary cognacy on the basis of common morphemes,
    the majority of the items in our datasets will become cognate and
    we will loose a great deal of the phylogenetic signal.
    If we define binary cognacy on the basis of identical morphemes in
    all words, the majority of the items in our datasets will become
    non-cognate, and we will again loose a great deal of phylogenetic
    signal.
    35 / 45

    View full-size slide

  104. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    A
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    36 / 45

    View full-size slide

  105. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    A
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    36 / 45

    View full-size slide

  106. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    36 / 45

    View full-size slide

  107. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    36 / 45

    View full-size slide

  108. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    36 / 45

    View full-size slide

  109. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    The Crux with Partial Cognacy
    When dealing with language families in which
    compounding and morphological derivation is so
    frequent that it covers more than 30 percent of
    the basic vocabulary of the languages, we need
    to incorporate partial cognacy our phylogenetic
    models.
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    36 / 45

    View full-size slide

  110. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Directed, Weighted, Multi-State Parsimony and Lexical
    Change
    A
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    37 / 45

    View full-size slide

  111. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Directed, Weighted, Multi-State Parsimony and Lexical
    Change
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    37 / 45

    View full-size slide

  112. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Directed, Weighted, Multi-State Parsimony and Lexical
    Change
    AC
    ABD
    AB
    A
    LANGUAGE 1
    LANGUAGE 2
    LANGUAGE 3
    LANGUAGE 4
    37 / 45

    View full-size slide

  113. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Directed, Weighted, Multi-State Parsimony and Lexical
    Change
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 2 1
    月光 2 0 1 2
    月光佛 4 2 0 4
    月亮 2 2 3 0
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 2 1
    月光 1 0 1 2
    月光佛 2 1 0 3
    月亮 1 2 3 0
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 1 1
    月光 1 0 1 1
    月光佛 1 1 0 1
    月亮 1 1 1 0
    月 光
    月 光 佛
    -
    月 亮
    月 光 佛
    -
    0
    0
    1 0 2 2
    = 1 = 4
    月 光
    月 光 佛
    -
    月 亮
    月 光 佛
    -
    0
    0
    1 0 2 1
    = 1 = 3
    Transition Penalty (SANKOFF)
    Transition Penalty (DWST)
    1
    1
    1
    1 1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    2 1
    1
    2 1
    1
    1
    2
    A
    B
    C
    38 / 45

    View full-size slide

  114. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Directed, Weighted, Multi-State Parsimony and Lexical
    Change
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 2 1
    月光 2 0 1 2
    月光佛 4 2 0 4
    月亮 2 2 3 0
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 2 1
    月光 1 0 1 2
    月光佛 2 1 0 3
    月亮 1 2 3 0
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 1 1
    月光 1 0 1 1
    月光佛 1 1 0 1
    月亮 1 1 1 0
    月 光
    月 光 佛
    -
    月 亮
    月 光 佛
    -
    0
    0
    1 0 2 2
    = 1 = 4
    月 光
    月 光 佛
    -
    月 亮
    月 光 佛
    -
    0
    0
    1 0 2 1
    = 1 = 3
    Transition Penalty (SANKOFF)
    Transition Penalty (DWST)
    1
    1
    1
    1 1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    2 1
    1
    2 1
    1
    1
    2
    A
    B
    C
    38 / 45

    View full-size slide

  115. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Directed, Weighted, Multi-State Parsimony and Lexical
    Change
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 2 1
    月光 2 0 1 2
    月光佛 4 2 0 4
    月亮 2 2 3 0
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 2 1
    月光 1 0 1 2
    月光佛 2 1 0 3
    月亮 1 2 3 0
    月 月光 月光佛 月亮
    月 0 1 1 1
    月光 1 0 1 1
    月光佛 1 1 0 1
    月亮 1 1 1 0
    月 光
    月 光 佛
    -
    月 亮
    月 光 佛
    -
    0
    0
    1 0 2 2
    = 1 = 4
    月 光
    月 光 佛
    -
    月 亮
    月 光 佛
    -
    0
    0
    1 0 2 1
    = 1 = 3
    Transition Penalty (SANKOFF)
    Transition Penalty (DWST)
    1
    1
    1
    1 1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    1
    2 1
    1
    2 1
    1
    1
    2
    A
    B
    C
    38 / 45

    View full-size slide

  116. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Testing the Method on Chinese Dialect Data
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    22 Chinese dialect varieties with Chinese character readings
    (basis vocabulary, data by Hamed and Wang 2006),
    57 nouns in which Ancient Chinese forms expressing the concepts
    are known to us and are are also still preserved in at least one
    Chinese dialect,
    three reference phylogenies (Arbre by Sagart 2011, Southern
    Chinese by Norman 2003, Shùxíngtú by Yóu 1992),
    four models of lexical change (binary, unweighted, weighted,
    weighted and directed).
    39 / 45

    View full-size slide

  117. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Results
    Model
    Arbre
    Hits Fails Score
    BINARY 0.55 / 31.04 0.45 / 24.96 695
    FITCH 0.63 / 35.51 0.37 / 20.49 322
    SANKOFF 0.76 / 42.83 0.24 / 13.17 508
    DWST 0.82 / 45.70 0.18 / 10.30 532
    Model
    Southern Chinese
    Hits Fails Score
    BINARY 0.52 / 28.95 0.48 / 27.05 719
    FITCH 0.47 / 26.40 0.53 / 29.60 328
    SANKOFF 0.62 / 34.50 0.38 / 21.50 518
    DWST 0.79 / 44.50 0.21 / 11.50 546
    Xiāng
    Yuè
    Mǐn

    Mandarin
    Hakka
    Gàn
    Xiāng
    Yuè

    Mandarin
    Mǐn
    Hakka
    Gàn
    Xiāng
    Mandarin

    Yuè
    Mǐn
    Hakka
    Gàn
    Model
    Shùxíngtú
    Hits Fails Score
    BINARY 0.52 / 29.04 0.48 / 26.96 726
    FITCH 0.51 / 28.31 0.49 / 27.69 336
    SANKOFF 0.67 / 37.50 0.33 / 18.50 524
    DWST 0.82 / 46.00 0.18 / 10.00 546
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    40 / 45

    View full-size slide

  118. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  119. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  120. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  121. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  122. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  123. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  124. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  125. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  126. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  127. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  128. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Examples
    Fúzhōu
    Táiběi
    Xiàmén
    Zhāngpíng
    Mǐn
    Guǎngzhōu
    Měixiàn
    Liánchéng
    Hakka
    Wēnzhōu
    Níngbō
    Sūzhōu
    Shànghǎi
    Shànghǎi_B

    Nánchāng
    Ānyì
    Gàn
    Chángshā
    Shuāngfēng
    Xiāng
    Yàngshān
    Wǔhàn
    Níngxià
    Chéngdū
    Běijīng
    Tàiyuán
    Yúcì
    Guānhuà

    月娘
    月光佛
    月光
    月亮
    月明
    ‘MOON’
    ‘MOON-MOTHER’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT’
    ‘MOON-LIGHT-SUFFIX’
    ‘MOON-SHINE’
    ‘MOON-BRIGHT’
    List (2016, Journal of Language Evolution)
    41 / 45

    View full-size slide

  129. New Approaches to Phylogenetic Reconstruction Lexical Change in the Chinese Dialects
    Interactive Application
    An interactive application showing all inferred evolutionary scenarios for
    the Arbre phylogeny by Sagart (2011) is available at
    http://digling.github.io/beyond-cognacy-paper/.
    42 / 45

    View full-size slide

  130. Outlook
    Outlook
    Outlook
    43 / 45

    View full-size slide

  131. Outlook
    Outlook
    If we want to profit from computational analyses in historical
    linguistics, we need to increase the complexity of our models.
    In order to profit from existing biological approaches, we need to
    foster a close collaboration between computational linguistics,
    computational biologists, but also and especially between classical
    biologists and linguistics.
    We need to be extremely careful with our analogies. Instead of
    transfering methods blindly, we should not forget that we may have
    to adapt them first to meet the specific needs of the target
    discipline.
    44 / 45

    View full-size slide

  132. Thanks for Your Attention!
    45 / 45

    View full-size slide