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The Instruments of Power in Near Eastern Art

nichsara
October 02, 2013

The Instruments of Power in Near Eastern Art

nichsara

October 02, 2013
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  1. The  Instruments  of  Power    
    in  Near  Eastern  Art  
    Reading:  
    Nigel  Spivey,  “Art  and  Power”  from  
    How  Art  Made  the  World,  pp.    
     
    Range:  
    c.  3000  BCE-­‐331  BCE  
    Sumerian,  Akkadian,  Old  Babylonian,  
    Assyrian,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  
    Achaemenid  Persian  
     
    Terms/Concepts:  
    HieraKc  Scale,  Axial,  Bent  Axis,  
    Ziggurat,  Axis  Mundi,  Stele,  Lapis  
    Lazuli,    
     
    Key  Monuments:  
      White  Temple  and  Ziggurat,  
    Sumerian,  3200-­‐3000  BCE.  
      Victory  Stele  of  Naram-­‐Sin,  
    Akkadian,  2254-­‐2218  BCE.  
      Stele  with  the  laws  of  Hammurabi,  
    Old  Babylonian,  c.  1780  BCE.  
      Assurnasirpal  II  Killing  Lions,  
    Throne  Room  of  the  Palace  of  
    Asshurnasirpal  II,  Kalhu  (Nimrud),  
    Iraq,  Assyrian,  875-­‐860  BCE.  
      Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  c.  575  
    BCE.  
      Persians  and  Medes,  Achaemenid  
    Persian,  c.  521-­‐465  BCE.  

    View Slide

  2. Timeline  of  the  Ancient  Near  East  

    View Slide

  3. Major  Powers  in  the  Near  East  
     Sumerian:  3000-­‐2340  BCE  
     Akkadian:  2340-­‐2180  BCE  
     Old  Babylonian:  2025-­‐1594  BCE  
     Assyrian:  1350-­‐612  BCE  
     Neo-­‐Babylonian:  612-­‐539  BCE  
     Achaemenid  Persian:  539-­‐331  BCE  

    View Slide

  4. Overview  

    View Slide

  5. Samarra  
    Sumer:  3300-­‐2500  BCE  

    View Slide

  6. View Slide

  7. Anu  Ziggurat  and  White  Temple,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Protoliterate  
    Sumerian  3300-­‐3000  BCE  

    View Slide

  8. Plan of the Anu Ziggurat and White Temple. Uruk, Iraq. c.3300-3000 BCE
    Bent-­‐Axis  

    View Slide

  9. Mud  Bricks  

    View Slide

  10. Anu  Ziggurat  and  White  Temple,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Protoliterate  
    Sumerian  3300-­‐3000  BCE  

    View Slide

  11. Warka  Vase,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Prololiterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000  
    Water,  Plants  and  Animals.  

    View Slide

  12. Warka  Vase,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Prololiterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000  
    Goddess  receiving  offerings—probably  Inanna  

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  13. Warka  Vase,  Uruk,  Iraq,  Prololiterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3000  
    Goddess  receiving  offerings—probably  
    Inanna  

    View Slide

  14. The  Rise  of  Cuneiform  

    View Slide

  15. Cylinder  Seal,  Protoliterate  Sumerian,  3300-­‐3100  BCE  
    Cylinder  Seal,  Early  DynasKc  Sumerian,  2900-­‐2334  BCE  

    View Slide

  16. View Slide

  17. Inventory  Tablet  with  
    Archaic  Cuneiform,  Early  
    DynasKc  Sumerian,  3200  
    BCE  
    AdministraKve  Tablet,  Early  
    DynasKc  Sumerian,  
    3100-­‐2900  BCE  
    Stylus  
    EvoluKon  of  Cuneiform  

    View Slide

  18. View Slide

  19. Gilgamesh:  the  king  who  was  2/3  god  
    “Gilgamesh”  (Assyrian  Hero)   The  Epic  of  Gilgamesh  in  Akkadian  

    View Slide

  20. Royal  Cemetery,  Ur,  Iraq,  Early  DynasKc  Sumerian,  2600-­‐2400  BCE  

    View Slide

  21. The Great Lyre with
    Bull`s Head, from
    Tomb 789. Royal
    Cemetery, Ur, Early
    Dynastic Sumerian,
    c.2600-2500 BCE
    (See B on pg. 35).
    5’  5”  

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  22. The Great Lyre with Bull`s Head, from Tomb 789. Royal
    Cemetery, Ur, Early Dynastic Sumerian, c.2600-2500 BCE (See B
    on pg. 35).

    View Slide

  23. lapis
    lazuli
    Sar-e-Sang, Afghanistan, is
    site of lapis lazuli mines.
    The Great Lyre with
    Bull`s Head, from Tomb
    789. Royal Cemetery,
    Ur, Early Dynastic
    Sumerian, c.2600-2500
    BCE (See B on pg. 35).

    View Slide

  24. Samples of lapis lazuli.

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  25. Material  Mahers  

    View Slide

  26. View Slide

  27. lapis
    lazuli
    The Great Lyre with
    Bull`s Head, from
    Tomb 789. Royal
    Cemetery, Ur, Early
    Dynastic Sumerian,
    c.2600-2500 BCE
    (See C on pg. 35).

    View Slide

  28. Akkadian:  2500-­‐2200  

    View Slide

  29. Stele  of  Naram  Sin,  Akkadian,  
    2254-­‐2218  BCE  

    View Slide

  30. Stele  of  Naram  Sin,  Akkadian,  
    2254-­‐2218  BCE  
    Cylinder  Seal  with  Weather  God,  Akkadian,  
    2334-­‐2154  BCE  

    View Slide

  31. Old  Babylonian:  1792-­‐1750  BCE  

    View Slide

  32. Stele  of  Hammurabi,  Old  
    Babylonian,    1792-­‐1750  BCE  

    View Slide

  33. “When  Shamash  with  radiant  face  
    had  joyfully  looked  upon  me  –  me  his  
    favorite  shepherd,  Hammurabi…to  
    cause  jusKce  to  prevail  in  the  land,  to  
    destroy  the  wicked  and  evil  that  the  
    strong  might  not  oppress  the  weak.”    
    Stele  of  Hammurabi,  Old  
    Babylonian,    1792-­‐1750  BCE  

    View Slide

  34. View Slide

  35. •  “If  a  man  puts  out  the  eye  of  another  man,  
    his  eye  shall  be  put  out.”  
    •  “If  he  kills  a  man’s  slave,  he  shall  pay  one-­‐
    third  of  a  mina.”  
    •  “If  someone  steals  property  from  a  
    temple,  he  will  be  put  to  death  as  will  the  
    person  who  receives  the  stolen  goods.”  
    •  “If  a  married  woman  dies  before  bearing  
    any  sons,  her  dowry  shall  be  repaid  to  her  
    father,  but  if  she  gave  birth  to  sons,  the  
    dowry  belongs  to  them.”  
    •  If  a  man  strikes  a  freeborn  woman  so  that  
    she  loses  her  unborn  child,  he  shall  bay  
    ten  shekels  for  her  loss.    If  the  woman  dies  
    his  daughter  shall  be  put  to  death.”  
    •  “If  a  man  is  guilty  of  incest  with  his  
    daughter,  he  shall  be  exiled.”  

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  36. Assyrian  1350-­‐612  BCE  

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  37. ReconstrucKon  of  the  Citadel  and  Palace  Complex  of  Sargon  the  II,  Dur  
    Sharrukin,  Assyrian,  720-­‐705  BCE  
    Gate  A  
    Throne  Room  
    90°  

    View Slide

  38. Lamassu  Figures  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon  II,  
    721-­‐706  BCE  

    View Slide

  39. Lamassu  Figures  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon  II,  
    721-­‐706  BCE  

    View Slide

  40. Lamassu  Figure  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon  II,  720-­‐705  BCE  

    View Slide

  41. Lamassu  Figure  at  Gate  A  of  the  
    Citadel  of  Sargon  II,  720-­‐705  BCE  
    Stele  of  Naram  Sin,  Akkadian,  
    2254-­‐2218  BCE  

    View Slide

  42. Lamassu  Figures  at  Gate  A  of  the  Citadel  of  Sargon  II,  
    720-­‐705  BCE  

    View Slide

  43. Assyrian  Soldiers  Torturing  the  Soldiers  of  Lachich,  
    Palace  of  Sennacherib,  Nineveh,  c.  700-­‐695  BCE.  

    View Slide

  44. Assyrian  Soldiers  Torturing  the  Soldiers  of  Lachich,  
    Palace  of  Sennacherib,  Nineveh,  c.  700-­‐695  BCE.  
    “I  flayed  as  many  nobles  as  had  rebelled  against  me  
    [and]  draped  their  skins  over  the  pile  [of  corpses];  
    some  I  spread  out  within  the  pile,  some  I  erected  
    on  stakes  upon  the  pile  ...  I  flayed  many  right  
    through  my  land  [and]  draped  their  skins  over  the  
    walls.”  -­‐-­‐Ashurnasirpal  

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  45. Lachich  Soldiers  being  
    impaled,  Palace  of  
    Sennacherib,  Nineveh,  
    c.  700-­‐695  BCE.  
    “I  captured  soldiers  alive  [and]  
    erected  [them]  on  stakes  before  
    their  ciKes.”  –Shalmaneser  III  

    View Slide

  46. Assurnasirpal  II  Killing  Lions,  Throne  Room  of  the  
    Palace  of  Asshurnasirpal  II,  Kalhu  (Nimrud),  Iraq,  
    Assyrian,  875-­‐860  BCE.  
    Ashurnasirpal  =    “Ashur  guards  the  heir”  

    View Slide

  47. Lion  Hunt,  from  the  throne  room  of  Assurbanipal,  Nineveh,  647  BCE  
    Ashurbanipal  =  “Ashur  is  creator  of  the  son”  

    View Slide

  48. Lion  Hunt,  Palace  of  Assurbanipal,  Assyrian,  647  BCE  

    View Slide

  49. Dying  Lion,  Throne  Room  of  Ashurbanipal,  Nineveh,  647  BCE  

    View Slide

  50. Dead  Lion,  Throne  Room  of  Ashurbanipal,  Nineveh,  647  BCE  

    View Slide

  51. Dying  Lioness,  from  the  palace  of  Ashurbanipal,  
    Nineveh,  c.  647  BCE.  

    View Slide

  52. Neo-­‐Babylonian:  612-­‐539  BCE  

    View Slide

  53. View Slide

  54. Babylon  of  Nebuchadnezzar  II,  c.  600  BCE  

    View Slide

  55. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐
    Babylonian,  6th  Century  BCE  

    View Slide

  56. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  6th  Century  
    BCE  

    View Slide

  57. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  6th  Century  BCE  

    View Slide

  58. eastern Mediterranean, exchange of gifts created
    international styles for elite objects, many
    displaying a fusion of the dynamic Aegean animal
    style with Egyptian and Syrian imagery and
    compositions. This Mediterranean international
    style survived into the early first millennium BC,
    especially in the Canaanite (Phoenician) cities
    millennium BC, and the Canaanites, who spoke
    a Semitic language and lived along the
    Mediterranean coast. Much of the art of this
    period was heavily influenced by Mesopotamian
    traditions. For example, in Elam (southwest Iran)
    the religious imagery of Mesopotamia was used to
    depict Elamite mythology. However, new art-forms
    30˚
    40˚
    35˚ 40˚ 45˚ 50˚
    35˚
    35˚
    Alalakh
    Byblos
    Aleppo
    Troy
    Tell el-Ajjul
    Mari
    Kanesh (Kültepe)
    Hattushash (Bogazköy)
    Ashur
    Tell Brak
    Nineveh
    Babylon
    Isin
    Chogha
    Zanbil
    Kish
    Eshnunna (Tell Asmar)
    Tell el Rimah
    Susa
    Ur
    Uruk
    Larsa
    Hasanlu
    Ziwiye
    Marlik
    Jerusalem
    Ugarit
    Dur Kurigalzu
    Sippar
    L. Van
    L. Urmia
    Dead Sea
    E
    uphr
    ates
    Tigris
    Nile
    Jordan
    Halys (K
    izil Irmak)
    Orontes
    Diyala
    M E D I T E R R A N E A N
    S E A
    PERSIAN
    GULF
    B L A C K S E A
    C A S P I A N S E A
    C A U C A S U S
    Z
    A
    G
    R
    O
    S
    M
    T
    S
    TAURUS M
    TS
    I R A N I A N
    P L A T E A U
    CYPRUS
    FAILAKA
    E L A M
    LURISTAN
    MITANNI
    YAMHAD
    H AT T I
    B A
    B
    Y
    L O
    N I A
    CANAAN
    A N A T O L I A
    E G Y P T
    A R A B I A
    ASSYRIA
    N
    0
    0
    200 miles
    300 kms
    1 International Art, 2000-1000 BC
    royal palace
    ziggurat
    movement:
    tin
    horses
    lapis lazuli
    gold
    silver
    textiles
    copper
    glass technology
    local artistic metal
    production
    ancient coastline
    alon
    on fi
    Marl
    settl
    nom
    THE
    After
    centu
    and b
    calle
    regio
    to Ira
    symb
    built
    T
    main
    of re
    mon
    their
    walls
    temp
    recor
    in lo
    Figur
    in M
    profi
    The w
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    dom
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    Elab
    imag
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    T
    these
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    42
    instance, actively participated in this system and
    as a result obtained gold from Egypt. In the
    eastern Mediterranean, exchange of gifts created
    international styles for elite objects, many
    displaying a fusion of the dynamic Aegean animal
    style with Egyptian and Syrian imagery and
    compositions. This Mediterranean international
    style survived into the early first millennium BC,
    especially in the Canaanite (Phoenician) cities
    speaking an Indo-European language who had
    possibly migrated from Europe in the late third
    millennium BC, and the Canaanites, who spoke
    a Semitic language and lived along the
    Mediterranean coast. Much of the art of this
    period was heavily influenced by Mesopotamian
    traditions. For example, in Elam (southwest Iran)
    the religious imagery of Mesopotamia was used to
    depict Elamite mythology. However, new art-forms
    30˚
    40˚
    35˚ 40˚ 45˚ 50˚
    35˚
    35˚
    Alalakh
    Byblos
    Aleppo
    Troy
    Tell el-Ajjul
    Mari
    Kanesh (Kültepe)
    Hattushash (Bogazköy)
    Ashur
    Tell Brak
    Nineveh
    Babylon
    Isin
    Chogha
    Zanbil
    Kish
    Eshnunna (Tell Asmar)
    Tell el Rimah
    Susa
    Ur
    Uruk
    Larsa
    Hasanlu
    Ziwiye
    Marlik
    Jerusalem
    Ugarit
    Dur Kurigalzu
    Sippar
    L. Van
    L. Urmia
    Dead Sea
    E
    uphr
    ates
    Tigris
    Nile
    Jordan
    Halys (K
    izil Irmak)
    Orontes
    Diyala
    M E D I T E R R A N E A N
    S E A
    PERSIAN
    GULF
    B L A C K S E A
    C A S P I A N S E A
    C A U C A S U S
    Z
    A
    G
    R
    O
    S
    M
    T
    S
    TAURUS M
    TS
    I R A N I A N
    P L A T E A U
    CYPRUS
    FAILAKA
    E L A M
    LURISTAN
    MITANNI
    YAMHAD
    H AT T I
    B A
    B
    Y
    L O
    N I A
    CANAAN
    A N A T O L I A
    E G Y P T
    A R A B I A
    ASSYRIA
    N
    0
    0
    200 miles
    300 kms
    1 International Art, 2000-1000 BC
    royal palace
    ziggurat
    movement:
    tin
    horses
    lapis lazuli
    gold
    silver
    textiles
    copper
    glass technology
    local artistic metal
    production
    ancient coastline
    Raw  Lapis  Lazuli  

    View Slide

  59. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  6th  Century  BCE  
    Hanging  Gardens  
    of  Babylon  

    View Slide

  60. Ishtar  Gate,  Neo-­‐Babylonian,  
    6th  Century  BCE  
    Dragons  for  Marduk  
    Lions  for  Ishtar  
    Bulls  for  Adad  

    View Slide

  61. Achaemenid  Persian:  539-­‐331  BCE  

    View Slide

  62. ReconstrucKon  of  Persepolis,  c.  518-­‐460  BCE    

    View Slide

  63. Plan  of  Persepolis,  c.  518-­‐460  BCE    

    View Slide

  64. Apadana  of  Darius  and  Xerxes,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

    View Slide

  65. Lion  ahacking  an  Antelope,  Apadana,  Persepolis,  Apadana,  518-­‐460  BCE    

    View Slide

  66. Stairs  and  Processional  Friezes,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  
    BCE  

    View Slide

  67. Stairs,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

    View Slide

  68. Processional  Friezes,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

    View Slide

  69. Processional  Friezes,  Apadana,  Achaemenid  Persian,  518-­‐460  BCE  

    View Slide

  70. Darius  and  Xerxes  Receiving  Tribute,  Achaemenid  Persian,  491-­‐486  BCE  

    View Slide

  71. Both  the  Stele  of  Naram  Sin  and  Vera  Mukhina’s  Industrial  Worker  and  CollecKve  Farm  Girl  can  
    be  considered  “poliKcal.”    How  do  their  messages  and  means  of  delivery  different?  

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  72. Thinking  about  the  discussion  we  just  had  and  
    the  images  seen,  who  do  you  believe  has  the  
    most  agency  in  the  creaKon  of  images?  
    How  does  the  definiKon  of  art  as  self  expression  hold  up?  
    ArKst  
    Art   Viewer  
    Context  
    ArKst  
    Art  
    Viewer  
    Context  

    View Slide