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Turf Conditions & Optimal Efficiency with the Grammar of Greenkeeping

C62291821dac0dd5b7ef3b72a30cd137?s=47 Micah Woods
January 21, 2018

Turf Conditions & Optimal Efficiency with the Grammar of Greenkeeping

Every turfgrass manager knows that temperature, light, water, and fertilizer will influence the growth rate of the grass. Because the growth rate, and adjustments to it, are what finally produce the desired playing surfaces, it is critically important to understand how these factors can be adjusted. We will discuss how the influence of air temperature, photosynthetic light, plant water status, and leaf nitrogen content can be thought of and communicated as a grammar: the fundamental principles or rules of an art or a science. The result of this process is better turf conditions and done so in a systematic way that optimizes efficiency of the work.

C62291821dac0dd5b7ef3b72a30cd137?s=128

Micah Woods

January 21, 2018
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Transcript

  1. Turf conditions & optimal efficiency with the Grammar of Greenkeeping

    Micah Woods January 21, 2018 Chief Scientist Asian Turfgrass Center www.asianturfgrass.com
  2. Today’s schedule • 09:30 to 11:00, set 1 • 11:00

    to 11:30, coffee break • 11:30 to 13:00, set 2 • 13:00 to 14:00, lunch • 14:00 to 15:30, set 3 • 15:30 to 16:00, coffee break • 16:00 to 17:30, set 4
  3. Golf Course Seminar magazine, Japan

  4. “The BOOK”, photo by Jonathan Smith

  5. None
  6. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management

  7. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth
  8. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil
  9. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate
  10. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential
  11. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter
  12. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air
  13. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens
  14. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water?
  15. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water? 10. Managing salt by leaching
  16. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water? 10. Managing salt by leaching 11. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens
  17. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water? 10. Managing salt by leaching 11. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens 12. An easy PAR
  18. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water? 10. Managing salt by leaching 11. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens 12. An easy PAR 13. Similar temperatures, but dissimilar sunshine
  19. Today’s “Table of Contents” 1. Defining turfgrass management 2. Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water? 10. Managing salt by leaching 11. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens 12. An easy PAR 13. Similar temperatures, but dissimilar sunshine 14. Two ways to avoid nutrient deficiencies
  20. Defining turfgrass management

  21. Old Course at St. Andrews, Scotland

  22. Kashima Stadium, Japan

  23. Royal Bangkok Sports Club, Thailand

  24. Greenkeeping is managing the growth rate of the grass to

    create the desired playing surface for golf.
  25. creeping bentgrass, Japan

  26. bermudagrass and seashore paspalum, Thailand

  27. manilagrass putting green, Thailand

  28. seashore paspalum and bermudagrass, Thailand

  29. Penn A-1 creeping bentgrass, K deficiency

  30. creeping bentgrass, PGA Catalunya

  31. Two uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth

  32. What affects growth? Growth is a function of photosynthetic light,

    plant water status, temperature, and a nutrient index.1 This can be represented as the environmental productivity index (EPI). 1Each of these factors can be represented by an index that takes a value from 0 to 1. Thus, the EPI will also have a value in the range of 0 to 1. The nutrient index is primarily a function of leaf N content.
  33. What affects growth? Growth is a function of photosynthetic light,

    plant water status, temperature, and a nutrient index.1 This can be represented as the environmental productivity index (EPI). (light)(water)(temperature)(nutrient) = EPI 1Each of these factors can be represented by an index that takes a value from 0 to 1. Thus, the EPI will also have a value in the range of 0 to 1. The nutrient index is primarily a function of leaf N content.
  34. Poa annua & kikuyugrass, Gran Canaria, November

  35. storm approaching, Bangkok, September

  36. creeping bentgrass 5 cm soil temperature, Japan, July

  37. Festuca & Poa annua near Reykjavik, May 4

  38. Simplified EPI   XXX X (light)(water)((((((( ( hhhhhhh h

    (temperature)(nutrient) = EPI
  39. Managing water in the soil

  40. 80 year old rootzone, Sydney

  41. None
  42. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate

  43. fairway fertilization, Hanoi

  44. add N, get more colour and growth

  45. “We determined through field experiments that in our climate [Wisconsin]

    it takes at least [80 g N/m2/year] to maximize clipping production on a [Poa pratensis] lawn and in excess of [19 g N/m2/month] on a bentgrass fairway.” Houlihan and Kussow, 2006
  46. None
  47. 2 key things with more N: chlorophyll & RuBisCO overseeded

    bermudagrass, La Quinta, California
  48. fescue sod, Iceland

  49. Temperature-based growth potential

  50. Grasses can grow well when temperatures are close to an

    optimum for growth, and grasses will grow more slowly or not at all as the temperature moves away from the optimum.
  51. Temperature-based growth potential PACE Turf developed the Temperature-based GP to

    express the actual temperature in terms of its proximity to optimum temperatures for shoot growth. GP = e−0.5( t−to var )2 where, GP = growth potential, on a scale of 0 to 1 e = 2.71828, a mathematical constant t = average temperature for a location, in celsius to = optimum temperature, 20 for C3 grass, 31 for C4 grass var = adjusts the change in GP as temperature moves away from to ; I suggest 5.5 for C3 and 7 for C4
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  59. vacuum mower, Japan

  60. None
  61. None
  62. None
  63. Implications and use of GP • mowing frequency • fungicide

    duration • heat-related stress • topdressing requirement • nutrient use
  64. Managing soil organic matter

  65. golf course construction, Thailand

  66. seashore paspalum, Hong Kong

  67. First, manage the grass growth to be as slow as

    possible.
  68. Second, add sand topdressing to mix with the organic matter

    as it is produced by the grass.
  69. Third, there is coring or scarification to physically remove organic

    matter from the soil.
  70. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air

  71. Novotek bermudagrass, Thailand

  72. The best playing surface will be produced when the soil

    has just enough water to keep the grass from wilting, and the remaining soil volume will be filled with air.
  73. creeping bentgrass, Kunming, China

  74. Four things to increase roots on putting greens

  75. creeping bentgrass, Japan

  76. Golf is played on the surface, not on the roots.

  77. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens 1. Mow

    the grass as high as possible
  78. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens 1. Mow

    the grass as high as possible 2. Apply the right amount of N, at the right time
  79. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens 1. Mow

    the grass as high as possible 2. Apply the right amount of N, at the right time 3. Make sure there is plenty of air in the soil
  80. 4 things to increase roots on putting greens 1. Mow

    the grass as high as possible 2. Apply the right amount of N, at the right time 3. Make sure there is plenty of air in the soil 4. Make sure there is enough P in the soil
  81. algae on bermudagrass green, Vietnam

  82. bermudagrass roots, September

  83. 3 months later

  84. 3 months later

  85. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation

    water?
  86. bermudagrass, Thailand

  87. cool-season mix, Girona

  88. Managing salt by leaching

  89. Adding extra water will carry salt below the rootzone by

    leaching.
  90. How much leaching is required? We need to know three

    things to calculate the amount of water required. 1. Irrigation water salinity (ECw ) 2. The grass tolerance of salinity in the soil (ECe ) 3. The consumptive water use of the grass (ET)
  91. Leaching requirement, LR LR = ECw 5(ECe) − ECw

  92. Irrigation requirement, IR IR = ET 1 − LR

  93. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens

  94. Using a 10 L bucket to measure the volume of

    clippings
  95. None
  96. None
  97. What’s affected by the growth rate? • divot recovery •

    ball mark recovery • some diseases • traffic damage • green speed • mowing requirement • thatch (and everything associated with its management)
  98. Checking variability • day to day • green to green

    • machine to machine • year to year
  99. mowing greens, Fukuoka, Japan

  100. None
  101. KBC Augusta tournament, 2013

  102. None
  103. None
  104. None
  105. None
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  107. None
  108. None
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  110. None
  111. None
  112. An easy PAR

  113. 3 terms 1. PAR – photosynthetically active radiation 2. PPFD

    – photosynthetic photon flux density, measured per second 3. DLI – daily light integral, sum of PPFD from sunrise to sunset
  114. Similar temperatures, but dissimilar sunshine

  115. Orlando vs. Hong Kong

  116. Two ways to avoid nutrient deficiencies

  117. First, and the recommended way, do a soil test.

  118. Second, and less efficient, supply 100% of plant use.

  119. I don’t worry about micronutrients.

  120. For more, please see www.asianturfgrass.com or @asianturfgrass on Twitter.

  121. ATC newsletter: www.subscribepage.com/atcupdate MLSN newsletter: www.subscribepage.com/mlsn