Management of Innovation in Engineering - Stephen C. Armstrong

Management of Innovation in Engineering - Stephen C. Armstrong

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Natalia Mykhaylova

May 05, 2014
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  1. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20141 ILead – Introduction

    to the Management of Innovation ILead: Graduate Workshop Series- Introduction to Management of Innovation Workshop – A Primer 3rd April 2014 Stephen C Armstrong University of Toronto
  2. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20142 Time Topic Time

    Topic 6:00 – 6:05 PM Welcome – Set the Stage and Scope 6:05–6:20 PM I Lecture-Introduction To Innovation – What is Innovation? What are the challenges of strategic leadership and innovation? !  4 Types of Innovation !  7 Critical Components of Innovation !  4 Quadrants of Innovation Impact and Risk 6:20 - 6:40 PM I Breakout Session !  Provide examples of innovation in each of the 4 quadrants and present 6:40 –7:00 PM II Lecture – Managing Strategic Change - What is the nature of organizational change? How can organizational change be managed and “engineered”? !  Design thinking - Setting Direction and Visioning !  Managing Change – Engineering Success !  Case Study- BAE Systems 7:00 – 7:20 PM II Breakout Session !  Provide examples of resistance to change !  Provide remedies 7:20 – 7:40 PM III - Introduction Effective Organizational Teamwork - What is organization development? How can stress be managed in a change environment? !  Components of EOT !  Core Foundation Principles !  Problem Solving and Decision Making 7:40 – 8:00 PM II Breakout Session !  Provide examples you have experienced of poor EOT !  Provide Remedies Introduction to the Management of Innovation Workshop Agenda
  3. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20143 ILead – Introduction

    to the Management of Innovation Study Questions To Answer……. 1.  What is Innovation? 2.  What are the challenges of strategic leadership and innovation? 3.  What is the nature of organizational change? 4.  How can organizational change be managed and “engineered”? 5.  What is organization development? 6.  How can stress be managed in a rapidly changing environment?
  4. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20144 Student Pre -Seminar

    input -challenges of strategic
  5. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20145 Student Pre -Seminar

    input -challenges of strategic
  6. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20146 Student Pre -Seminar

    input - "Organization Change" •  Organization change is the adaptation of an organization to meet the needs of its changing customer base, social trends, etc. •  Organizations are forced to change to keep up with the rest of the world. •  This sometimes involved rethinking the way they operate and do business. •  When this happens, the same people cannot keep doing the same task over and over as their jobs might have evolved. •  These changes are not easy and the challenge for leaders is to change their organization but keep its value clear. •  Change in the basic ideas of the organization, as well as adapting to the changing environment Organization change is any change that affects the regular operation or culture of an organization. •  That can include position changes, implementation of new procedures, or shift in operational focus. •  Being willing to be dynamic and accept market changes by revising strategies and not staying comfortable. •  Introducing TRUST into the organization. •  Changing structure to fit function
  7. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20147 Student Pre -Seminar

    input How can you "engineer" and
  8. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20148 Student Pre -Seminar

    input How -can organizations manage stress? •  Introduce TRUST, where colleagues feel comfortable in their work environments. •  Innovation incentives - gives the employees the opportunity to work on what they think is right •  constant open communication. Due to the fact that things are always changing, deadlines can easily be missed, work changed, and people put in positions where they lack knowledge, skills, or expertise. •  Instead of trying to figure things out as individuals and worrying about failure, it's important that organizations promote the vocalization of issues collaboratively •  You often need to have a leader to follow, someone that will guide you in this change. •  Instead, what is best to do is to have everyone attend an introduction session on the new program and teach the program in depth to one one of two workers which were chosen by management to guide and help their fellow coworkers when they have question. •  Organizations can ensure that their deadlines and expectations do not exceed the capabilities of the working staff. Leaders attending to the needs of the team. •  Ensuring that everyone is informed of objectives and goals. Try to strengthen the relationships between the various levels of the organization. •  This can be done by introducing sports activities and inter murals within the company/ organization Always foster a creative progressive work environment. •  Allowing for work at home if needed, and work activities such as exercise programs. •  When in doubt look at companies which are thriving – best practices (google)
  9. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 20149 I Introduction To

    Innovation 1)  What is innovation? !  4 Types of Innovation !  7 Critical Elements in Applying Innovation !  4 Classifications of Technology !  Creativity and Innovation !  The 4 Quadrants of Innovation Impact !  Drivers of Innovation !  The Economic Conception of Innovation - Schumpeter !  Kondratiev Waves – Innovation at Faster Pace !  Collision of Economic waves -Toffler !  The Economic Benefits from Innovation - Productivity Gains? !  Diffusion of Innovation
  10. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201410 4 Types of

    Innovation
  11. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201411 7 Critical Elements

    in Applying Innovation
  12. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201412 7 Critical Elements

    in Applying Innovation AI ELEMENTS: 4) Organization: Organizational structure must be adjusted correspondingly according to the demands of innovation including new business processes, and workflow. 5) Culture: Changes in mind set and culture is the prerequisites to carry out all innovation. In Google for instance there is a strong innovative culture to encourage innovation and tolerating failures. 6) People Systems: System innovation means the innovation of rules and regulations about enterprise’s routine, performance evaluating, staff rewards and punishments, salary system, training and promotion and so on.
  13. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201413 7 Critical Elements

    in Applying Innovation
  14. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201414 Systemic Approach to

    Innovation Marketing
  15. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201415 4 Classifications of

    Technology •  Emerging Technology – Technologies that are not widely known e.g. bio-chips •  Pacing Technology - have the potential to change the entire basis of competition, but have not yet been embodied in a product or process •  Key Technology - currently yielding competitive advantage •  Base Technology - although necessary and essential to practice, offer little competitive advantage
  16. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201416 What is Creativity

    & Innovation? They are symbiotic but not the same……..
  17. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201417 Expertise Motivation Creative

    Thinking Skills
  18. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201418 Creativity Thinking Skills

    in Innovation 1.  Multi-Screen Thinking vs. Spot Thinking 2.  Abstract Thinking vs. Specific Thinking 3.  Breakthrough Thinking vs. Trade-off Thinking 4.  Intensification Thinking vs. Sheltered Thinking 5.  Non-linear Thinking vs. Linear Thinking 6.  Diversity Thinking vs. Uniformity Thinking 7.  Structured Thinking vs. Random Thinking 8.  Ideality Thinking vs. Consumption Thinking 9.  Ultimate Goal Thinking vs. Shallow Thinking 10.  Evolutionary Thinking vs. Random Thinking 11.  Long-Term Thinking vs. Short-Term Thinking 12.  Wild Thinking vs. Grounded Thinking 13.  Analytical Thinking vs. Jump-to-Solution Thinking 14.  Problem Flow Thinking vs. Single Solution Thinking Source: Valeri Souchkov, Power Thinking Skills For Innovative Leadership
  19. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201419 Some of Creativity

    Tools For Applying Innovation
  20. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201420 V Types of

    Innovation Impact • Incremental innovation: Improvements within a given frame of solutions (“doing better what we already do”); • Disruptive Innovation: (“doing what we already do in new spaces”) • Radical innovation: A change of frame (“doing what we did not do before”).
  21. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201421 4 Quadrants of

    Innovation Impact Technology Market
  22. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201422 Incremental   Innova-on

      Radical  Innova-on   2.  It’s  competence-­‐enhancing   because  it  builds  upon   exis-ng  knowledge,     resources  and  enters  new   markets   3  It’s  competence-­‐destroying   because  it  needs  new   knowledge  and  resources  to   create  new  technology  and   markets   1.  It  brings  about  changes   wherein  the  exis-ng   products  will  s-ll  be  viable  in   exis-ng  markets   4  It  brings  about  very  great   development    that  push  down   exis-ng  products  into   obsolescence  exis-ng  markets   4 Quadrants of Innovation Impact
  23. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201423 Incremental vs. Radical

    Change
  24. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201424 4 Quadrants of

    Innovation Risk Analysis
  25. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201425 Relative risks (a

    la Darryl)… 4 Quadrants – Risk Analysis
  26. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201426 Examples of Disruptive

    Innovations Here are some examples pulled together from Clayton Christensen’s work and elsewhere: •  The Personal computer: When first introduced, the PC did not provide the computational power or speed of existing mainframe or minicomputers. The PC created completely new segments of computer users such as home users, small office home office (SOHO) users, and students. •  Low-cost airlines: When they started, low-cost airlines like Southwest did not provide many of the features that business customers expected like fixed seating, first class, meals on-board, or interline connections to other flights. Southwest, in particular, created a new market of short-haul air travelers by offering a service that competed with travelling by road. •  Table-top copiers: First introduced by Japanese companies Ricoh and Canon, table-top photocopiers were much slower and offered less flexibility than the large copiers being sold by Xerox. But, these sleek copiers met the limited needs of individual managers or departments in corporations to get a few quick copies made to meet immediate needs. •  Microfinance: This social innovation does not have all the sophistication of a traditional banking product but meets the financial needs of people who were traditionally outside the purview of the banking system. •  Online education: While online classes sacrifice some of the rich discussions possible in a face-to-face classroom setting, they offer an opportunity for people who can’t spare the time to attend classes to educate themselves. With cheaper bandwidth and improvements in technology, they have the potential to displace classroom teaching in several contexts.
  27. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201427 Drivers of Innovation:

    Market Pull - R&D Push •  Market pull !  looking for the best way of satisfying a newly emerging customer demand !  Improvement of the existing products, extension of the existing offer or decrease of price !  Impulses for continuous, incremental product innovations or for process innovations •  Research and Development Push !  looking for commercial use of new impulses resulting from the R&D results !  Generating new markets for conceptually different products
  28. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201428 Drivers of Innovation

    - Open Innovation ! Open Innovation is an intentional course of action for identifying and exploiting internal and external novel initiatives in order to develop new products and services. ! It involves multi-stage collaboration with other entities outside a firm, in order to value capture and optimize the standard and value of the final product.
  29. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201429 Sources of External

    Novel Initiatives in Open
  30. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201430 Joseph Schumpeter -

    – Creative Destruction In the Theory of Economic Development 1934, Joseph Schumpeter defined economic innovation as: 1. The introduction of a new good, or of a new quality of a good 2. The introduction of a new method of production, which does not need to be founded on new scientific discoveries, but can exist in a new way of commercially handling a commodity 3. The opening of a new market into which a particular manufacturer has not previously entered, whether or not this market has existed before The Economic Conception of Innovation
  31. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201431 Joseph Schumpeter –

    Creative Destruction In the Theory of Economic Development 1934, Joseph Schumpeter defined economic innovation as: 4. The securing of a new source of supply of raw materials or half manufactured goods, irrespective of whether this source already exists or whether it has first to be created. 5. The creation of a new organization in an industry, or a new monopoly position through trustification (monopolistic system – Oil) The Economic Conception of Innovation
  32. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201432 Big Innovation Cycles-Schumpeter

  33. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201433 Big Innovation Cycles-Schumpeter

  34. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201434 Kondratiev Waves –

    Innovation at Faster Pace in honor of Nikolai Kondratiev, the Russian economist who first postulated their existence.
  35. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201435 Collision of Economic

    waves - Toffler
  36. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201436 The Economic Benefits

    from Innovation - Productivity Gains?
  37. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201437 Economics Benefits -

    The National Level Country - 2006 Labour Productivity Labour Utilization GDP MFP % Labour Productivity Explained by MFP Innovation Ranking Japan 1.1 0.9 2.0 1.1 100% 1 Germany 2.8 0.3 3.1 2.5 89% 2 France 2.7 -0.5 2.2 2.0 74% 3 UK 2.3 0.5 2.8 1.6 70% 4 USA 0.8 1.8 2.6 0.4 50% 5 Italy 0.3 1.7 2.0 0.1 33% 6 Canada 1.0 1.8 2.8 0.3 30% 7 Source: OECD Database One can reasonable conclude that Canada's lower rate of MFP (Multi Factor Productivity) growth reflects a slower pace of organizational and technological change. Canada versus G7 nations - 2006
  38. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201438 Transformational Innovation -

    Beyond R & D Economics Benefits - The National Level
  39. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201439 A big picture

    - decision making process The rate of awareness-knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption Stages in the innovation Diffusion
  40. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201440 I Introduction To

    Innovation 2) What are the challenges of strategic leadership and innovation?
  41. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201441 Study Question 2:

    What are the challenges of strategic innovation? "  Strategic leadership creates the capacity for ongoing strategic change. "  Components of strategic leadership: ! Determining the organization’s purpose or vision. ! Exploiting and maintaining the organization’s core competencies. ! Developing the organization’s human capital. ! Sustaining an effective organizational culture. ! Emphasizing and displaying ethical practices. ! Establishing balanced organizational controls.
  42. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201442 Business Strategy Study

    Question 2: What are the challenges of strategic innovation?
  43. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201443 Top Management Role

    in Organization Direction, Design, and Effectiveness ©2000 South-Western College Publishing Cincinnati, Ohio Daft, Organization Theory and Design 7/e CEO, Top Management Team External Environment Opportunities Threats Uncertainty Resource Availability Internal Environment Strengths Weaknesses Distinctive competence Leadership Style Past Performance Strategic Management Organization Design Effectiveness Outcomes Define mission, official goals Select operational goals, collaborative strategies Resources Efficiency Goal attainment Stakeholders Competing values • Structural Form – learning vs. efficiency • Information and control systems • Production technology • Human resource policies, incentives • Organizational culture • Interorganizational linkages Source: Adapted from Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “Individual Properties of the CEO as Determinants of Organization Design,” unpublished manuscript, Duke University, 1990; and Arie Y. Lewin and Carroll U. Stephens, “CEO Attributes as Determinants of Organization Design: An integrated Model,” Organization Studies 15, no. 2 (1994): 183-212
  44. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201444 Study Question 2:

    What are the challenges of strategic innovation? ! Sustainable competitive advantage relies on creativity and innovation. ! Creativity is the generation of a novel idea or unique approach to solving problems or crafting opportunities. ! Innovation is the process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice. ! Solving Problems on existing issues is also a major innovation practice
  45. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201445 Study Question 2:

    What are the challenges of strategic leadership and innovation? In highly innovative organizations … !  Corporate strategy and culture should: • Emphasize an entrepreneurial spirit. • Expect innovation. • Accept failure. • Be willing to take risks. !  Organization structure should: • Be organic. • Have lateral communications. • Use cross-functional teams and task forces.
  46. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201446 Study Question 2:

    What are the challenges of strategic leadership and innovation? In highly innovative organizations … ! Top management should: • Understand the innovation process. • Be tolerant of criticism and differences of opinion. • Take all possible steps to keep goals clear. • Maintain the pressure to succeed. • Break down barriers to innovation. !  Staffing should fulfill five critical innovation roles: • Idea generators. • Information gatekeepers. • Product champions. • Project managers. • Innovation leaders.
  47. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201447 Study Question 2:

    What are the challenges of strategic innovation? Leadership responsibilities for the innovation process: ! Imagining ! Designing ! Experimenting ! Assessing ! Scaling
  48. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201448 Study Question 2:

    What are the challenges of strategic leadership and innovation? Four steps of the product innovation process: ! Idea creation. ! Initial experimentation. ! Feasibility determination. ! Final application.
  49. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201449 Process of commercializing

    innovation in organizations:
  50. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201450 Iterations of an

    Innovation Funnel
  51. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201451 7 Dimensions of

    the Process of Strategic Innovation 1.  A Managed Innovation Process: Combining non-traditional and traditional approaches to business strategy. 2.  Strategic Alignment: Building support. 3.  Industry Foresight: Understanding articulated emerging trends. 4.  Consumer/ Customer Insight: Understanding articulated and unarticulated needs. 5.  Core Technologies and Competencies: Leveraging and extending corporate assets. 6.  Organizational Readiness: The ability to take action. 7.  Disciplined Implementation: Managing the path from inspiration to business impact. Source: Innovation Point
  52. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201452 Traditional Ideas Funnel

    Ideas Targeting, Evaluation, Selection Products or Services
  53. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201453 “Open” Innovation Funnel

  54. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201454 Filling the Funnel

    with concepts Opportunities Ideas Technologies Products “Inside” the corporation Trends Ideas Technologies From internal R&D From brainstorming, idea management systems Ideas Technologies Products From open innovation, crowdsourcing, suggestion systems From partners, proprietary networks, RFPs From entrepreneurs, business partners, acquisitions “Outside”” the corporation To partners or entrepreneurs “ Spin out” “ Spin in” Customers, Prospects,
  55. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201455 Innovation Funnel Planning

  56. Task 1 Task 6 Task 5 Task 4 Task 3

    Task 2 Develop Criteria Trends Research Interview Preparation interviews Key innovation Step Task 7 Creative Clustering and Screening Evolution Final Ranking " Form team " Define goal " Develop Screening and Ranking criteria " Interview Experts with broad know- ledge " Identify key Market trends " Identify target Segments to interview " Construct draft innovation map " Interview user with a good know- ledge of target consumer " Interview users from other markets facing similar challenges " Use networking to identify interviewees " Collect ideas and feeds insights into innovation map after every interview stage to refine interview scope and direction " Cluster ideas /insights into proposition for product and services " Apply screening criteria into proposition " Workshop with project team and key Experts " Evolve propositions " Rank to select most promising concepts " Further desk-based research/ interviews " Rank to select best concepts The interview step is just part of a more complex process to nurture innovation 8 - 12 Weeks The Innovation Process Work Program
  57. Task 1 Task 6 Task 5 Task 4 Task 3

    Task 2 Develop Criteria Interview program Brainstorming session Creative Clustering & screening Task 7 Evolution and initial ranking Concept Evolution & Consumer Test Final Ranking " Define scope Agreed list of calibrated Criteria for screening and ranking " Interview with external Experts, to understand the consumer needs and requirements " 400 ideas documented " 20-25 ideas clusters, documented " Up to 10 outline concepts " 4-6 qualified concepts "  3-5 concepts ready for development These insights were used to stimulate an internal brainstorming session Case studies- Case study 1 Innovation Funnel Planning
  58. Task 1-3 Task 6 Task 5 Task 4 Initial Workshops

    And research interviews Task 7 Creative Clustering and Screening Concept Evolution Final Ranking " State objective " Define & agree screening & ranking criteria " Produce a draft solutions map to outline the direction of search " Target market-feet on ground practical approach to the task to identify incrementally better solutions " Interview with experts in cosmetics hair removal and user hair removal products alternative markets-blue sky " Radical approach to the task to identify unique solutions " Interview with experts in alternative markets who use similar technology-have similar needs, e.g. in medical Experts in baldness and hair removal, surgeon. Anesthesiologists, etc, etc. " Combine ideas Into value propositions " Use screening criteria to select the most promising propositions " Workshop with project team and key lead users " Evolve Proposition Towards Completed Concepts " Rank to select most promising concepts " Further desk-based research/ interviews " Rank to select best concepts Users from both the target market and alternative markets were interviewed as part of the key innovation step within the Innovation Process Product Successfully Launched Three years ago Innovation Funnel Planning
  59. None
  60. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201460 Six Steps in

    the Managerial Decision Making Process
  61. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201461 VI Six Steps

    in the Managerial Decision Making Process
  62. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201462 Phase 1 —

    Steps 1-8 Get processes under control " 7. " Confirm process/issue focus " 9. to 17. " Process Improvement Phase " 8. " Set Improvement " Objectives " and Schedule " 6. " Implement Processes, " Standards, Measures " Next level" analysis" ?" Yes" 1. " 2." No" 1. " Start-up Team " 5. " Agree on Standards " & Design " Performance Measures " 2. " Research Customer Needs and Expectations " 3. " Select Issue " and process " 4. " Define/Design the Process " Design " Required ? " No " Yes "
  63. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201463 Phase II -

    Steps 9 to 17 - Process improvement" 1 to 8 Process Analysis 9. Detail causes Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 10. Gather data on root causes and analyze (optional) 11. Select root cause to eliminate/investigate Can we define solutions ? 12. Formulate alternative solutions 13. Evaluate and select best solution 14. Conduct experiment (optional) Is root cause eliminated ? 15. Document solutions 16. Implement solutions 17. Confirm improvement and continuously monitor 9 11 12 13 7 10 2 No YES No Yes or or or
  64. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201464 X. Consensus decision

    making tools •  Index of tools and techniques used in problem/opportunity solving Tools and techniques Action planning Bar chart Brainstorming Cause and effect diagrams Check sheets Column charts Control charts Cost/benefit analysis Cost of quality Design of experiments Dot or scatter diagrams Flowcharts Force field analysis Gantt chart Is/is not analysis Pareto charts PERT chart Pie chart Shewhart cycle Work flow analysis ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Analyze ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Generate ✔ Select ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ Effective problem solving requires the use of number of tools Plan Implement Define
  65. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201465 X. Consensus decision

    making tools • Bar Charts !  Sample bar chart: packaging line cost per hundred
  66. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201466 X. Consensus decision

    making tools How to brainstorm…. !  Strive for quantity !  Ensure full participation !  Don't criticize or evaluate !  Encourage free thinking !  Combine and build upon others’ ideas !  Allow team members to pass !  Prepare !  Decide on an approach !  Review rules !  State and write topic !  Repeat and record all ideas !  Prompt additional responses !  Reinforce participation !  Don’t evaluate
  67. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201467 X. Consensus decision

    making tools • Storyboarding or meta-planning ! Structured brainstorming which reinforces participation ! Useful for encouraging all members to contribute ideas ! Useful when a topic is fairly well defined
  68. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201468 X. Consensus decision

    making tools •  Cause And Effect Diagrams (Fishbone)
  69. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201469 X. Consensus decision

    making tools •  Cause And Effect Diagrams – Example !  Example of a cause and effect diagram
  70. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201470 Decomposing and Coding

    method" X. Consensus decision making tools
  71. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201471 X. Consensus decision

    making tools • Multi-voting
  72. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201472 Task 13.2 —

    Select a solution"
  73. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201473 Task 16.1 —

    Develop a brief implementation plan" ❒  Interface with solution owners" ❒  Do not use this form if only few tasks"
  74. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201474 II Managing Strategic

    Change 3) What is the nature of organizational change?
  75. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201475 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? Change leader……. ! A change agent who takes leadership responsibility for changing the existing pattern of behavior of another person or social system. Change leadership…… ! Forward-looking. ! Proactive. ! Embraces new ideas.
  76. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201476 Change leaders versus

    status quo managers. Study Question 3: What is the nature of organizational change?
  77. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201477 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? Top-down change…….. ! Strategic and comprehensive change that is initiated with the goals of comprehensive impact on the organization and its performance capabilities. ! Driven by the organization’s top leadership. ! Success depends on support of middle-level and lower-level workers.
  78. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201478 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? Bottom-up change……. ! The initiatives for change come from any and all parts of the organization, not just top management. ! Crucial for organizational innovation. ! Made possible by: • Employee empowerment. • Employee involvement. • Employee participation. • Employee self direction
  79. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201479 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? Integrated change leadership…. !  Successful and enduring change combines advantages of top-down and bottom-up approaches. !  Top-down: • Breaks up traditional patterns- transformative. • Implements difficult economic adjustments. !  Bottom-up: • Builds capability for sustainable change. • Builds capability for organizational learning.
  80. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201480 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? Transformational and Incremental change….. ! Unplanned change. • Response to unanticipated events. • Good leaders act on opportunities for reactive change. ! Planned change • Aligning the organization with anticipated future challenges. • Activated by proactive leaders who are sensitive to performance gaps. • Transformational change = major and comprehensive redirection. • Incremental change = adjusting existing systems and practices.
  81. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201481 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? How to lead transformational change…. !  Establish a sense of urgency for change. !  Form a powerful coalition to lead the change. !  Create and communicate a compelling change vision. !  Empower others to move change forward. !  Celebrate short-term “wins” and recognize those who help. !  Build on success; align people and systems with new ways. !  Stay with it - keep the message consistent; champion the vision.
  82. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201482 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? External forces for change: !  Globalization. !  Market competition. !  Local economic conditions. !  Government laws and regulations. !  Technological developments. !  Market trends. !  Social forces and values Internal forces for change: !  Arise when change in one part of the system creates the need for change in another part of the system. !  May be in response to one or more external forces.
  83. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201483 Study Question 3:

    What is the nature of organizational change? Organizational targets for change: !  Tasks and activities !  Workflow !  People competencies !  Culture !  Technology and capabilities !  Structure
  84. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201484 TIME Rewarding Completion

    Uninformed Optimism Hopeful Realism Informed Pessimism Informed Optimism •  Honeymoon period •  Ideas look good •  Major obstacles appear to be anticipated •  Problems surface •  Few solutions obvious •  Morale drops •  Resistance from within the team •  Politics within the team fragmented •  Turning point occurs •  Sense of accomplishment •  Problems still there, but hopes based in reality •  Steering group gets hands on •  Optimism continues to develop •  Fresh burst of energy •  Increasingly positive reporting •  Continued visible support from steering group •  Successful change made •  “Official” change complete •  Things different and better •  New System institutionalized Emotional Stages in the innovation Diffusion Study Question 3: What is the nature of organizational change?
  85. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201485 Stages of change

    commitment Source: D.R. Conner, 1993 Negative Perception Decision not to Implement Degree of Support for the Change Time Understanding Positive Perception Installation Adoption Institutionalization Internalization Commitment Threshold Disposition Threshold Acceptance Phase Commitment Phase Contact Awareness Preparation Phase Unawareness Confusion Aborted after initial Implementation Aborted after extensive Implementation Study Question 3: What is the nature of organizational change?
  86. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201486 II Managing Strategic

    Change 5) How can organizational change be managed and “engineered”?
  87. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201487 Study Question 4:

    How can planned org change be managed? Phases of planned change……… ! Unfreezing • The phase in which a situation is prepared for change and felt needs for change are developed. ! Changing • The phase in which something new takes place in the system, and change is actually implemented. ! Refreezing • The phase of stabilizing the change and creating the conditions for its long-term continuity.
  88. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201488 Lewin’s three phases

    of planned organizational change. Study Question 4: How can planned org change be managed?
  89. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201489 Study Question 4:

    How can planned org change be managed? Force-coercion strategy of change…… ! Uses power bases of legitimacy, rewards, and punishments to induce change. ! Relies on belief that people are motivated by self-interest. ! Direct forcing and political maneuvering. ! Produces limited and temporary results. ! Most useful in the unfreezing phase – it shakes things up – usually a tough individual
  90. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201490 Study Question 4:

    How can planned org change be managed? Rational persuasion strategy of change……. ! Bringing about change through persuasion backed by special knowledge, empirical data, and rational argument. ! Relies on expert power. ! Relies on belief that reason guides people’s decisions and actions. ! Useful in the unfreezing and refreezing phases. ! Produces longer-lasting and internalized change.
  91. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201491 Study Question 4:

    How can planned org change be managed? Shared power strategy of change…… ! Engages people in a collaborative process of identifying values, assumptions, and goals from which support for change will naturally emerge. ! Time consuming but likely to yield high commitment. ! Involves others in examining socio-cultural factors related to the issue at hand. ! Relies on referent power and strong interpersonal skills in team situations. ! Relies on belief that people respond to socio- cultural norms and expectations of others.
  92. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201492 Alternative change strategies

    and their leadership implications. Study Question 4: How can planned org change be managed?
  93. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201493 Study Question 4:

    How can planned org change be managed? Reasons for people resisting change….. ! Fear of the unknown ! Disrupted habits ! Loss of confidence ! Loss of control ! Poor timing ! Work overload ! Loss of face ! Lack of purpose
  94. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201494 Study Question 4:

    How can planned org change be managed? Methods for dealing with resistance to change……… ! Education and communication ! Participation and involvement ! Facilitation and support ! Facilitation and agreement ! Manipulation and co-optation ! Explicit and implicit coercion
  95. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201495 The Cultural Change

    Management Methodology Monitor Implement Plan 1. Define the Change 6. Create Cultural Fit 7. Build Agent Capacity 8. Motivation Planning 9. Communication Planning 10. Integrate Planning 4. Generate Sponsorship 3. Identify Change Approach 5. Develop Target Readiness 2. Assess the Climate
  96. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201496 III Introduction Effective

    Organizational Teamwork 5) Organizational Teamwork - What is organization development?
  97. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201497 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Organization development (OD) is a……. ! comprehensive approach to planned organizational change ! that involves the application of behavioral science !  in a systematic and long-range effort ! To improve organizational effectiveness.
  98. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201498 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Organization development goals: ! Outcome goals focus on task accomplishments. ! Process goals focus on the way people work together. ! OD seeks to develop the organization members’ capacity for self-renewal. ! OD is committed to change through freedom of choice, shared power, and self-reliance. ! OD takes advantage of knowledge about human behavior in organizations.
  99. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 201499 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? The organization development process.. ! Establish a working relationship. ! Diagnosis. ! Intervention. ! Evaluation. ! Achieve a terminal relationship.
  100. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014100 Organization development and

    the planned change process. Study Question 5: What is organization development?
  101. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014101 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Action research…… ! The process of systematically collecting data on an organization, ! feeding it back to the members for action planning, ! and evaluating results by collecting more data and repeating the process as necessary. ! Is initiated when someone senses a performance gap ! First stage in change management - listen
  102. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014102 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Steps in the action research process…. ! Problem sensing. ! Data gathering. ! Data analysis and feedback. ! Action planning. ! Action implementation. ! Evaluation and follow-up.
  103. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014103 Action research as

    a foundation of organization development. Study Question 5: What is organization development?
  104. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014104 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Individual OD interventions…….. ! Sensitivity training (T-groups) ! Management training ! Role negotiation ! Job redesign ! Career planning
  105. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014105 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Team OD interventions……… ! Team building ! Team Facilitation ! Process consultation ! Inter-group team building ! Individual Coaching
  106. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014106 Study Question 5:

    What is organization development? Organization-wide OD interventions…….. ! Survey feedback ! Confrontation meeting ! Structural redesign ! Management by objectives (MBO)
  107. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014107 III - Introduction

    Effective Organizational Teamwork 6) How can stress be managed in a change environment?
  108. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014108 Study Question 6:

    How can stress be managed in a changing environment? Stress…. !  A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities. Stressors….. !  Things that cause stress !  Originate in work, personal, and non-work situations. !  Have the potential to influence work attitudes, behavior, job performance, and health.
  109. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014109 Study Question 6:

    How can stress be managed in a change environment? Work factors as potential stressors: ! Includes: • Excessively high or low task demands. • Role conflicts or ambiguities. • Poor interpersonal relationships. • Too slow or too fast career progress. ! Work-related stress syndromes: • Set up to fail. • Mistaken identity.
  110. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014110 Study Question 6:

    How can stress be managed in a change environment? Personal factors as potential stressors….. !  Includes needs, capabilities, and personality. !  Stressful behavior patterns of the Type A personality: • Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly. • Acting impatient, hurrying others, disliking waiting. • Doing, or trying to do, several things at once. • Feeling guilty when relaxing. • Trying to schedule more in less time. • Using nervous gestures such as a clenched fist. • Hurrying or interrupting the speech of others.
  111. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014111 Study Question 6:

    How can stress be managed in a changing environment? Non-work factors as potential stressors…… ! Includes: • Family events. • Economics. • Personal affairs. ! “Spill-over” effect on the stress an individual experiences at work.
  112. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014112 Study Question 6:

    How can stress be managed in a changing environment? Consequences of stress…. ! Constructive stress. • Acts as a positive influence. • Can be energizing and performance enhancing. ! Destructive stress. • Acts as a negative influence. • Breaks down a person’s physical and mental systems. • Can lead to job burnout and/or workplace rage.
  113. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014113 Potential negative consequences

    of a destructive
  114. Copyright © AMGI 2014 31st March2 2014114 Study Question 6:

    How can stress be managed in a change environment? Personal wellness: ! The pursuit of personal and mental potential though a personal health-promotion program. ! A form of preventative stress management. ! Enables people to be better prepared to deal with stress.