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Fundamentals of Turfgrass Maintenance

C62291821dac0dd5b7ef3b72a30cd137?s=47 Micah Woods
July 15, 2015

Fundamentals of Turfgrass Maintenance

I spoke at a seminar in Tokyo about the fundamentals of turfgrass maintenance. First I explained how I would define turfgrass maintenance. Then I discussed temperature, leaf nitrogen, plant water status, and photosynthetically active radiation, and explained how these factors influence growth. Temperature data from Tokyo in 2014 and year-to-date in 2015 were used to discuss the influence of temperature on warm and cool season turfgrass growth.

C62291821dac0dd5b7ef3b72a30cd137?s=128

Micah Woods

July 15, 2015
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  1. Fundamentals of Turfgrass Maintenance Micah Woods Chief Scientist Asian Turfgrass

    Center www.asianturfgrass.com 15 July 2015
  2. Today’s topics Four main things 1. My definition of greenkeeping

    2. Temperature, nitrogen, water, light: the 4 factors that influence growth 3. Specific challenges for bent and bermuda in Japan 4. US Open discussion
  3. Greenkeeping definition At the most basic level, greenkeeping involves controlling

    the growth rate of the grass.
  4. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf
  5. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf ▶ The amount of air in the soil
  6. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf ▶ The amount of air in the soil ▶ The amount of water in the soil
  7. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf ▶ The amount of air in the soil ▶ The amount of water in the soil ▶ The nutrients supplied to the turf
  8. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf ▶ The amount of air in the soil ▶ The amount of water in the soil ▶ The nutrients supplied to the turf ▶ Pest control
  9. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf ▶ The amount of air in the soil ▶ The amount of water in the soil ▶ The nutrients supplied to the turf ▶ Pest control ▶ Mowing
  10. Greenkeeping definition, expanded Greenkeeping involves modifying the growing environment of

    turfgrass to create the desired playing surface for golf. This involves controlling the growth rate, along with modifications to: ▶ The amount of light reaching the turf ▶ The amount of air in the soil ▶ The amount of water in the soil ▶ The nutrients supplied to the turf ▶ Pest control ▶ Mowing ▶ Surface refinement – rolling, bunker raking, cup cuing, etc
  11. Factors that influence growth These are temperature, nitrogen, water, and

    light. All have the potential to completely stop growth when they are limiting. In practice, temperature is oen the controlling factor.
  12. Iceland, May

  13. Temperature-based growth potential PACE Turf developed the temperature-based growth potential

    (GP) to express the actual temperature in terms of its proximity to optimum temperatures for shoot growth. GP = e−0.5(t−to var )2 where, GP = growth potential, on a scale of 0 to 1 e = 2.71828, a mathematical constant t = average temperature for a location, in ℃ to = optimum temperature, 20 for C3 grass, 31 for C4 grass var = adjusts the change in GP as temperature moves away from to ; I suggest 5.5 for C3 and 7 for C4
  14. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2014-01 2014-04

    2014-07 2014-10 2015-01 2015-04 2015-07 Date Temperature (ÂřC) Tokyo daily high and low temperature
  15. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2014-01 2014-04

    2014-07 2014-10 2015-01 2015-04 2015-07 Date Temperature (ÂřC) Tokyo average temperature
  16. 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 2014-01 2014-04 2014-07 2014-10 2015-01

    2015-04 2015-07 Date C3 growth potential (GP) Tokyo
  17. 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 2014-01 2014-04 2014-07 2014-10 2015-01

    2015-04 2015-07 Date C4 growth potential (GP) Tokyo
  18. 0 20 40 60 Jan 2014 Apr 2014 Jul 2014

    Oct 2014 Jan 2015 Date Cumulative sum of C3 - C4 GP Tokyo 2014
  19. 0 20 40 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

    Date Cumulative sum of C3 - C4 GP Tokyo 2015
  20. No fertilizer since 1855, Rothamsted, England

  21. Cascade Head prairie, no fertilizer, Oregon

  22. 0 10 20 30 40 N K P Ca Mg

    S Element Amount in bentgrass leaves (g/kg)
  23. St. Andrews Old Course, Scotland

  24. Kashima Soccer Stadium, Ibaraki

  25. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2014-01 2014-04

    2014-07 2014-10 2015-01 2015-04 2015-07 Date Temperature (ÂřC) Tokyo average temperature
  26. 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Jan 2014 Apr

    2014 Jul 2014 Oct 2014 Jan 2015 Date Cumulative sum of expected N use (g m-2) Tokyo 2014
  27. 0 3 6 9 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

    Jul Date Cumulative sum of expected N use (g m-2) Tokyo 2015
  28. Adjust N supply to get the desired growth rate

  29. Plant water status can control growth

  30. Hayling, England

  31. Measuring soil moisture has become a standard practice

  32. 0 250 500 750 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

    Jul Date Cumulative sum of precipitation (mm) Tokyo 2015
  33. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR)

  34. Photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), Iceland, May

  35. Clouds and PPFD, Saitama, July

  36. PAR, PPFD, and DLI What do these mean? ▶ PAR

    is photsynthetically active radiation. It is the light with wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm. ▶ PAR is measured instantaneously as a flux of photons within those wavelengths on a surface of 1 m2. ▶ Instantaneous PAR is the photosynthetic photon flux density, (PPFD). ▶ Adding together all the PAR from each second of the day gives the daily light integral, DLI.
  37. PPFD by hour in 1 day at Ishigaki 0 500

    1000 1500 2000 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 Time of Day Photosynthetic Irradiance
  38. PPFD by hour in 1 month at Ishigaki 0 500

    1000 1500 2000 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 Time of Day Photosynthetic Irradiance
  39. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Jan 2014 Apr

    2014 Jul 2014 Oct 2014 Jan 2015 Date Daily light integral (DLI),mol m-2 d-1 Tokyo 2014
  40. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 May Jun Jul

    Aug Sep Oct Nov Date Daily light integral (DLI),mol m-2 d-1 Tokyo 2014 when mean temperature >= 20
  41. Histogram of DLI in Tokyo 2014 when mean temp >=

    20 Daily light integral (DLI),mol m-2 d-1 Frequency 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 5 10 15
  42. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 May Jun Jul

    Aug Sep Oct Nov Date Daily light integral (DLI),mol m-2 d-1 Tokyo 2014 when mean temperature >= 20
  43. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 May Jun Jul

    Aug Sep Oct Nov Date Daily light integral (DLI),mol m-2 d-1 Tokyo 2014 when mean temperature >= 20
  44. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 2014-01 2014-04

    2014-07 2014-10 2015-01 2015-04 2015-07 Date Temperature (ÂřC) Tokyo average temperature
  45. estions and discussion