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Statewide Comprehensive IPV Training DAY 2

Statewide Comprehensive IPV Training DAY 2

This Statewide Comprehensive Training provides professionals with in-depth information about working in the field of domestic violence. The training emphasizes victim safety, victim empowerment, abuser accountability, and a comprehensive system’s response to intimate partner violence. MNADV emphasizes partnering with local domestic violence programs and utilizes local experts to present throughout the training. MNADV developed this training for professionals from a variety of different fields who encounter domestic violence in their work.


lucane lafortune

March 03, 2021


  1. MNADV’s 5-Day Comprehensive Intimate Partner Violence Training Day 2: Tactics

    of Abuse, Intervention, Prevention, Trauma, Self-care
  2. Meet the Team Angel Campbell Darrell Holly K-Tony Korol Evans

    Lucane LaFortune Jenn Pollitt Hill Melanie Shapiro Training & LAP Administrator Statewide Trainer Deputy Director Interim Executive Policy Director Technical Assistant Director
  3. Housekeeping • Certificates and CEUs • Cancellations • Attendance •

    Accessing Materials • All attendees will be MUTED except during breakout sessions. • Use the chat box to ask questions or engage in dialogue • Evaluations
  4. Review/Debrief of Day 1 Coordinated Community Response Power & Control

    Dynamics: Tactics of Abuse BREAK Power & Control Dynamics continued LUNCH Realms of Self Care Abuse Intervention Programs Engaging Men and Boys Predominant Aggressor (Jennifer Morton) BREAK Trauma Evaluations
  5. Our Workshop Agreements • Active listening • Be open •

    Be present: silence that internal chatter • Push through growing edge • Respectfully challenge each other • Continue to have these conversations • Remember why we’re all here
  6. Day 1 Review and Debrief • What were your overall

    thoughts on the day? • What did you learn? • What surprised you? • What do you want to learn more about? • How will you do your work differently?
  7. Coordinated Community Response

  8. Clip - Coordinated Community Response Teams NCALL, 2018

  9. Overarching Questions • What is a coordinated response? • What

    does one really look like? • What impact does a solid coordinated response have on the lives of survivors and their families?
  10. Guiding Principles of CCR • Requires coordination and partnership from

    many agencies and stakeholders • Domestic violence programs should be the driving force • Balance of diplomacy and assertive advocacy
  11. Good Collaborators • Have empathy and understanding towards others’ perspectives

    • Articulate their own needs clearly • Are patient and thorough with explanations • Actively listen • Advocate strongly for survivors
  12. Fostering relationships with: The Interfaith Community Train clergy and lay

    leaders: • Emphasize empowerment advocacy and referral • Include screening for domestic violence in pastoral counseling • Stay connected: Outreach materials, thank you notes, personal invitations • Targeted donation drives (“adopt the shelter,” etc.) • Encourage them to sign up for MNADV newsletter • Collaborate with faith-based organizations to sponsor domestic violence awareness events
  13. Fostering relationships with: The Health Care System • Cross-train staff

    • Identify, screen, and assess • Mandated reporting • Referrals and resources • Encourage protocols and procedures for patients to be screened, assessed, and referred alone • Outreach materials • Maryland Health Care Coalition Against Domestic Violence • Futures Without Violence • MNADV • Encourage utilization of hospital-based DV programs
  14. Fostering relationships with: The Department of Social Services (DSS) •

    Cross-train staff • Develop screening and referral protocols • Identify loopholes and procedures that allow survivors to receive services promptly. • Safety plan around appointments • Advocate for the survivor to obtain needs such as purchase of care (daycare) vouchers, transportation • Attend and advocate at systems-level meetings
  15. Fostering relationships with: Mental Health & Substance Use Programs •

    Cross-train staff • Referral protocols for survivors and abusive partners • Encourage discussion around: • Psychiatric diagnosis • Trauma and mental distress • Common mental health disorders of survivors and abusive partners • Coping strategies (healthy and unhealthy) • Stages of change • Harm reduction strategies • Program restrictions and practices REMEMBER! • Mental health disorders/ substance use do not cause DV • Both the survivor and the abusive partner may be struggling • Mental health disorders/substance use are often used as a way to blame the victim while excusing the abusive partner’s behavior • A victim’s perception of their situation and the potential danger they are in can be impacted by their mental health disorder and/or substance use
  16. Fostering relationships with: Legislators • Participate in legislative committees and

    lobby days • Attend hearings on issues that will impact survivors • Send hand-written letters and/or call legislators to advocate for survivors’ rights and needs https://whoismyrepresentative.com/ https://www.house.gov/representatives/find- your-representative http://mgaleg.maryland.gov/ • Invite legislators to speak and/or participate in awareness-raising activities
  17. Fostering relationships with: Partnerships with Law Enforcement • Cross-train •

    Domestic violence dynamics • Confidentiality requirements • Stages of change • Identify a main contact • Outreach materials • Follow-up • Collaboration impacts safety planning!
  18. Why Don’t they Just Leave?” Understanding the Dynamics of DV

    Relationships and Stages of Change 18
  19. What is Domestic Violence? A pattern of abusive behavior in

    any relationship that is used by one partner to gain and maintain power and control over another intimate partner. -Office on Violence Against Women (OVW)
  20. Clip: Telling Amy’s Story

  21. Duluth Power and Control Wheel www.theduluthmodel.org/wheels

  22. Power and Control Wheel for Immigrant Communities https://www.futureswithoutviolence.org/power-and-control-tactics-used-against-immigrant-women/

  23. Power and Control Wheel for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans

    Relationships https://www.safehousecenter.org/power-and-control-in-lgbt-relationships/
  24. None
  25. How Abusers Manipulate Systems to Maintain Power and Control •

    The Legal System • Child Protective Services • Health and Human Services • Child Support/Custody • Employment • The School System • Housing • Domestic Violence Resources
  26. Healthy or Unhealthy? Are the following scenarios examples of healthy

    or unhealthy relationship dynamics?
  27. Lunch!

  28. Self-Care Finding Your Balance

  29. We tend to think of nourishment only as what we

    take in through our mouths, but what we consume with our eyes, our ears, our noses, our tongues, and our bodies is also food. The conversations going on around us, and those we participate in, are also food. Are we consuming and creating the kind of food that is healthy for us and helps us grow? -Thich Nhat Hanh
  30. Parts That Make Us Whole

  31. Social

  32. Spiritual

  33. Emotional

  34. Occupational

  35. Intellectual

  36. Physical

  37. Self-Care = Re-balancing

  38. Self-Care = Re-balancing

  39. How Balanced Are You?

  40. 2 minute stretch break!

  41. Abuse Intervention Programs (AIPs)

  42. Anger Management • Anger is primary problem. • Focus is

    managing the emotion. • Abuse is seen as loss of control. • Intervention is short term. • Generally no identified victim. • No addressing of empathy for the victim. • Non-confrontational. • Little or no attention to accountability. • Viewed as personal mental health issue. • Abuse and control is primary problem. • Focus on changing beliefs and behavior. • Abuse is seen as taking control. • Intervention is long term. • There are identified victim(s). • Empathy building is common. • Confrontational. • Accountability is paramount. • Viewed a social, societal issue. Abuse Intervention Differences between Anger Management and Abuse Intervention Programs (AIPs)
  43. Clip: Working with Abusive Partners

  44. Maryland Abuse Intervention Collaborative (MAIC) • All Abuse Intervention Programs

    (AIPs) in Maryland must be certified by the Governor’s Office of Crime Control and Prevention (GOCCP) • Each May, the Family Violence Council (FVC) (under GOCCP) accepts applications for re-certification of current programs and for new programs http://goccp.maryland.gov/victims/family-violence-council/abuse-intervention/
  45. AIP Guidelines • Purposes: • Ensure safety and well-being of

    all programs, abusers, and victims; • Strengthen programs; • Quality assurance; • Ensure an accountability response • Best practices are recommendations, not requirements. Keep in mind: Even with the guidelines, of the 45 states with standards or guidelines for abuse intervention work, Maryland still has the least restrictive standards. Comprehensive list of other state standards: www.biscmi.org
  46. Minimum qualifications of AIPs • Program response to survivors and

    courts • Focus on accountability and stopping the abuse • Connection with local comprehensive program
  47. Guidelines: Definition of abusive behavior In the Maryland AIP guidelines,

    abusive behavior is defined as: Any criminal offense where the offender and the victim are, or have been, married; in an intimate relationship, including dating and same sex relationships; or have a child together. • Pattern of coercive control • “Physical or emotional harm or intimidating to control the victim’s thoughts, feelings, or actions.” • Abusive behavior results in a culture of fear
  48. Guidelines: Types of abuse • Physical • Verbal and emotional

    • Economic • Sexual abuse • Social isolation • Failure to comply with immigration requirements
  49. Guidelines: Responsibility of abusive behavior • Abuser “bears sole responsibility”

    for their actions. • Substance use nor “emotional problems” will be tolerated as excuses
  50. Operating Standards Must comply with victim confidentiality laws Intake process:

    • Court or self-referral • AIP alerts the courts if program is not suitable • Take history of violence • Confidentiality waiver for abusive partner • Contract signed by AIP and abusive partner ▪ Duration of the program ▪ Fees ▪ No new violence of any form ▪ Refrain from drugs and alcohol ▪ If cannot do the above, considered noncompliance of the program
  51. Program Format • Intimate partner violence only • Same-gender groups

    • Timeline is at least 20 weeks (32 hours) for group and 12 weeks (16 hours) for individual • AIP notifies court monitors and victim of completion or discharge • No guarantee of safety for victim, even if completed • Discharge occurs if a new violent incident occurs
  52. Contact with Victim AIP Facilitators contact victim • Resources •

    History of violence • Info on AIPs • Inform them of abusive partner’s attendance, if desired AIP screens for abuser’s lethality and warns victim if needed and/or contacts law enforcement if there is a direct threat
  53. Best Practice Recommendations • Follow-up interviews with victims at 3,

    6, 9, 12 months • AIP contacts all current partners • Separation of services to victims and services to abusive partners ▪ Waiting rooms ▪ Limit contact on-site ▪ Couples counseling
  54. Best Practice Recommendations • Include related topics (parenting, substance use)

    • AIP maintains relationship with abusive partner’s probation/parole agent • 10-12 people per group • Groups preferred over individual counseling • Male and female co-facilitators
  55. Community Collaboration • Victim services • Mental health • Substance

    abuse • Domestic Violence Coordinating Council (county-wide) • Parole and probation Other organizations to connect with: • Maryland Abuse Intervention Collaborative (MAIC) • The Governor’s Family Violence Council (FVC) • The Maryland Network Against Domestic Violence (MNADV) • Community resources • Employment assistance • Parenting classes • Housing assistance, support groups
  56. Resources MAIC Co-Chairs: 1MAICMD@gmail.com • LaTisha Carter, My Covenant Place

    • Angelique Green-Manning, House of Ruth Maryland More information on AIPs in Maryland: http://goccp.maryland.gov/victims/family-violence- council/abuse-intervention/ • Operational guidelines • Application • List of certified programs • Complaint report form
  57. Engaging Men & Boys

  58. “ There are many effects of the abuse that are

    particular to males. Men are not supposed to be victims. Society tells us: men don’t get depressed, men don’t seek help, men don’t need therapy…” – Male Survivor
  59. What does the data show? • About 1 in 17

    men in the U.S. were victims of stalking at some point in their lifetime. • In the U.S., about 1 in 3 men experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetime • Over one-third of men experienced psychological aggression by an intimate partner during their lifetime.
  60. What does the data show… • Nearly 1 in 10

    men in the U.S. experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner during their lifetime and reported some form of IPV-related impact • 31.0% experienced physical violence ;14.9% experienced severe physical violence. • About 1 in 20 men in the U.S. experienced contact sexual violence, physical violence, and/or stalking by an intimate partner during the 12 months preceding the survey.
  61. Consequences of not being seen as a victim • Not

    taken seriously as the victim by the Police thereafter • Losing care of children • Becoming even more isolated • Feeling there is no alternative but to use violence and/or weapons to protect self and/or children, increasing risk to everyone. • Increased use of self-medication to cope, which presents additional risks to self and to children.
  62. Consequences of not being seen as a victim • Psychological

    impact of not being believed ✓shutting down emotionally ✓minimizing to self and others the nature and effects of the violence ✓More difficult for agencies to respond • Being referred to a perpetrator program ✓a waste of resources ✓Inappropriate or unsafe for survivor ✓Increased depression or anger ✓More control by the real perpetrator
  63. The Mask You Live In

  64. Change Agents • If you know somebody who is abusive

    toward their partner tell them their behavior is not okay and they need to get help to stop. • Speak out against domestic violence. This can have a powerful effect in helping change attitudes and social norms that support and perpetuate abuse. • Take on a leadership role in your community, e.g. sports club, university, neighborhood association or church group, and use this opportunity to speak out against violence in the home.
  65. Change Agents • Understand how your own attitudes and actions

    may perpetuate sexism and violence. • Confront sexist, racist, homophobic and all other prejudiced remarks or jokes. • Reach out and show support to someone you know is experiencing domestic violence. Gently ask if you can help. Never put the blame on the victim of domestic violence.
  66. Change Agents • Become active bystanders including naming and stopping

    situations that could lead to violence before it happens and stepping in during an incident. • Recognize that the tradition of referring to men who choose to walk away from a fight as “punks” is connected to negative ideas about what is masculine.
  67. Resources • A Call to Men • Men Can Stop

    Rape • National Organization for Men Against Sexism (NOMAS) • Men Stopping Violence • Men’s Initiative for Jane Doe Inc. • Mentors in Violence Prevention • ReThink • Walk a Mile in Their Shoes
  68. 15-minute break!

  69. Determining the Primary Aggressor Jennifer Morton Department Chair and Program

    Director Legal Studies, DTCC
  70. Identifying the Primary Aggressor SHE SAID HE SAID

  71. • Domestic violence • Dual Arrests • The law •

    Self–Defense • Primary/Predominant Aggressor What we will do today:
  72. • S/he hit me too! • S/he attacked me first!

    • I was just trying to get him/her off of me! Common themes:
  73. Sometimes . . . It’s hard to tell Who’s Abusing

  74. Case study Who is the primary aggressor here?

  75. Domestic violence is a pattern of behavior in which one

    person attempts to control an intimate partner through threats or actual use of physical violence, sexual assault, verbal and psychological abuse and/or economic coercion. Domestic Violence
  76. ▪ Dual arrest rates are higher for cases of simple

    assault that involve IP ▪ Mandatory arrest laws increase the likelihood that police will arrest both parties ▪ Dual arrest was more common in intimate partner cases if the primary offender was a female age 21 or older ▪ Dual arrest rates for same-sex couples were 10 times the rate observed in cases with male victims and female offenders and 30 times the rate in cases with female victims and male offenders Dual Arrests:
  77. ▪ Both parties are arrested. ▪ If both parties have

    injuries, often one party has acted in self-defense. ▪ In inappropriate dual arrests: ▪ Lessens ability to prosecute – often causing dismissal. ▪ Victims are further victimized. ▪ Decreases chances the victim will seek further help. ▪ Possible eventual homicide by offender. ▪ Increases liability. ▪ Abuser wins! 77 Dual Arrest:
  78. ▪ Md. Criminal Procedure, 2-204: ▪ If a police officer

    has probable cause to believe a mutual battery occurred and arrest is necessary ▪ The police officer shall consider whether one of the persons acted in self-defense when determining whether to arrest the person whom the police officer believes to be the primary aggressor. Maryland's Primary Aggressor
  79. ▪ Requires all of the following three factors: 1. The

    person actually believe that she/he was in immediate danger of bodily harm 2. Their belief was reasonable 3. They used no more force than what was reasonably necessary to defend themselves in light of the threatened or actual harm Maryland Self-Defense
  80. Explore: Who is controlling whom? Who is afraid of whom?

    Who’s Abusing Whom?
  81. ▪ Both men and woman can be victims ▪ Abuse

    may appear mutual But abusers routinely: ▪ Accuse their partner of being equally abusive ▪ Claim to be the victim ▪ Use a pattern of coercive control BEST PRACTICE: When it appears a couple is mutually abusive, KEEP ASSESSING and asking questions about the relationship to determine the pattern of power and control!!! Determining Primary Aggressor
  82. ▪ Primary/Predominant aggressor is NOT who struck who first. ▪

    Rather, the predominant aggressor is the party who is the most significant aggressor: the party who poses the most serious threat and who has the greatest ability and inclination to inflict physical injury. Primary Aggressor
  83. ▪ They’re ready for you; ▪ Are you ready for

    them? Intimate Partner Criminals
  84. • Abuser is prepared • He said, she said –

    conflicting stories • Conflicting injuries • Conflicting demeanor Difficulties:
  85. ▪ 911* ▪ Witness Accounts ▪ Officer’s observations ▪ Physical

    evidence ▪ Prior history ▪ Criminal history of prior abuse? ▪ Prior history of protective orders? ▪ Prior calls for service? ▪ Demeanor and body language ▪ Physical size of the parties ▪ Offensive/Defensive Wounds Gathering Context:
  86. ▪ Who is demonstrating power and control? ▪ Following from

    room to room ▪ Does all the talking ▪ Keeps interrupting ▪ Threats ▪ Minimizing, denying and blaming Gathering Context:
  87. None
  88. Victims Often: ▪ Fear their partner ▪ Fear retribution if

    they leave ▪ May attempt to explain their partner’s behavior ▪ May analyze their contribution to the violence ▪ Want to change the relationship ▪ Can see the relationship from their partner’s perspective ▪ Don’t exhibit genuine fear of partner ▪ Don’t fear retribution if they leave ▪ Criticize and blame their partner ▪ Keep the focus on their partner’s behavior ▪ Want to prove their point and complain about their partner ▪ Are unable or unwilling to see the relationship from their partner’s perspective Who’s The Victim? Abusers Often:
  89. • Who is fearful of whom? • Who poses the

    most danger to the other? • Who is seeking to stop the violence? • Who has the motive to lie or retaliate? • Is there corroboration? • Whose story makes the most sense? Questions to ask:
  90. None
  91. Questions? • Contact: Jennifer Morton Department Chair and Program Director,

    Legal Studies, DTCC jmorton9@dtcc.edu
  92. Stretch Break!

  93. Trauma Instead of asking “What’s wrong with you?” let’s ask,

    “What happened to you?”
  94. Types of Stress

  95. Trauma results from: an event, series of events, or set

    of circumstances that is experienced by an individual as physically or emotionally harmful or threatening and that has lasting adverse effects on the individual's functioning and physical, social, emotional, or spiritual well-being. - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  96. Survivors Experience Multiple Types of Trauma • Individual trauma •

    Collective trauma • Historical • Cumulative • Polyvictimization Giller 1999; NCDVTMH: Packard/NIWRC 2012; Moss 2013; Cave and Curley 2015 • All can increase risk for victimization • Coping strategies can increase risk for harm • Not learning one has the right to protect oneself can increase risk for being harmed • Social conditions, discrimination and lack of human rights protections increase the risk of being harmed • Abusive partners exploit these experiences
  97. Possible Traumatic Impact of DV These interrelated factors can increase

    or protect against the traumatic impact of DV: • Age and developmental stage • Individual characteristics • Nature of the event, ongoing exposure • Community and culture • Other stressors, adversities Pynoos, et. al. 1999
  98. Clip: The Three Main Parts of the Brain

  99. The Brain

  100. Clip: Trauma and the Brain

  101. Normal Stress Response Stimulus Thalamus Sensory Relay Station Amygdala Alarm

    Cortex Thinking & Planning Hippocampus Memory Response LeDoux, 1996, Bassuk 2007 Very Fast Slower
  102. Traumatic Stress Response Sensitized Nervous System: Under-modulation of Fear Pathways

    Stimulus Thalamus Sensory Relay Station Amygdala Alarm Cortex Thinking & Planning Hippocampus Memory Response Very Fast Slower Response Response LeDoux, 1996, Bassuk 2007
  103. Clip: Rebecca Campbell - The World's Messiest Desk

  104. Trauma Reactions • Emotional reactions • Psychological and cognitive reactions

    • Behavioral reactions • Physical reactions “An individual body expresses what cannot be said or verbalized. And so, traumatic memories are often transformed into physical outcomes” – Van der Kolk
  105. Always remember: Traumatic reactions are NORMAL responses to ABNORMAL situations.

  106. Trauma in the Context of DV • Trauma is not

    “post” • Appropriate response to ongoing danger • Stress Response: Fight, Flight, or Freeze • “Overreaction” to minor stimuli or acute social awareness? Warshaw, 2009
  107. Trauma Can Affect Our Capacity to: • Feel internally connected

    to caring others • Experience ourselves as deserving and worthwhile • Manage and share feelings • Stay present and connected; maintain self- awareness • Comfort ourselves; be comforted by others Saakvitne et. al, 2000
  108. Trauma Can Affect Our Capacity to Trust Trust other people

    • Reach out for or respond to help Trust ourselves • Solve problems, exercise judgment • Process information, screen out distractions • Take initiative, thoughtfully plan Saakvitne et. al., 2000, Harris & Fallot 2001
  109. None
  110. Coping and Survival in the Context of Ongoing Domestic Violence

    Attempts to stop the abuse • Reach out for help • Trying to improve the relationship • Appear ‘passive’/compliant • Reasoning with, trying to placate abusive partner Warshaw, 2001 Attempts to manage the impact Dissociation, denial Avoidance Self-medication/Substance use Self-injury Attempts to escape Suicide Homicide
  111. Trauma Affects Survivors’ Experience of Programs • Authority, rules, and

    controlling practices • Lack of cultural awareness and accessibility • Neutral requests, stimuli, and interactions So what can we do differently?
  112. Knowing About Trauma Helps Survivors • Normalizes and makes sense

    of responses • Offers alternative coping strategies • Acknowledges importance and challenges of connection • Prepares for trauma responses • Ensures choice; optimizes control NCDVTMH, 2012
  113. Knowing about Trauma Helps Advocates • Understand survivors’ responses in

    context • Respond in more helpful and empathic ways • Offer more effective interventions • Understand our own responses, their potential impact & need for organizational support
  114. Examples of Trauma-Informed Models ➢ Addiction and Trauma Recovery Integration

    Model (ATRIUM) ➢ Essence of Being Real ➢ Risking Connection ➢ Sanctuary Model ➢ Seeking Safety ➢ Trauma, Addictions, Mental Health, and Recovery (TAMAR) Model ➢ Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy (TARGET) ➢ Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM and M-TREM)
  115. Clip: Neuroplasticity

  116. Protective and Resiliency Factors • Innate individual resources • Temperament,

    personality, intelligence • Sense of self-agency • “I can be effective…” • Beliefs, values, practices • Traditions, spiritual rituals • Stability and responsiveness of systems and social supports • Specifically for children, a secure, safe attachment to the non- offending parent is crucial
  117. Resiliency is a Critical Ingredient to Recovery and Healing Resilience:

    Capacity for successful adaptation despite challenging or threatening circumstances McLewin & Muller 2006; Waller 2001; Bell 2006 “I have come to the conclusion that human beings are born with an innate capacity to triumph over trauma. I believe not only that trauma is curable, but that the healing process can be a catalyst for profound awakening - a portal opening to emotional and genuine spiritual transformation." -Dr. Peter Levine
  118. Autobiography in Five Short Chapters by Portia Nelson

  119. Evaluations https://md.coalitionmanager.org/formmanager/formsubmission/create?formId=114 Questions to think about: • What did you

    learn that you’re going to take with you back to your work? • Is there something you wanted to learn about that wasn’t addressed, or wanted more time spent on it? • Was there something that can be improved for next time?
  120. References Bassuk, E., Konnath, K., Volk, K. (2007). Understanding Traumatic

    Stress in Children. Newton, MA: National Center on Family Homelessness. Giller, Esther. (1999). Proceedings from the Annual Conference of the Maryland mental Hygiene Administration, Passages to Prevention: Prevention across Life’s Spectrum: What is psychological trauma? Harris, M., & Fallot, R. D. (Eds.). (2001). New directions for mental health services. Using trauma theory to design service systems. San Francisco, CA, US: Jossey-Bass. Ledoux JE. (1996). The emotional brain. New York: Simon and Schuster. National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma & Mental Health. 2012. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Coercion Tipsheet. Retrieved from http://nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/Mental-Health-and-Substance-AbuseCoercion.pdf National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma, and Mental Health. (2011 and 2012). “A Trauma-Informed Approach to Domestic Violence Advocacy.” Retrieved from http://nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Tipsheet_TI-DV-Advocacy_NCDVTMH_Aug2011.pdf National Center on Domestic Violence, Trauma, and Mental Health. (Revised August 2014). Core Curriculum on Trauma-Informed Domestic Violence Services. Packard, Gwendolyn and the National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center. (2012). “What is Trauma Informed Work and Why Should We Care?” Retrieved from http://www.niwrc.org/resources/what-trauma-informed-work-and-why-should-we-care Pynoos, et. al. (1999). “A developmental psychopathology model of childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders.” Biological Psychiatry. Dec 1;46(11):1542-54. Saakvitne, K. W., et. al. (2000). Risking connection: A training curriculum for working with survivors of childhood abuse. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Foundation and Press. Warshaw, Carole, et. al. (2001). Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence. Warshaw, Carole, et. al. (2013). “A Systematic Review of Trauma-Focused Interventions for Domestic Violence Survivors.” Retrieved from http://www.nationalcenterdvtraumamh.org
  121. See you next week!

  122. Stay Connected

  123. None