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The Instruments of Power in Near Eastern Art

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
October 02, 2013

The Instruments of Power in Near Eastern Art

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=128

nichsara

October 02, 2013
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  1. The  Instruments  of  Power     in  Near  Eastern  Art

      Reading:   Nigel  Spivey,  “Art  and  Power”  from   How  Art  Made  the  World,  pp.       Range:   c.  3000  BCE-­‐331  BCE   Sumerian,  Akkadian,  Old  Babylonian,   Assyrian,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,   Achaemenid  Persian     Terms/Concepts:   HieraKc  Scale,  Axial,  Bent  Axis,   Ziggurat,  Axis  Mundi,  Stele,  Lapis   Lazuli,       Key  Monuments:     White  Temple  and  Ziggurat,   Sumerian,  3200-­‐3000  BCE.     Victory  Stele  of  Naram-­‐Sin,   Akkadian,  2254-­‐2218  BCE.     Stele  with  the  laws  of  Hammurabi,   Old  Babylonian,  c.  1780  BCE.     Assurnasirpal  II  Killing  Lions,   Throne  Room  of  the  Palace  of   Asshurnasirpal  II,  Kalhu  (Nimrud),   Iraq,  Assyrian,  875-­‐860  BCE.     Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  c.  575   BCE.     Persians  and  Medes,  Achaemenid   Persian,  c.  521-­‐465  BCE.  
  2. Timeline  of  the  Ancient  Near  East  

  3. Major  Powers  in  the  Near  East    Sumerian:  3000-­‐2340  BCE

       Akkadian:  2340-­‐2180  BCE    Old  Babylonian:  2025-­‐1594  BCE    Assyrian:  1350-­‐612  BCE    Neo-­‐Babylonian:  612-­‐539  BCE    Achaemenid  Persian:  539-­‐331  BCE  
  4. Overview  

  5. Samarra   Sumer:  3300-­‐2500  BCE  

  6. None
  7. Anu  Ziggurat  and  White  Temple,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Protoliterate   Sumerian

     3300-­‐3000  BCE  
  8. Plan of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple. Uruk, Iraq.

    c.3300-3000 BCE Bent-­‐Axis  
  9. Mud  Bricks  

  10. Anu  Ziggurat  and  White  Temple,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Protoliterate   Sumerian

     3300-­‐3000  BCE  
  11. Warka  Vase,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Prololiterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000   Water,  Plants

     and  Animals.  
  12. Warka  Vase,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Prololiterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000   Goddess  receiving

     offerings—probably  Inanna  
  13. Warka  Vase,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Prololiterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000   Goddess  receiving

     offerings—probably   Inanna  
  14. The  Rise  of  Cuneiform  

  15. Cylinder  Seal,  Protoliterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3100  BCE   Cylinder  Seal,  Early

     DynasKc  Sumerian,  2900-­‐2334  BCE  
  16. None
  17. Inventory  Tablet  with   Archaic  Cuneiform,  Early   DynasKc  Sumerian,

     3200   BCE   AdministraKve  Tablet,  Early   DynasKc  Sumerian,   3100-­‐2900  BCE   Stylus   EvoluKon  of  Cuneiform  
  18. None
  19. Gilgamesh:  the  king  who  was  2/3  god   “Gilgamesh”  (Assyrian

     Hero)   The  Epic  of  Gilgamesh  in  Akkadian  
  20. Royal  Cemetery,  Ur,  Iraq,  Early  DynasKc  Sumerian,  2600-­‐2400  BCE  

  21. The Great Lyre with Bull`s Head, from Tomb 789. Royal

    Cemetery, Ur, Early Dynastic Sumerian, c.2600-2500 BCE (See B on pg. 35). 5’  5”  
  22. The Great Lyre with Bull`s Head, from Tomb 789. Royal

    Cemetery, Ur, Early Dynastic Sumerian, c.2600-2500 BCE (See B on pg. 35).
  23. lapis lazuli Sar-e-Sang, Afghanistan, is site of lapis lazuli mines.

    The Great Lyre with Bull`s Head, from Tomb 789. Royal Cemetery, Ur, Early Dynastic Sumerian, c.2600-2500 BCE (See B on pg. 35).
  24. Samples of lapis lazuli.

  25. Material  Mahers  

  26. None
  27. lapis lazuli The Great Lyre with Bull`s Head, from Tomb

    789. Royal Cemetery, Ur, Early Dynastic Sumerian, c.2600-2500 BCE (See C on pg. 35).
  28. Akkadian:  2500-­‐2200  

  29. Stele  of  Naram  Sin,  Akkadian,   2254-­‐2218  BCE  

  30. Stele  of  Naram  Sin,  Akkadian,   2254-­‐2218  BCE   Cylinder

     Seal  with  Weather  God,  Akkadian,   2334-­‐2154  BCE  
  31. Old  Babylonian:  1792-­‐1750  BCE  

  32. Stele  of  Hammurabi,  Old   Babylonian,    1792-­‐1750  BCE  

  33. “When  Shamash  with  radiant  face   had  joyfully  looked  upon

     me  –  me  his   favorite  shepherd,  Hammurabi…to   cause  jusKce  to  prevail  in  the  land,  to   destroy  the  wicked  and  evil  that  the   strong  might  not  oppress  the  weak.”     Stele  of  Hammurabi,  Old   Babylonian,    1792-­‐1750  BCE  
  34. None
  35. •  “If  a  man  puts  out  the  eye  of  another

     man,   his  eye  shall  be  put  out.”   •  “If  he  kills  a  man’s  slave,  he  shall  pay  one-­‐ third  of  a  mina.”   •  “If  someone  steals  property  from  a   temple,  he  will  be  put  to  death  as  will  the   person  who  receives  the  stolen  goods.”   •  “If  a  married  woman  dies  before  bearing   any  sons,  her  dowry  shall  be  repaid  to  her   father,  but  if  she  gave  birth  to  sons,  the   dowry  belongs  to  them.”   •  If  a  man  strikes  a  freeborn  woman  so  that   she  loses  her  unborn  child,  he  shall  bay   ten  shekels  for  her  loss.    If  the  woman  dies   his  daughter  shall  be  put  to  death.”   •  “If  a  man  is  guilty  of  incest  with  his   daughter,  he  shall  be  exiled.”  
  36. Assyrian  1350-­‐612  BCE  

  37. ReconstrucKon  of  the  Citadel  and  Palace  Complex  of  Sargon  the

     II,  Dur   Sharrukin,  Assyrian,  720-­‐705  BCE   Gate  A   Throne  Room   90°  
  38. Lamassu  Figures  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon

     II,   721-­‐706  BCE  
  39. Lamassu  Figures  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon

     II,   721-­‐706  BCE  
  40. Lamassu  Figure  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon

     II,  720-­‐705  BCE  
  41. Lamassu  Figure  at  Gate  A  of  the   Citadel  of

     Sargon  II,  720-­‐705  BCE   Stele  of  Naram  Sin,  Akkadian,   2254-­‐2218  BCE  
  42. Lamassu  Figures  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon

     II,   720-­‐705  BCE  
  43. Assyrian  Soldiers  Torturing  the  Soldiers  of  Lachich,   Palace  of

     Sennacherib,  Nineveh,  c.  700-­‐695  BCE.  
  44. Assyrian  Soldiers  Torturing  the  Soldiers  of  Lachich,   Palace  of

     Sennacherib,  Nineveh,  c.  700-­‐695  BCE.   “I  flayed  as  many  nobles  as  had  rebelled  against  me   [and]  draped  their  skins  over  the  pile  [of  corpses];   some  I  spread  out  within  the  pile,  some  I  erected   on  stakes  upon  the  pile  ...  I  flayed  many  right   through  my  land  [and]  draped  their  skins  over  the   walls.”  -­‐-­‐Ashurnasirpal  
  45. Lachich  Soldiers  being   impaled,  Palace  of   Sennacherib,  Nineveh,

      c.  700-­‐695  BCE.   “I  captured  soldiers  alive  [and]   erected  [them]  on  stakes  before   their  ciKes.”  –Shalmaneser  III  
  46. Assurnasirpal  II  Killing  Lions,  Throne  Room  of  the   Palace

     of  Asshurnasirpal  II,  Kalhu  (Nimrud),  Iraq,   Assyrian,  875-­‐860  BCE.   Ashurnasirpal  =    “Ashur  guards  the  heir”  
  47. Lion  Hunt,  from  the  throne  room  of  Assurbanipal,  Nineveh,  647

     BCE   Ashurbanipal  =  “Ashur  is  creator  of  the  son”  
  48. Lion  Hunt,  Palace  of  Assurbanipal,  Assyrian,  647  BCE  

  49. Dying  Lion,  Throne  Room  of  Ashurbanipal,  Nineveh,  647  BCE  

  50. Dead  Lion,  Throne  Room  of  Ashurbanipal,  Nineveh,  647  BCE  

  51. Dying  Lioness,  from  the  palace  of  Ashurbanipal,   Nineveh,  c.

     647  BCE.  
  52. Neo-­‐Babylonian:  612-­‐539  BCE  

  53. None
  54. Babylon  of  Nebuchadnezzar  II,  c.  600  BCE  

  55. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐ Babylonian,  6th  Century  BCE  

  56. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  6th  Century   BCE  

  57. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  6th  Century  BCE  

  58. eastern Mediterranean, exchange of gifts created international styles for elite

    objects, many displaying a fusion of the dynamic Aegean animal style with Egyptian and Syrian imagery and compositions. This Mediterranean international style survived into the early first millennium BC, especially in the Canaanite (Phoenician) cities millennium BC, and the Canaanites, who spoke a Semitic language and lived along the Mediterranean coast. Much of the art of this period was heavily influenced by Mesopotamian traditions. For example, in Elam (southwest Iran) the religious imagery of Mesopotamia was used to depict Elamite mythology. However, new art-forms 30˚ 40˚ 35˚ 40˚ 45˚ 50˚ 35˚ 35˚ Alalakh Byblos Aleppo Troy Tell el-Ajjul Mari Kanesh (Kültepe) Hattushash (Bogazköy) Ashur Tell Brak Nineveh Babylon Isin Chogha Zanbil Kish Eshnunna (Tell Asmar) Tell el Rimah Susa Ur Uruk Larsa Hasanlu Ziwiye Marlik Jerusalem Ugarit Dur Kurigalzu Sippar L. Van L. Urmia Dead Sea E uphr ates Tigris Nile Jordan Halys (K izil Irmak) Orontes Diyala M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A PERSIAN GULF B L A C K S E A C A S P I A N S E A C A U C A S U S Z A G R O S M T S TAURUS M TS I R A N I A N P L A T E A U CYPRUS FAILAKA E L A M LURISTAN MITANNI YAMHAD H AT T I B A B Y L O N I A CANAAN A N A T O L I A E G Y P T A R A B I A ASSYRIA N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 International Art, 2000-1000 BC royal palace ziggurat movement: tin horses lapis lazuli gold silver textiles copper glass technology local artistic metal production ancient coastline alon on fi Marl settl nom THE After centu and b calle regio to Ira symb built T main of re mon their walls temp recor in lo Figur in M profi The w repla I dom were Elab imag from plun T these of ar quan anim 42 instance, actively participated in this system and as a result obtained gold from Egypt. In the eastern Mediterranean, exchange of gifts created international styles for elite objects, many displaying a fusion of the dynamic Aegean animal style with Egyptian and Syrian imagery and compositions. This Mediterranean international style survived into the early first millennium BC, especially in the Canaanite (Phoenician) cities speaking an Indo-European language who had possibly migrated from Europe in the late third millennium BC, and the Canaanites, who spoke a Semitic language and lived along the Mediterranean coast. Much of the art of this period was heavily influenced by Mesopotamian traditions. For example, in Elam (southwest Iran) the religious imagery of Mesopotamia was used to depict Elamite mythology. However, new art-forms 30˚ 40˚ 35˚ 40˚ 45˚ 50˚ 35˚ 35˚ Alalakh Byblos Aleppo Troy Tell el-Ajjul Mari Kanesh (Kültepe) Hattushash (Bogazköy) Ashur Tell Brak Nineveh Babylon Isin Chogha Zanbil Kish Eshnunna (Tell Asmar) Tell el Rimah Susa Ur Uruk Larsa Hasanlu Ziwiye Marlik Jerusalem Ugarit Dur Kurigalzu Sippar L. Van L. Urmia Dead Sea E uphr ates Tigris Nile Jordan Halys (K izil Irmak) Orontes Diyala M E D I T E R R A N E A N S E A PERSIAN GULF B L A C K S E A C A S P I A N S E A C A U C A S U S Z A G R O S M T S TAURUS M TS I R A N I A N P L A T E A U CYPRUS FAILAKA E L A M LURISTAN MITANNI YAMHAD H AT T I B A B Y L O N I A CANAAN A N A T O L I A E G Y P T A R A B I A ASSYRIA N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 International Art, 2000-1000 BC royal palace ziggurat movement: tin horses lapis lazuli gold silver textiles copper glass technology local artistic metal production ancient coastline Raw  Lapis  Lazuli  
  59. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  6th  Century  BCE   Hanging  Gardens  

    of  Babylon  
  60. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,   6th  Century  BCE   Dragons  for

     Marduk   Lions  for  Ishtar   Bulls  for  Adad  
  61. Achaemenid  Persian:  539-­‐331  BCE  

  62. ReconstrucKon  of  Persepolis,  c.  518-­‐460  BCE    

  63. Plan  of  Persepolis,  c.  518-­‐460  BCE    

  64. Apadana  of  Darius  and  Xerxes,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

  65. Lion  ahacking  an  Antelope,  Apadana,  Persepolis,  Apadana,  518-­‐460  BCE  

     
  66. Stairs  and  Processional  Friezes,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460   BCE

     
  67. Stairs,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

  68. Processional  Friezes,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

  69. Processional  Friezes,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

  70. Darius  and  Xerxes  Receiving  Tribute,  Achaemenid  Persian,  491-­‐486  BCE  

  71. Both  the  Stele  of  Naram  Sin  and  Vera  Mukhina’s  Industrial

     Worker  and  CollecKve  Farm  Girl  can   be  considered  “poliKcal.”    How  do  their  messages  and  means  of  delivery  different?  
  72. Thinking  about  the  discussion  we  just  had  and   the

     images  seen,  who  do  you  believe  has  the   most  agency  in  the  creaKon  of  images?   How  does  the  definiKon  of  art  as  self  expression  hold  up?   ArKst   Art   Viewer   Context   ArKst   Art   Viewer   Context