Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Midterm Review FINE 2600

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
October 16, 2012

Midterm Review FINE 2600

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

October 16, 2012
Tweet

Transcript

  1. !"#$%&'()*+'(,%-"%.( )*+'(/0&'+$( !  1%2304(56(17"#%(589(:;<=( (!"#$%&!"'()%*'%+ +,)%-*+ +./-%/"*&0%1-)$#'+2*")34+ +./-%/"5-+0)67)8'57'*+ !  1%2304(556(>?&04070@A((:B=(

    (2-5'*+0-)4*$+)7+2"39*"+ +.("373-36)'5-+:"4*";+ !  1%2304(5556()99+A(:C=( (0%/41+13/"+<5=3"+ +%(*<*$+ D00#($0(E40.F( !  )*+'(8+$%6(G?H&9#+A(I2$J( ;K(L6<<MN6;O(P!J( !  G?%('"#M$%&'("9(.0&$?(COQ( 0R(A0H&(S4+7(@&+#%J( !  /H77(9$H#A(@H"#%("9(04( T7+2UV0+&#(H4#%&(W1$H#A( DH"#%9JX( (
  2. 1%2304(56(;<(17"#%(589(:Y<Z$9=( ! P&39$(:"R(U40.4=6(( ! G"$7%6( ! 1$A7%[\%&"0#6(( ! >H7$H&+7( 1"@4"S2+42%6(

  3. ]0$%9(04(D&+#"4@( 5J  1Z%77"4@6((P9(704@(+9(5(2+4(&%20@4"^%(.?+$(A0H( +&%($&A"4@($0(9Z%77_(A0H(."77(@%$(RH77(Z0"4$9J( 55J  >H7$H&+7(1"@4"S2+42%6(`0H(."77(V%(@&+#%#(04( $?%(+22H&+2A(0R(A0H&(R+2$(+4#($?%(9Z%2"S2"$A( 0R(A0H&(R+2$J( 555J  )*+'Z7%96(T%(+9(20'Z7%$%(+9(Z099"V7%(.?%4(

    '%4304"4@(+&$.0&U9(+9(%*+'Z7%9(:3$7%9(+4#( 2H7$H&%_(Z&%R%&+V7A=J(
  4. >?&04070@A( •  \7+2%(9%7%2$%#(97"#%9("4$0(2?&04070@"2+7(0&#%&J( •  `0H(."77(V%(@"-%4(C(@&0HZ9(0R(B(+4#(;(@&0HZ(0R( R0H&J( •  G?%9%(."77(V%(Z&0@&%99"049($?+$('+U%(9%49%_( 40$(&+4#0'("'+@%9J( • 

    G?%&%("9(40(&%+7(4%%#($0(7%+&4(%*+2$(#+$%9J( •  G?"9(9%2304("9(;<(Z$9J($0$+7J(
  5. ]%07"$?"2( \+7%07"$?"2( CY_<<<M;C_<<<(T>)( CN<<M;O<<(T>)( ;( C(

  6. 1H'%&"+4( BB<<MCO<<(T>)( PUU+#"+4( CCOYMCC;L( T>)( ;( C( ]%0M1H'%&"+4( B( C<N<(T>)(

    I7#(T+VA704"+4( ;KNCM;KO<(T>)( Y( P99A&"+4( ]%0MT+VA704"+4( OJ( a( K( LKOMK<a(T>)( \%&9"+4( a$?(>%4$H&A( O;LMYa<(T>)(
  7. )+&7A(8A4+932( I7#(E"4@#0'( !"##7%(E"4@#0'( ]%.(E"4@#0'( CNO<MCOKO(T>)( COKOMCBCO(T>)( ;NBLM;KOa(T>)( ;YKBM;;N<(T>)( ;( C(

    B( Y(
  8. >A27+#"2( !"40+4( !A2%4+%+4( Ca<<MCY<<(T>)( ;K<<M;YO<(T>)( ;a<<M;;<<(T>)(

  9. D%0'%$&"2( I&"%4$+7"^"4@( P&2?+"2( )+&7A(>7+99"2+7( b"@?(>7+99"2+7( c+$%(>7+99"2+7( b%77%4"932( ;( C( B(

    Y( O( a( K(
  10. )$&H92+4( ,0'+4()'Z"&%( ,0'+4(,%ZHV7"2( ;( C( B(

  11. None
  12. None
  13. )99+A(DH"#%7"4%9( •  P49.%&($?%(dH%9304J((1%&"0H97Ae( •  T%(9H&%($0(R0770.($?%(Z&0'Z$(%*+2$7A_( +49.%&"4@(%-%&A(Z+&$J( •  f?%4(+9U%#(R0&(%*+'Z7%9_(@"-%(9Z%2"S2( %*+'Z7%9(0R(+&$.0&UJ((( • 

    G?%('0&%(#%$+"7($?%(V%g%&J( •  !0&%(#%$+"79(+4#(+4+7A9"9(."77(%+&4(+(V%g%&( @&+#%J(
  14. /&+'"4@(8%-"2%9( >4*5$?+ ! P99H'Z304(0R(&%7"@"0H9( 9"@4"S2+42%J( ! ]H'V%&(0R(S4#9_(7+2U(0R( H4#%&9$+4#"4@[ %-"#%42%J( ! !H9%H'(#"9Z7+A9J( ! >H7$H&+7(-"%.9_(V"+9%9_( -+7H%9J(

    ! \&%2042%"-%#(40304J( @A5<9-*$?+ ! !+''0$?(?H$9( ! W!+9U(0R( P@+'%'404X(:12?7"%'+ 44=( ! Wh%4H9X(0R(f"77%4#0&R( ! 1$04%?%4@%( ! b+$9?%Z9H$(
  15. \&0V7%'(i;6(/&+'"4@(8%-"2%9( 5493$H3049(

  16. \&0V7%'(i;6(/&+'"4@(8%-"2%9( \%0Z7%( !)( `Ij(

  17. \&0V7%'(i;6(/&+'"4@(8%-"2%9( !%#"+(

  18. \&0V7%'(iC6(\%+U9(+4#(h+77%A9( k0?+44( k0+2?"'(( f"4U%7'+44( D"0&@"0(( h+9+&"( f0&#J( 1.%%$e( 80&AZ?0&09(

  19. \&0V7%'(iB6(>%4$%&"4@( G?"9( TH$(]0$(G?"9(

  20. \&0V7%'(iY6(>H7$(0R($?%(P&39$( P&39$( P&$( h"%.%&( >04$%*$(

  21. \&0V7%'(iY6(>H7$(0R($?%(P&39$( P&39$( P&$( h"%.%&( >04$%*$( P&39$( P&$( h"%.%&( >04$%*$(

  22. 107H3049l( •  T%(2&"32+7(0R(A0H&(90H&2%9J( •  T%(+.+&%(0R(+&$(?"9$0&Am9(?"9$0&AJ( •  P2U40.7%#@%($?%(Z&%9%42%(0R(R&+'"4@(#%-"2%9J( •  1$+&$(."$?($?%("'+@%J( (

    !!"#$%&%'()*+%'%),-).#)*'/%)-#0/1#.!!)
  23. 1$+&$(."$?($?%(5'+@%( ;J  T%(+V7%($0(#%92&"V%(.?+$(A0H(9%%("4(A0H&(0.4( .0&#9J( CJ  /0&'(A0H&(0.4("4$%&Z&%$+304(0R(+4("'+@%J( BJ  ,%+#(0$?%&(90H&2%9_(.%"@?"4@($?%'(+@+"49$( A0H&("4"3+7("4$%&Z&%$+304J( YJ 

    /0&'(+40$?%&("4$%&Z&%$+304(2049"#%&"4@( :+22%Z34@(0&(#"9'"99"4@=($?%("#%+9(A0H(?+-%( %420H4$%&%#J(
  24. >&"32+7(nH%93049( •  f?+$(+&%(R&+'"4@(#%-"2%9l(b0.(#0($?%A( "'Z+2$(0H&(H4#%&9$+4#"4@(0R(+42"%4$(+&$l( •  b0.(#0%9($?%(&07%9(0R(+&39$9("4($?%(+42"%4$( .0&7#(#"o%&(R&0'($?%(&07%9(0R(+&39$("4($?%( '0#%&4(.0&7#l( •  b0.("9('+$%&"+7("'Z0&$+4$($0($?%('%+4"4@(0R(

    +4(0Vp%2$l( •  b0.("9($?%($&"+4@7%(#"+@&+'(:+&39$("(+&$("( -"%.%&=(Z&0V7%'+32l(
  25. G?%(WD0##%99m9(G%'Z7%X("4($?%(]+$H&?"9$0&"92?%9( !H9%H'("4(h"%44+J( G?%(Wh%4H9X(("4(?%&(W$%'Z7%X(

  26. !+U"4@(Wh%4H9%9X( q( ;MK_(f0'+4(:Wh%4H9X=( R&0'(f"77%4#0&R_(PH9$&"+_( 2J(CY_<<<(T>)J( /+'0H9(h%4H9(8%Z"23049_(>+V+4%7(:G0Z=_(G"3+4( :T0g0'=_(\&+*"$%7%9(:7%r=J(

  27. Film still. Fantastic Mr. Fox. 2009. Directed by Wes Anderson.

    Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation. Wf%(?+-%("4-%4$%#(40$?"4@("4(;C_<<<(A%+&9JX(Pg&"VH$%#($0(\"2+990( WP&$(R0&(P&$m9(1+U%X(
  28. !+p0&(G?%0&"%9(+V0H$(>+-%(\+"434@9( •  WP&$(R0&(P&$m9( 1+U%X(:\"2+990=( •  1A'Z+$?%32(!+@"2( :1+70'04(,%"4+2?[PVV%( b%4&"(T&%H"7=( •  1A'V07"2(1A9$%'9(:P4#&%(

    c%&0"MD0H&?+4=( •  >&099M>?&04070@"2+7( >0'Z+&"904(:kJDJ(/&+^%&(s( 8+-"#(c%."9Mf"77"+'9=( •  ]%H&0Z9A2?070@"2+7( !0#%7( W>+-%(IZ%4"4@(P&$X(G?%(]%.(`0&U%&( !+&2?(;O_(;NNN(
  29. María, daughter of Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, who participated in

    discovery of paintings at Altamira in November 1879.
  30. \+V70(\"2+990_(TH776(1$+@%9(5Mh555_(;NYOJ( ( WT"904X(0&(PH&02?9_(P7$+'"&+_(1Z+"4_(;C_O<<( T>)( WPr%&(P7$+'"&+_(+77("9(#%2+#%42%JX(

  31. 1"&(P&$?H&()-+49( b%"4&"2?(12?7"%'+44(

  32. !+7%(b+&Z(\7+A%&_(R&0'(E%&09_(>A27+#"2_(2+J( Ca<<MCB<<(T>)J( I92+&(f?"$%(!H92+&%77+_(R0&'%&( 2H&+$0&(R0&($?%(!%$_(&%2%4$7A(27+"'%#( $?"9(S@H&"4%(+(R0&@%&AJ(

  33. >049$+434(T&+42H9"_(17%%Z"4@(!H9%(5_( ;N<NM;<J((

  34. b%4&A(!00&%_(B*'-)7)76+C3<57_(;NO;J(

  35. ,%2049$&H2$%#(]0&$?()4$&+42%(0R($?%(\+7+2%(+$(E409909J( )-+49(#"&%2$%#($?%(&%2049$&H2304( 0R($?%(Z+7+2%(+9(+(2H7$H&+7(?%&"$+@%( 9"$%J( P7$%&4+$%(-"%.(

  36. \@J(NO_(G?%(90M2+77%#(W!+9U(0R(P@+'%'404X(D&+-%(1?+r(h_( D&+-%(>"&27%(P_(!A2%4+%_(D&%%2%_(!A2%4+%+4_(;a<<M;OO<(T>)(

  37. k%.%7&A(R&0'(D&+-%(>"&27%(P_(D&+-%9(5h(+4#(h_( !A2%4+%_(D&%%2%_(2J(;a$?(>%4$H&A(T>)J(

  38. 10Z?"+(12?7"%'+44(+9(Wb%7%4(0R(G&0A_X("4( k%.%7&A(R&0'(b"99+&7"U_(GH&U%A(:G&0A=_(2J( ;LK<J( 8+-"#(!+2+H7%A_(b+&&"%$(TH&$04("4($?%( G&%+9H&%9(0R($?%(!0$%7(0R($?%(!A9$%&"%9_(D3%*-+ 3E+%(*+D1$%*")*$_(;NKNJ(

  39. \@J(;;B(P(+4#(T_(G%'Z7%(0R(P%@"4+_(PZ?+"+_(D&%%2%_(."$?(+4#( ."$?0H$(&%2049$&H2$%#(Z+"4$_(2J(O<<MYN<(T>)(

  40. P&$(+4#(\0.%&( >4*5$?+ ! 1"^%6((T"@@%&(S@H&%9(?+-%( @&%+$%&("'Z0&$+42%J(( b"%&+32(12+7%J( b"%&+&2?"2+7(12+7%J( ! h"07%4$(0&(Wb%&0"2X( 8%%#9J( ! D00#(VA(+9902"+304J(( 1Z07"+J(

    ! 8"-"4"$A( @A5<9-*$?+ ! 1$%7%(0R(]+&+'(1"4( ! 8+&"H9(+4#(t%&*%9( ! \A&+'"#9(( ! P99?H&4+9"&Z+7(+4#( P99?H&V+4"V+7(u(c"04( 92%4%9_(V+g7%(92%4%_(( ! G&"H'Z?+7(P&2?%9(:G"$H9( +4#(>049$+434%=( ! 1$%7%(0R(b+''H&+V"(
  41. CMa_(b%+#(0R(PUU+#"+4(,H7%&_(]"4%-%?(:EHAH4p"U=_(5&+d( PUU+#"+4_(CBY<MC;L<(T>)(

  42. CM;_(1$%7%(0R(]+&+'(1"4_(1"ZZ+&_( 5&+d_(PUU+#"+4_(CCOYMCC;L(T>)(

  43. b"%&+32(12+7%( ( 1"^%(q(5'Z0&$+42%(

  44. >A7"4#%&(1%+7(."$?(f%+$?%&(D0#_(PUU+#"+4_( CBBYMC;OY(T>)( CM;_(1$%7%(0R(]+&+'(1"4_(1"ZZ+&_( 5&+d_(PUU+#"+4_(CCOYMCC;L(T>)(

  45. b%+#(0R(I7#(T+VA704"+4(,H7%&( :\099"V7A(b+''H&+V"=_(I7#( T+VA704"+4_(;N<<M;K<<(T>)(( b%+#(0R(PUU+#"+4(,H7%&_( PUU+#"+4_(CBY<MC;L<(T>)(

  46. Wf?%4(1?+'+9?(."$?(&+#"+4$(R+2%( ?+#(p0ARH77A(700U%#(HZ04('%(u('%(?"9( R+-0&"$%(9?%Z?%&#_(b+''H&+V"F$0( 2+H9%(pH932%($0(Z&%-+"7("4($?%(7+4#_($0( #%9$&0A($?%(."2U%#(+4#(%-"7($?+$($?%( 9$&04@('"@?$(40$(0ZZ&%99($?%(.%+UJX(( \@J(BL_(1$%7%(0R(b+''H&+V"_( I7#(T+VA704"+4_((;KNCM;KO<( T>)(

  47. •  W5R(+('+4(ZH$9(0H$($?%(%A%(0R(+40$?%&('+4_( ?"9(%A%(9?+77(V%(ZH$(0H$JX( •  W5R(?%(U"779(+('+4m9(97+-%_(?%(9?+77(Z+A(04%M $?"&#(0R(+('"4+JX( •  W5R(90'%04%(9$%+79(Z&0Z%&$A(R&0'(+( $%'Z7%_(?%(."77(V%(ZH$($0(#%+$?(+9(."77($?%( Z%&904(.?0(&%2%"-%9($?%(9$07%4(@00#9JX(

    •  W5R(+('+&&"%#(.0'+4(#"%9(V%R0&%(V%+&"4@( +4A(9049_(?%&(#0.&A(9?+77(V%(&%Z+"#($0(?%&( R+$?%&_(VH$("R(9?%(@+-%(V"&$?($0(9049_($?%( #0.&A(V%704@9($0($?%'JX( •  5R(+('+4(9$&"U%9(+(R&%%V0&4(.0'+4(90($?+$( 9?%(709%9(?%&(H4V0&4(2?"7#_(?%(9?+77(V+A( $%4(9?%U%79(R0&(?%&(7099J((5R($?%(.0'+4(#"%9( ?"9(#+H@?$%&(9?+77(V%(ZH$($0(#%+$?JX( •  W5R(+('+4("9(@H"7$A(0R("42%9$(."$?(?"9( #+H@?$%&_(?%(9?+77(V%(%*"7%#JX(
  48. CM;;_(,%2049$&H2304(0R($?%(>"$+#%7(+4#(\+7+2%(>0'Z7%*(0R(1+&@04($?%(55_( 8H&(1?+&&HU"4_(P99A&"+4_(KC<MK<O(T>)( 23*%)4) 5+'#.%)6##7) 89:) ;%.*<4=,-) Plan of the Anu

    Ziggurat and White Temple. Uruk, Iraq. c. 3300-3000 BCE.
  49. CM;C_(c+'+99H(/"@H&%9(R&0'(D+$%(P(0R($?%(>"$+#%7(0R(1+&@04(55_( 8H&(1?+&&HU"4(:E?0&9+V+#=_(5&+d_("4(9"$H_(KC;MK<a(T>)J(

  50. CM;C_(c+'+99H(/"@H&%9(+$(D+$%(P(0R($?%(>"$+#%7(0R(1+&@04(55( :]0.("4($?%(c0H-&%=_(KC;MK<a(T>)(

  51. c+'+99H(/"@H&%(+$(D+$%(P(0R($?%(>"$+#%7(0R(1+&@04(55_(KC<MK<O(T>)(

  52. c+'+99H(/"@H&%9(+$(D+$%(P(0R($?%(>"$+#%7(0R(1+&@04(55_(KC<MK<O( T>)J(

  53. c+'+99H(/"@H&%(+$(D+$%(P(0R($?%( >"$+#%7(0R(1+&@04(55_(KC<MK<O(T>)( 1$%7%(0R(]+&+'(1"4_(PUU+#"+4_( CCOYMCC;L(T>)(

  54. P99A&"+4(107#"%&9(G0&$H&"4@($?%(107#"%&9(0R(c+2?"2?_( \+7+2%(0R(1%44+2?%&"V_(]"4%-%?_(2J(K<<MaNO(T>)J(

  55. P99A&"+4(107#"%&9(G0&$H&"4@($?%(107#"%&9(0R(c+2?"2?_( \+7+2%(0R(1%44+2?%&"V_(]"4%-%?_(2J(K<<MaNO(T>)J( W5(v+A%#(+9('+4A(40V7%9(+9(?+#(&%V%77%#(+@+"49$('%( w+4#x(#&+Z%#($?%"&(9U"49(0-%&($?%(Z"7%(w0R(20&Z9%9xy( 90'%(5(9Z&%+#(0H$(."$?"4($?%(Z"7%_(90'%(5(%&%2$%#( 04(9$+U%9(HZ04($?%(Z"7%(JJJ(5(v+A%#('+4A(&"@?$( $?&0H@?('A(7+4#(w+4#x(#&+Z%#($?%"&(9U"49(0-%&($?%( .+779JX(MMP9?H&4+9"&Z+7(

  56. c+2?"2?(107#"%&9(V%"4@( "'Z+7%#_(\+7+2%(0R( 1%44+2?%&"V_(]"4%-%?_( 2J(K<<MaNO(T>)J( W5(2+Z$H&%#(907#"%&9(+7"-%(w+4#x( %&%2$%#(w$?%'x(04(9$+U%9(V%R0&%( $?%"&(2"3%9JX(u1?+7'+4%9%&(555(

  57. CM;<_(P99H&4+9"&Z+7(55(E"77"4@(c"049_(G?&04%(,00'(0R( $?%(\+7+2%(0R(P99?H&4+9"&Z+7(55_(E+7?H(:]"'&H#=_(5&+d_( P99A&"+4_(LKOMLa<(T>)J( P9?H&4+9"&Z+7(q((WP9?H&(@H+&#9($?%(?%"&X(

  58. c"04(bH4$_(R&0'($?%($?&04%(&00'(0R(P99H&V+4"Z+7_(]"4%-%?_(aYK(T>)( P9?H&V+4"Z+7(q(WP9?H&("9(2&%+$0&(0R($?%(904X(

  59. c"04(bH4$_(\+7+2%(0R(P99H&V+4"Z+7_(P99A&"+4_(aYK(T>)(

  60. 8A"4@(c"04_(G?&04%(,00'(0R(P9?H&V+4"Z+7_(]"4%-%?_(aYK(T>)(

  61. 8%+#(c"04_(G?&04%(,00'(0R(P9?H&V+4"Z+7_(]"4%-%?_(aYK(T>)(

  62. 8A"4@(c"04%99_(R&0'($?%(Z+7+2%(0R(P9?H&V+4"Z+7_( ]"4%-%?_(2J(aYK(T>)J(

  63. \@J(Y;_()4%'"%9(>&099"4@($?%()HZ?&+$%9($0()92+Z%(P99A&"+4( P&2?%&9_(R&0'($?%(\+7+2%(0R(P99H&4+9"&Z+7(55_(E+7?H(:]"'&H#=_( 5&+d_(LKOMLa<(T>)J(

  64. CM;B_(P99H&V+4"Z+7(+4#(?"9(nH%%4("4($?%(D+&#%4_( \+7+2%(0R(P99?H&V+4"Z+7_(]"4%-%?(:EHAH4p"U=_(5&+d_(aYK( T>)J( b%+#(0R(G%0'+4_(E"4@(0R(1H9+(

  65. ,%2049$&H2304(0R(\%&9%Z07"9_(2J(O;LMYa<(T>)((

  66. \7+4(0R(\%&9%Z07"9_(2J(O;LMYa<(T>)((

  67. PZ+#+4+(0R(8+&"H9(+4#(t%&*%9_(P2?+%'%4"#(\%&9"+4_(O;LMYa<(T>)(

  68. c"04(+g+2U"4@(+4(P4$%70Z%_(PZ+#+4+_(\%&9%Z07"9_( PZ+#+4+_(O;LMYa<(T>)((

  69. 1$+"&9(+4#(\&02%99"04+7(/&"%^%9_(PZ+#+4+_(P2?+%'%4"#( \%&9"+4_(O;LMYa<(T>)(

  70. 1$+"&9_(PZ+#+4+_(P2?+%'%4"#(\%&9"+4_(O;LMYa<(T>)(

  71. \&02%99"04+7(/&"%^%9_(PZ+#+4+_(P2?+%'%4"#(\%&9"+4_( O;LMYa<(T>)(

  72. \&02%99"04+7(/&"%^%9_(PZ+#+4+_(P2?+%'%4"#( \%&9"+4_(O;LMYa<(T>)(

  73. CM;L_(8+&"H9(+4#(t%&*%9(,%2%"-"4@(G&"VH$%_(#%$+"7(R&0'( $?%(PZ+#+4+_(\%&9%Z07"9_(5&+4_((P2?+%'%4"#(\%&9"+4_( YN;MYLa(T>)J(

  74. None
  75. \+ZA&H9( T7H%(c0$H9( E?+R&%(>H7$(1$+$H%(:8%$+"7=(

  76. !Rome is known fundamentally as an urban civilization !0#%7(0R($?%(>"$A(0R(5'Z%&"+7(,0'%( >#-3,?)#@)*+%)2#AA%--)

    6#73()B-*<C.A)D%.*/'E)DF))
  77. None
  78. None
  79. G&"H'Z?(

  80. G&+p+4( "3A',3.) "3A',3.) !+&2H9(PH&%7"H9( Arch of Constantine (south side). Rome.

    312-315 CE. 1Z07"+(
  81. P&$(+4#(,%7"@"04( >4*5$?+ ! T%4$(P*"9( ! b%"@?$(u(b"%&+32(12+7%( ! P22%99(u(204$&077%#(( ! 5907+304( ! 1+2&"S2%( @A5<9-*$?+ ! P4H(z"@@H&+$( ! G%'Z7%(0R(P'H4(+$(

    E+&4+U( ! P&+(\+2"9(( ! f+&U+(h+9%(
  82. 1+'+&&+( 1H'%&6(BB<<MCO<<(T>)(

  83. CMC_(P4H(z"@@H&+$(+4#(f?"$%(G%'Z7%_(j&HU_(5&+d_(\&0$07"$%&+$%( 1H'%&"+4(BB<<MB<<<(T>)(

  84. Plan of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple. Uruk, Iraq.

    c.3300-3000 BCE T%4$MP*"9(
  85. !H#(T&"2U9(

  86. CMB_(>+&-%#(h%99%7(:f+&U+(h+9%=_(j&HU_(5&+d_(\&0707"$%&+$%(1H'%&"+4_( BB<<MB<<<(T>)J( f+$%&_(\7+4$9(+4#(P4"'+79J(

  87. D0##%99(&%2%"-"4@(0o%&"4@9{Z&0V+V7A(54+44+( CMB_(>+&-%#(h%99%7(:f+&U+(h+9%=_(j&HU_(5&+d_(\&0707"$%&+$%(1H'%&"+4_( BB<<MB<<<(T>)J(

  88. D0##%99(&%2%"-"4@(0o%&"4@9{Z&0V+V7A( 54+44+( CMB_(>+&-%#(h%99%7(:f+&U+(h+9%=_(j&HU_(5&+d_(\&0707"$%&+$%(1H'%&"+4_( BB<<MB<<<(T>)J(

  89. CM;Y_(,%2049$&H2304(0R( ]%VH2?+#4%^^+&(55m9( T+VA704(."$?(59?$+&(D+$%_( ]%0MT+VA704"+4_(a$?(>%4$H&A( T>)(

  90. 59?$+&(D+$%_(]%0MT+VA704"+4_(T+VA704_(2J( OKO(T>)J((:1%%(CM;O=(

  91. 59?$+&(D+$%_(]%0MT+VA704"+4_(T+VA704_(2J(OKO(T>)J(( :1%%(CM;O=(

  92. "3.G,.G)23'A%.-) #@);3HE0#.) CM;Y_(,%2049$&H2304(0R( ]%VH2?+#4%^^+&(55m9(T+VA704(."$?( 59?$+&(D+$%_(]%0MT+VA704"+4_(a$?( >%4$H&A(T>)( G?&04%(,00'(f+77_(]%0M T+VA704"+4_(T+VA704_(2J( OKO(T>)J((:1%%(CM;O=(

  93. 59?$+&(D+$%_(]%0MT+VA704"+4_( a$?(>%4$H&A(T>)( 8&+@049(R0&(!+&#HU( c"049(R0&(59?$+&( TH779(R0&(P#+#(

  94. None
  95. 3-18, Temple of Amun, Aerial View, Karnak, Egypt, 20th century

    BCE (begun).
  96. Hypostyle Hall Pylon I Most Holy of Places Sacred Lake

    Temple of Amun, Aerial View, Karnak, Egypt, 20th century BCE (begun).
  97. bAZ09$A7%(b+77("4($?%(D&%+$( G%'Z7%(0R(P'H4(+$(E+&4+U_(]%.( E"4@#0'_(;CN<M;CCY(T>)( Clerestory: The area of windows that rises

    above other parts of the roof.
  98. 5-31, Iktinos and Kallikrates. The Parthenon (seen from northwest). Acropolis,

    Athens, 447-438 BCE.
  99. 80&"2( 504"2( >&099M1%2304(0R($?%(\+&$?%404(

  100. OMB;_(\7+4(0R($?%(\+&$?%404(+4#("$9(92H7Z$H&+7( Z&0@&+'J(

  101. 5#%+7"9'(+4#(,%+7"9'( >4*5$?+ ! \0.%&J((( ! )@AZ3+46(>709%#( >0'Z09"304_(93o( Z09$H&%_(A0H$?_(( ! >+4049(0R(\&0Z0&304( ! ,0'+46(h%&"9'(( @A5<9-*$?+ ! E?+R&%(

    ! cA9"ZZ09_(\07AU7%"$09_( \?"#"+9(
  102. >H7$(1$+$H%(0R(E?+R&%_(I7#(E"4@#0'_(COC<MCYaO(T>)(

  103. b+$9?%Z9H$_(]%.(E"4@#0'( \%ZA(5_(I7#(E"4@#0'(

  104. None
  105. None
  106. OMCa_(f+&&"0&_(/0H4#("4($?%(9%+(0o(,"+2%_(5$+7A_()+&7A(>7+99"2+7_(Ya<MYO<( T>)(

  107. G?%(\&0Z0&3049(0R(\?"#"+9(

  108. q((:Z?"=(q(;(q(Ja;L<(

  109. \?"#"+9_(E+77"U&+$%9_(+4#( 5U3409_(/&04$+7(h"%.(0R( $?%(\+&$?%404_(G?%( D07#%4(,%2$+4@7%_( P2&0Z07"9(P$?%49_( YYKMYBC(T>)((

  110. \?"#"+9_(E+77"U&+$%9_(+4#(5U3409_(/&04$+7(h"%.(0R($?%(\+&$?%404_( P2&0Z07"9(P$?%49_(YYKMYBC(T>)((

  111. OMB;_(\?"#"+9_(E+77"U&+$%9_(+4#(5U3409_(/&04$+7(h"%.(0R($?%(\+&$?%404_( P2&0Z07"9(P$?%49_(YYKMYBC(T>)((

  112. B) IJBK) OMB;_(/700&(\7+4(0R(\+&$?%404_(54$%&"0&(0R($?%(\+&$?%404("9(+(D07#%4( ,%2$+4@7%J(

  113. 8"+@&+'(0R(\+&$?%404(."$?(%*+@@%&+$%#(2H&-%9(

  114. \?"#"+4(\&0Z0&3049(+4#($?%(bH'+4(/0&'(

  115. P$?%4+_(Pg&"VH$%#($0(\?"#"+9_(b"@?(>7+99"2+7_(2J( O$?(2%4$H&A(>)(

  116. P$?%4+_(Pg&"VH$%#($0(\?"#"+9_( b"@?(>7+99"2+7_(2J(O$?(2%4$H&A( >)(

  117. OMB<_(>H7$(1$+$H%(0R(P$?%4+( :,%2049$&H2304=_(\+&$?%404_( P2&0Z07"9_(P$?%49_(2J(YY<(T>)(

  118. +( V( OMB<_(>H7$(1$+$H%(0R(P$?%4+( :,%2049$&H2304=_(\+&$?%404_(P2&0Z07"9_( P$?%49_(2J(YY<(T>)( 1$+$H%g%(0R($?%(P$?%4+(]"U0Z?0&09_(Z099"V7%(,0'+4( 20ZA(0R($?%(\+&$?%404(2H7$(9$+$H%_(;9$(2%4$H&A(>)J(

  119. G?%(.5737(0R(\07AU7%"$09( \@J(;BY_(\07AU7%"$09_(80&AZ?0&09(:1Z%+&(T%+&%&=_(,0'+4(>0ZA( R&0'(D&%%U(I&"@"4+7_(b"@?(>7+99"2+7(2J(O$?(>%4$H&A(>)(

  120. WVH$(V%+H$A_(?%($?"4U9_(#0%9(40$(&%9"#%("4($?%(Z&0Z%&( Z&0Z0&304(0R($?%(%7%'%4$9(VH$("4($?%(Z&0Z%&(Z&0Z0&304( 0R($?%(Z+&$9_(9H2?(+9(R0&(%*+'Z7%($?+$(0R(S4@%&($0(S4@%&( +4#(+77($?%9%($0($?%(Z+7'(+4#(V+9%(0R(?+4#_(0R($?09%($0( $?%(R0&%+&'_(0R($?%(R0&%+&'($0($?%(HZZ%&(+&'(+4#(0R( %-%&A$?"4@($0(%-%&A$?"4@(%79%_(pH9$(+9(#%92&"V%#("4($?%( >+404(0R(\07AU7%"$09J(/0&(?+-"4@($+H@?$(H9("4($?+$(.0&U( +77($?%(Z&0Z0&3049(0R($?%(V0#A_(\07AU7%"$09(9HZZ0&$%#( ?"9($&%+39%(."$?(+(.0&U(0R(+&$_('+U"4@(+(9$+$H%( +220&#"4@($0($?%($%4%$9(0R($?%($&%+39%(+4#(2+77"4@("$_(7"U%(

    $?%($&%+39%("$9%7R_($?%(>+404J(10($?%4_(+77(Z?"7090Z?%&9( +4#(#02$0&9(+22%Z$($?+$(V%+H$A(&%9"#%9("4($?%(#H%( Z&0Z0&304(0R($?%(Z+&$9(0R($?%(V0#AJX(
  121. None
  122. None
  123. None
  124. >04$&+ZZ09$0( \A$?+@0&%+4(G+V7%(0R(IZZ09"$%9( ( (/"4"$% (( ( (54S4"$%( (I## ( ((

    ()-%4( (I4% ( ( (!+4A( (,"@?$ (( ( (c%r( (,%9$ ( ( (!0304( (1$&+"@?$ ( (>&00U%#( (c"@?$ ( ( (8+&U4%99( (D00# ( ( ()-"7( (1dH+&%( ( (IV704@(
  125. G?%(>+404(0R(cA9"ZZ09( OMYa_(cA9"ZZ09_(PZ0*A0'%409(:G?%(12&+Z%&=_(,0'+4(>0ZA(0R(+(D&%%U( I&"@"4+7_(c+$%(>7+99"2+7_(Y$?(2%4$H&A(>)(

  126. \07AU7%"$09_(80&AZ?0&09_(O$?(2J( cA9"ZZ09_(PZ0*A0'%409_(Y$?(2J(

  127. \@J(;BY_(\07AU7%"$09_(80&AZ?0&09_(O$?(2J(T>)( OMYa_(cA9"ZZ09_(PZ0*A0'%409_(Y$?(2J(T>)J(

  128. aM;C_(\0&$&+"$(0R(\+$&"2"+4(:WT&H$H9X=_(\&0V+V7A(0R()$&H92+4( P&39$&A_(,0'+4(,%ZHV7"2+4_(2J(B<<(T>)J(

  129. aM;Y_(\0&$&+"$(0R(PH7H9(!%$%77H9(:W$?%( I&+$0&X=_(4%+&(c+U%(G&+9"'%40_(,0'+4( ,%ZHV7"2+4_(2J(L<(T>)J(

  130. \@J(;K<_(\+$&"2"+4(>+&&A"4@(G.0( \0&$&+"$(b%+#9_()+&7A()'Z"&%_(2J(7+$%(;9$( 2%4$H&A(T>)(0&(%+&7A(;9$(2%4$H&A(>)J( !A2%4+%+4(/H4%&+&A(!+9U_(2J(;BO<(T>)J( W/0&(.?%4%-%&(04%(0R($?%(7%+#"4@('%4(+'04@9$(w$?%( ,0'+49x(#"%9FJ$?%A(Z7+2%(+(7"U%4%99(0R($?%(#%+#( '+4("4($?%('09$(ZHV7"2(Z+&$(0R($?%(?0H9%_(U%%Z"4@("$( "4(+(9'+77(.00#%4(9?&"4%J((G?%(7"U%4%99("9(+('+9U( %9Z%2"+77A('+#%(R0&(+(2709%(&%9%'V7+42%FP4#( .?%4%-%&(+(7%+#"4@('%'V%&(0R($?%(R+'"7A(#"%9_($?%A(

    "4$&0#H2%(w$?%(.+*('+9U9x_("4$0($?%(RH4%&+7( Z&02%99"04_(ZH|4@($?%'(04('%4(.?0(9%%'('09$( 7"U%($?%'("4(?%"@?$(+4#(+9(&%@+&#9($?%(&%9$(0R($?%"&( @%4%&+7(+ZZ%+&+42%FJ5$("9(40$(%+9A(R0&(+4(+'V"30H9( +4#(?"@?M'"4#%#(A0H4@('+4($0(9%%(+(S4%&(9Z%2$+27%( $?+4($?"9J((/0&($?09%(.?0(.0H7#(40$(V%(.04(0-%&(+$( $?%(9"@?$(0R(+77($?%('+9U9($0@%$?%&(0R($?09%('%4(.?0( ?+#(V%%4(%*$077%#(R0&(-"&$H%(+9("R($?%A(.%&%(+7"-%(+4#( V&%+$?"4@JX(u\07AV"H9(:b"9$0&A(0R(,0'%=((
  131. Portrait Head of an Elder. Roman Republican, c.80 BCE. h%&"9'(

  132. aM;L_(PH@H9$H9(\&"'+Z0&$+_(,0'+4( 5'Z%&"+7(;9$(2%4$H&A(>)J( \07AU7%"$09_(80&AZ?0&09_(,0'+4(>0ZA_(O$?( >%4$H&A(>)(

  133. 6-13, Portrait Head of an Elder. Roman Republican, c.80 BCE.

    6-18, Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st century CE.
  134. 6-18, Augustus Primaporta, Roman Imperial 1st century CE. TH9$(0R(I2$+-"+4_(,0'+4(,%ZHV7"2+4_(2J( BN(T>)(

    P@%6(CY( P@%6(KK(
  135. ,07%9(0R($?%(P&39$( >4*5$?+ @A5<9-*$?+

  136. \&0V7%'(iY6(>H7$(0R($?%(P&39$( P&39$( P&$( h"%.%&( >04$%*$(

  137. \&0V7%'(iY6(>H7$(0R($?%(P&39$( P&39$( P&$( h"%.%&( >04$%*$( P&39$( P&$( h"%.%&( >04$%*$(