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The Rise of Buddhist Art in Asia

3700411ae81a5ba151f9946dcb59c386?s=47 nichsara
April 09, 2013

The Rise of Buddhist Art in Asia



April 09, 2013


  1. The  Rise  of  Buddhist  Art  in  Asia   Reading:  

    Arforms,  271-­‐296     Range:   563  BCE-­‐Present     Terms/Concepts:   Buddha,  Buddhism,  8-­‐fold  path,  4   noble  truths,  samsara,  aniconism,   dharma,  chakra,  stupa,   circumambulaFon,  torana,   mudra,  royal  ease  posture,   thangka,  Theravada,  Mahayana,   Tantric.   Key  Monuments     The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,   c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  150-­‐50   BCE  (expanded).       Seated  Buddha,  Cave  20,   Yungang,  Datong,  Shanxi   Provence,  c.  460  CE     Aerial  View  of  the  Horyuji   Compound,  Nara  Prefecture,  c.   7th  century  CE     Hon’ami  Koetsu,  Teabowl   Called  “Mt.  Fuji,”  1582.  
  2. Reminders   •  Quiz  4  is  due  tonight  at  11:59

     PM.   •  Second  Chances  for  InterrogaFng  the  Museum   is  due  Thursday  April  11th.  
  3. Spread  of  Buddhism   India   Aniconism  

  4. 50 40 20 10 30 40 Mehrgarh Mohenjo-Daro Dholavira Amri

    Lothal Sutkagen Dor Harappa Shortughai Ganweriwala Kalibangan Kili Gul Muhammad Chust Kayrakkum Dal’verzin Zaman-Baba Dzhanbas-Kala Kokcha Altin Tepe Shibe Ganeshwar Jorwe Inamgaon Gaurimedu Bariduh Rupae Lal Qila Indus Jh elum Ch enab Brahmapu tra God avari Narmada Sutlej Ganges Am u Darya Tig ris Eu phrate s arya A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N PERSIA N G ULF SPIAN SEA H I M A L A Y A S H IN DU KUSH TA K L A M A K A N Z A G R O S M T S PA M I R S T H A R D E S E R T IRANIAN PLATEAU I N D I A CEYLON (SRI LANKA) C H I N A T I B E T P E R S I A A R A B I A M E S O P O T A M I A N 1 Central Asia and India, 5000-500 BC long-distance routes for trade and contact cultures contemporary with Harappan: Harappan/Indus, 2500-1500 BC Bronze Age nomadic groups with graves and grave goods Bactrian-Morgiana complex, 2nd millennium BC peninsular Neolithic Kayatha Ganeswar pre-Harappan site Harappan site Bronze Age settlement site Bronze Age nomadic grave site contemporary sites in India 0 300 miles
  5. Samsara  =  The  Cycle  of  Life,  Death,  and  Rebirth  

    FerFlity   MeditaFve  Breathing/Yoga  
  6. 563  BCE:  Siddhartha  was  born  into  the  royal   Sakya

     family.   592  BCE:  Siddhartha  encounters  age,  suffering,   and  death  when  leaving  the  palace.     598  BCE:  In  his  wandering,  he  rests   under  the  Bodhi  tree  and  awakens,   becoming  the  Buddha.   598  BCE:  Buddha  gives  his  first   sermon  at  Sarnath.   Life  of  the  Buddha   598-­‐643  BCE:  Buddha  wanders  northern  India   spreading  his  teachings  unFl  his  death  at   Kushingara.  
  7. Buddhism:  Major  Concepts     3  Trainings   •  Sila:

     Virtue   •  Samadhi:  MeditaFon   •  Prajna:   Enlightenment   4  Noble  Truths   •  The  World  is  Suffering   •  Suffering  has  a  cause   •  There  is  an  end  to   suffering   •  That  is  achieving  non-­‐ agachment.   5  Precepts   •  Do  not  harm   •  Do  not  steal   •  Do  not  lie   •  Do  not  misuse   sex   •  Do  not  consume   mind-­‐altering   substances   8-­‐Fold  Path   •  Proper   understanding  of   the  4  noble  truths   •  Right  Thinking   •  Right  Speech   •  Right  Conduct   •  Right  Livelihood   •  Right  Effort   •  Right  Mindfulness   •  Right  ConcentraFon  
  8. What is Abstraction? Ashokan  Capital,  250-­‐246  BCE  

  9. The  Beloved  of  the  Gods  [Ashoka],   conqueror  of  the

     Kalingas,  is  moved  to   remorse  now.    For  he  has  felt  profound   sorrow  and  regret  because  of  the  conquest   of  people  previously  unconquered  involves   slaughter,  death,  and  deportaFon…[King   Ashoka]  now  thinks  that  even  a  person  who   wrongs  him  must  be  forgiven…[and  he]   considers  moral  conquests  [conquest  by   dharma]  the  most  important  conquest.    He   has  achieved  this  moral  conquest   repeatedly  both  here  and  among  the   peoples  living  beyond  the  borders  of  his   kingdom…Even  in  countries  which  [King   Ashoka’s]  envoys  have  not  reached,  people   have  heard  about  dharma  and  about  [the   king’s]  ordinances  and  instrucFons  in   dharma…This  edict  on  dharma  has  been   inscribed  so  that  my  sons  and  great-­‐ grandsons  who  may  come  amer  me  should   not  think  new  conquests  worth  achieving… Let  them  consider  moral  conquest  the  only   true  conquest.”    
  10. Ashokan  Capital,  Sarnath,   India,  c.  250-­‐246  BCE   Lotus

      Chakra/Wheel   4  Animals:  Elephant,  Bull,  Lion,  Horse   4  Lions  
  11. 80˚ 85˚ 90˚ 95˚ 30˚ 25˚ 20˚ 15˚ 10˚ 5˚

    1 2 3 4 Bamiyan Peshawar Rangmahal Hadda Akhnur Srinagar Harvan Taxila Mirpur Khas Mathura Ahar Bhitargaon Pawaya Deogarh Varanasi Nachnakuthara Tigawa Ramtek Nalanda Sultanganj Kurkihar Pandu Rajar Dhibi Vaishali Elephanta Kondapur Ter Anuradhapura Sigiriya Kanchipuram Nagapattinam Amaravati Udayagiri Bhattiprolu Ghantasala Goli Nagarjunakonda Jaggayyapeta Sanchi Akota Ellora Aihole Kolhapur Brahmagiri Bagh Ajanta Dwarka Barygaza Phophnar Noh Gop Sarnath Kannauj Bodh Gaya Kaushambi Ma hanadi Godava ri Ka veri Krishna Ganges Yamuna Sutlej Indus Indus Jhelu m Chen ab Ravi Brahmaputra A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N H I M A L A Y A S EASTERN GHATS WESTERN GHATS D E C C A N H I N D U K U S H T H A R D E S E R T KSHATRAPA W ESTERN A N D H R A S S A T A V A H A N A S G U P T A S H U N A S IKSHVAKUS P A L L A V A S CHOLAS PANDYAS CHERAS VAKATAKAS S A S S A N I A N S H E P H T H A L I T E S K U S H A N A S Southwestern ports: clothing/linen, copper, tin, lead, semi-precious stones, coins, glass, wheat, wine Eastern ports: muslin, pearls, ivory, cinnamon Indus ports: semi-precious stones, furs/skins, indigo/other dyes, cotton, silk Southeastern ports: muslin, semi-precious stones, pearls, tortoise shell N 0 0 2 India, AD 100-600 area of Gupta overlordship major dynasty, 1st-3rd centuries AD major dynasty, 3rd-6th centuries AD route of Faxian, AD 399-414 probable route of Xuanzang, AD 629-645 painting pillar monastery remains stupa cave: sculpted or painted temple structure bronze sculpture stone sculpture terracotta/stucco imagery ivory carving jewellery coins imports exports ANDHRAS GUPTAS - Indus ports (imports): silver/gold plate, semi-precious stones, glassware, clothing/linen, wine - Barygaza ports (exports): semi-precious stones, cotton/silk cloth, yarn, pepper, ivory - Southwestern ports (exports): precious/semi-precious stones, tortoise shell, silk cloth, cinnamon, pepper, ivory - Barygaza ports (imports): silverware, gold/silver coins, copper, tin,lead, glass, clothing, wine 1 2 3 4 300 miles 450 kms DETAIL OF A WALL PAINTING from Ajanta caves, c. fifth century AD, in the domain of the Vakataka dynasty. These Buddhist paintings are celebrated for their sophisticated compositions that burst with life. Set in palaces and gardens, they show kings, ascetics, animals and the most seductive women in self- consciously languid poses. The depictions of textiles, furniture and ornament allow us a vivid window into early India. The mountain passes of the northwest frontier have always been India’s vital corridors for links to the west, whether for overland trade, or, as in the case of Alexander in the third century BC, for conquest. Following Alexander’s retreat from the Jhelum River in 326 –5 BC, his possessions in northwest India and Afghanistan were divided between his generals. By the period of the establishment of the subcontinent-wide Mauryan Empire in the third century BC, therefore, indigenous and foreign models of statecraft, administration and, moreover, control over a standing army were well-known. The extensive diplomatic and trade exchanges of the Mauryan emperors Chandragupta (r.321–297 BC) and Ashoka (r.268–232 BC) with Iran, Greece, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia are reflected in not just the influences on their art, but the conscious choice to leave lasting legacies in stone. Imperial Mauryan freestanding monolithic pillars were all quarried near Varanasi and then transported over river networks to far-flung regions of the empire. Ashokan stone inscriptions concern a variety of social, religious and economic matters. They 30˚ 25˚ 20˚ 15˚ 90˚ 85˚ 80˚ Sanchi nnathi Amaravati Udayagiri Gudimallam Arikamedu Anuradhapura a Bharhut Ahichhatra Sravasti Ayodhya Sarnath Chandraketugarh Tamralipti Varanasi Vaishali Pataliputra Rajgriha Bodh Gaya Kaushambi Mahanadi Godavari rmada Kav eri G anges Yamuna Bra hmaputra I N D I A N O C E A N H I M A L A Y A S E A S T E R N G H A T S C A N N G A S M A U R Y A S K A L I N G A economic commodities/ raw materials: horses elephants cotton silk spices iron/coal gold diamonds gems pearls 1 WHILE HUNDREDS OF megalithic burial sites were dotted across India in this period and traces of civilization and rural dwellings can be found across the subcontinent, this map shows only major sites or regions that either manufactured or supplied materials for the production of ‘art’. Several cities and monastic dwellings have revealed structures, coins, paintings and artefacts for what is called the ‘early-historic’ period in ndia. The structures are mostly Buddhist, Jain or Hindu, although there are traces of others which can no longer be clearly identified. The map uses only the most commonly known names of dynasties. LION CAPITAL, SARNATH, 3RD CENTRY BC. This monolithic pillar capital was one of many erected by King Ashoka. The capital is made from spectacularly polished cream sandstone. Sarnath is the site where the Buddha delivered his first sermon, thereby establishing the religious order of Buddhism. Interestingly, the pillar bears an inscription left by Ashoka threatening dissenting monks with expulsion from the order.
  12. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  

    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).    
  13. The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  

    150-­‐50  BCE  (expanded).     Harmika   Chagra   Buddha   Buddha’s  Teachings   Buddha’s  Followers  
  14. Mandala,  or  Map  of  the  Cosmos   The  Great  Stupa,

     Sanchi,  India,  c.  3rd  Century  (begun),  150-­‐50  BCE   (expanded).    
  15. West  Torana,  The  Great  Stupa,   Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.

        East  Torana,  The  Great  Stupa,   Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.    
  16. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  North  Torana,  Eastern   Face,

     Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.    
  17. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  West  Torana,  Exterior,    

    Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.    
  18. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE.  

  19. Sculptural  Detail,  The  Great  Stupa,  Sanchi,  India,  150-­‐50  BCE  

    (See  15-­‐7).     Yakshi  figures  were  an  important  part  of   almost  all  South  Asian  tradiFons  as   personificaFons  of  ferFlity.  
  20. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

  21. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

  22. Iconography  of  the  Buddha  

  23. Mandorla   Ushnisha   Urna   Closed,  leaf-­‐like  eyes  

    Mudra   Serene  Expression   Lotus  Posture   Elongated  Earlobes   SangaF   Seated  Buddha,  Ghandara  India,  Schist,  2nd-­‐3rd   Century  CE   Theravada  
  24. Bodhisagva  Avalokiteshvara,   Bihar,  India,  12th  Century   Lotuses  =

     Purity   Crown  and  Princely  Robes   Royal  Ease  Posture   Friendly  but  introspecFve  face   Boon-­‐GranFng  Mudra   Tantric  Mahayana  
  25. Spread  of  Buddhism   China  

  26. 30˚ 20˚ Leigudun Tomb of Zeng Hou Yi (bronze bells,

    bamboo documents, bronze and jade artefacts) Tomb of the first Emperor of Qin (and terracotta army) Tomb of the King of Nanyue (bronze and jade artefacts) Yangling Tomb of Emperor Jing of Han (terracotta figurines) Mawangdui Western Han tombs (painted coffins, silk manuscripts, funerary banners with earliest portraiture, textiles, lacquer ware) Shizhaishan (cemetery, bronzes) Alagou cemetery Bronze culture Niya major town on Silk Road Loulan major town on Silk Road Aluchaideng (cemetery; Ordos bronzes) Houma Jin royal cemetery; centre for bronze production Maoqingguo (cemetery; Ordos bronzes) Ba Dian Shu Chang’an Chu Changsha Chengzhou Sanmenxia (Guo cemetery) Dunhuang major town on Silk Road Zhao Wei Han Wenxian (covenant tablets) Shanbiaozheng (Wei cemetery) Jijiahu (Chu cemetery) Qi Nanyue Lu Wu Yue Xu Luoyang Chu Yan Qin Xianyang Beijing (Peking) Shanghai Xi’an Guangzhou (Canton) Chengdu Ürümqi Kunming Pyongyang Jiangling Yangtze Huai R iver Bo Hai Lop Nor Yellow River E A S T C H I NA S E A S O U T H C H I NA S E A YELLOW SEA H I M A L A Y A S QILIAN SHAN P L A T E A U O F T I B E T TA K L A M A K A N D E S E R T T I E N S H A N TA R I M BA S I N ORDOS DESERT Q I A N G (nomadic culture) SAKA (nomadic culture) (n HAINAN TAIWAN KOREA 1 Building the Empire, 500 BC-AD 300 ancient capital/political centre major archaeological site important royal/aristocratic tomb nomadic culture maritime trade route Silk Road fortifications (Great Wall) modern city SAKA 1 THE QIN EMERGED FROM THE NORTHWEST, defeated all their enemies and unified the country in 221 BC. The Qin king became the first emperor of China. The Qin dynasty was short-lived, but its successor, the Han dynasty, inherited its legacy and turned China into an empire. A state bureaucracy, territorial expansion, the opening of the Silk Road, Confucian philosophy and popular religious belief in the afterlife, all laid foundations for Chinese society for centuries to come.
  27. 50˚ 60˚ 70˚ Wang Xianzhi 344-86, calligraphers) Jiaojun (Dai Kui

    d.396, Dai Yu 378-441, sculptors) Wuxi (Gu Kaizhi 346-407, painter) Dunhuang Turfan Kashgar Khotan Kucha Yungang Caves Mogao Caves Kezil Caves Longmen Caves Danyang tombs (pictorial bricks depicting famous scholars) Chang’an (silver) Dingzhou (silk) Jingzhou (paper) Jinyang (iron) Xuzhou (copper) Kuaiji (paper, ceramics) Qingzhou (Buddhist sculpture) Jianye (royal tombs, architecture, animal sculpture, ceramics) (paper, iron, lacquers) (copper mines, architecture, tombs) Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Xi’an Chengdu Luoyang Nanjing S O U T H C H I NA S E A T I E N S H A N TA K L A M A K A N D E S E R T TA R I M BA S I N P L A T E A U O F T I B E T G O H I M A L A Y A S 2 China Divided, AD 300-600 ancient city important for raw materials/art production maritime trade route Silk Road important archaeological site site with Buddhist art city associated with artists modern city
  28. Seated  Buddha,  Cave  20,  Yungang,  Datong,  Shanxi  Provence,   c.

     460  CE  
  29. The  Western  Paradise  of  Amitabha  Buddha,  Cave  217,   Dunghuang,

     Gansu,  c.  750   Pure  Land  Buddhism  
  30. Mu  Qi,  Six   Persimmons,  13th   Century  CE  

    Gong  an  or  Koan  =  Zen  Buddhist  Riddle  
  31. Yu  Jian,  Mountain  Village  in  Clearing  Mist,  mid-­‐13th  c.  

    Gong  an  or  Koan  =  Zen  Buddhist  Riddle  
  32. Spread  of  Buddhism   Japan  

  33. Buddhism  in  Japan   140˚ 30˚ 130˚ 40˚ AINU HUNTER-

    GATHERER CULTURE AINU HUNTER- GATHERER CULTURE AINU HUNTER- GATHERER CULTURE Seoul (14th-16th c) Kaesong (10th-14th c) Kyongju Hakata Nara Kamakura Hiraizumi Ise Kyoto Echizen Seto Waifu Yamaguchi Okayama Gifu Wakamatsu Sanage Bizen Kanazawa Inuyama Odawara Tokoname Shigaraki Iga Matsumoto Tamba Sakai Negoroji Nam-gang Han-g ang Posong-gang Yello w Rive r Tu men Ya lu Amur C h’ongch’on-gang L.Biwa E A S T S E A E A S T C H I N A S E A Y E L L O W S E A KOREA BAY B O H A I P A C I F I C O C E A N KOREA STRAIT Mt Fuji Mt Koya Y E Z O KYUSHU SHIKOKU H O N S H U RY U K Y U I S O S U M I I S C H I N A JAPAN K O R E A M A N C H U R I A Silla 668-918 Koryo 918-1392 Choson 1392-1910 N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 Japan and Korea, 600-1500 frontier of Japan, c.600 frontier of Japan, c.800 frontier of Japan, c.1000 Chinese culture and Buddhist arts, 7th-9th c Chinese culture and Buddhist arts, 8th-15th c Indian Buddhist arts, 8th c pottery kilns Koryo kiln sites lacquerware papermaking furniture, fine textiles metalwork paintings, Buddhist and secular Buddhist sculpture calligraphy book-printing centres major surviving castles, pre-Edo period 1 FROM THE SEVENTH CENTURY onwards, both Japan and Korea absorbed artistic influences from China, Central Asia and India, especially in Buddhist arts. Court culture in both countries was modelled on Chinese examples, although distinctive regional tastes and styles evolved. During periods of political unrest, such as the eleventh century, there was a tendency for more independent traditions to evolve in both Japan and Korea. Artistic production and patronage in Japan centered on the Kansai area (Nara and Kyoto) of the main island, while Korean cities developed along the coasts (Kyongju and Seoul). clothing often reflected regional styles.
  34. Aerial  View  of  the  Horyuji  Compound,  Nara  Prefecture,  c.  7th

      century  CE  
  35. Hungry  Tigress  Jataka,   Tamaushi  Shrine,  Horyuji,  c.   650

  36. Sen  no  Rikyu,  Taian  Teahouse,  Interior  (Lem),  Exterior  (Right),  

  37. Hon’ami  Koetsu,  Teabowl  Called  “Mt.  Fuji,”  1582.