Lothal Sutkagen Dor Harappa Shortughai Ganweriwala Kalibangan Kili Gul Muhammad Chust Kayrakkum Dal’verzin Zaman-Baba Dzhanbas-Kala Kokcha Altin Tepe Shibe Ganeshwar Jorwe Inamgaon Gaurimedu Bariduh Rupae Lal Qila Indus Jh elum Ch enab Brahmapu tra God avari Narmada Sutlej Ganges Am u Darya Tig ris Eu phrate s arya A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N PERSIA N G ULF SPIAN SEA H I M A L A Y A S H IN DU KUSH TA K L A M A K A N Z A G R O S M T S PA M I R S T H A R D E S E R T IRANIAN PLATEAU I N D I A CEYLON (SRI LANKA) C H I N A T I B E T P E R S I A A R A B I A M E S O P O T A M I A N 1 Central Asia and India, 5000-500 BC long-distance routes for trade and contact cultures contemporary with Harappan: Harappan/Indus, 2500-1500 BC Bronze Age nomadic groups with graves and grave goods Bactrian-Morgiana complex, 2nd millennium BC peninsular Neolithic Kayatha Ganeswar pre-Harappan site Harappan site Bronze Age settlement site Bronze Age nomadic grave site contemporary sites in India 0 300 miles
family. 592 BCE: Siddhartha encounters age, suﬀering, and death when leaving the palace. 598 BCE: In his wandering, he rests under the Bodhi tree and awakens, becoming the Buddha. 598 BCE: Buddha gives his ﬁrst sermon at Sarnath. Life of the Buddha 598-‐643 BCE: Buddha wanders northern India spreading his teachings unFl his death at Kushingara.
Virtue • Samadhi: MeditaFon • Prajna: Enlightenment 4 Noble Truths • The World is Suﬀering • Suﬀering has a cause • There is an end to suﬀering • That is achieving non-‐ agachment. 5 Precepts • Do not harm • Do not steal • Do not lie • Do not misuse sex • Do not consume mind-‐altering substances 8-‐Fold Path • Proper understanding of the 4 noble truths • Right Thinking • Right Speech • Right Conduct • Right Livelihood • Right Eﬀort • Right Mindfulness • Right ConcentraFon
Kalingas, is moved to remorse now. For he has felt profound sorrow and regret because of the conquest of people previously unconquered involves slaughter, death, and deportaFon…[King Ashoka] now thinks that even a person who wrongs him must be forgiven…[and he] considers moral conquests [conquest by dharma] the most important conquest. He has achieved this moral conquest repeatedly both here and among the peoples living beyond the borders of his kingdom…Even in countries which [King Ashoka’s] envoys have not reached, people have heard about dharma and about [the king’s] ordinances and instrucFons in dharma…This edict on dharma has been inscribed so that my sons and great-‐ grandsons who may come amer me should not think new conquests worth achieving… Let them consider moral conquest the only true conquest.”
1 2 3 4 Bamiyan Peshawar Rangmahal Hadda Akhnur Srinagar Harvan Taxila Mirpur Khas Mathura Ahar Bhitargaon Pawaya Deogarh Varanasi Nachnakuthara Tigawa Ramtek Nalanda Sultanganj Kurkihar Pandu Rajar Dhibi Vaishali Elephanta Kondapur Ter Anuradhapura Sigiriya Kanchipuram Nagapattinam Amaravati Udayagiri Bhattiprolu Ghantasala Goli Nagarjunakonda Jaggayyapeta Sanchi Akota Ellora Aihole Kolhapur Brahmagiri Bagh Ajanta Dwarka Barygaza Phophnar Noh Gop Sarnath Kannauj Bodh Gaya Kaushambi Ma hanadi Godava ri Ka veri Krishna Ganges Yamuna Sutlej Indus Indus Jhelu m Chen ab Ravi Brahmaputra A R A B I A N S E A I N D I A N O C E A N H I M A L A Y A S EASTERN GHATS WESTERN GHATS D E C C A N H I N D U K U S H T H A R D E S E R T KSHATRAPA W ESTERN A N D H R A S S A T A V A H A N A S G U P T A S H U N A S IKSHVAKUS P A L L A V A S CHOLAS PANDYAS CHERAS VAKATAKAS S A S S A N I A N S H E P H T H A L I T E S K U S H A N A S Southwestern ports: clothing/linen, copper, tin, lead, semi-precious stones, coins, glass, wheat, wine Eastern ports: muslin, pearls, ivory, cinnamon Indus ports: semi-precious stones, furs/skins, indigo/other dyes, cotton, silk Southeastern ports: muslin, semi-precious stones, pearls, tortoise shell N 0 0 2 India, AD 100-600 area of Gupta overlordship major dynasty, 1st-3rd centuries AD major dynasty, 3rd-6th centuries AD route of Faxian, AD 399-414 probable route of Xuanzang, AD 629-645 painting pillar monastery remains stupa cave: sculpted or painted temple structure bronze sculpture stone sculpture terracotta/stucco imagery ivory carving jewellery coins imports exports ANDHRAS GUPTAS - Indus ports (imports): silver/gold plate, semi-precious stones, glassware, clothing/linen, wine - Barygaza ports (exports): semi-precious stones, cotton/silk cloth, yarn, pepper, ivory - Southwestern ports (exports): precious/semi-precious stones, tortoise shell, silk cloth, cinnamon, pepper, ivory - Barygaza ports (imports): silverware, gold/silver coins, copper, tin,lead, glass, clothing, wine 1 2 3 4 300 miles 450 kms DETAIL OF A WALL PAINTING from Ajanta caves, c. fifth century AD, in the domain of the Vakataka dynasty. These Buddhist paintings are celebrated for their sophisticated compositions that burst with life. Set in palaces and gardens, they show kings, ascetics, animals and the most seductive women in self- consciously languid poses. The depictions of textiles, furniture and ornament allow us a vivid window into early India. The mountain passes of the northwest frontier have always been India’s vital corridors for links to the west, whether for overland trade, or, as in the case of Alexander in the third century BC, for conquest. Following Alexander’s retreat from the Jhelum River in 326 –5 BC, his possessions in northwest India and Afghanistan were divided between his generals. By the period of the establishment of the subcontinent-wide Mauryan Empire in the third century BC, therefore, indigenous and foreign models of statecraft, administration and, moreover, control over a standing army were well-known. The extensive diplomatic and trade exchanges of the Mauryan emperors Chandragupta (r.321–297 BC) and Ashoka (r.268–232 BC) with Iran, Greece, Egypt, Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia are reflected in not just the influences on their art, but the conscious choice to leave lasting legacies in stone. Imperial Mauryan freestanding monolithic pillars were all quarried near Varanasi and then transported over river networks to far-flung regions of the empire. Ashokan stone inscriptions concern a variety of social, religious and economic matters. They 30˚ 25˚ 20˚ 15˚ 90˚ 85˚ 80˚ Sanchi nnathi Amaravati Udayagiri Gudimallam Arikamedu Anuradhapura a Bharhut Ahichhatra Sravasti Ayodhya Sarnath Chandraketugarh Tamralipti Varanasi Vaishali Pataliputra Rajgriha Bodh Gaya Kaushambi Mahanadi Godavari rmada Kav eri G anges Yamuna Bra hmaputra I N D I A N O C E A N H I M A L A Y A S E A S T E R N G H A T S C A N N G A S M A U R Y A S K A L I N G A economic commodities/ raw materials: horses elephants cotton silk spices iron/coal gold diamonds gems pearls 1 WHILE HUNDREDS OF megalithic burial sites were dotted across India in this period and traces of civilization and rural dwellings can be found across the subcontinent, this map shows only major sites or regions that either manufactured or supplied materials for the production of ‘art’. Several cities and monastic dwellings have revealed structures, coins, paintings and artefacts for what is called the ‘early-historic’ period in ndia. The structures are mostly Buddhist, Jain or Hindu, although there are traces of others which can no longer be clearly identified. The map uses only the most commonly known names of dynasties. LION CAPITAL, SARNATH, 3RD CENTRY BC. This monolithic pillar capital was one of many erected by King Ashoka. The capital is made from spectacularly polished cream sandstone. Sarnath is the site where the Buddha delivered his first sermon, thereby establishing the religious order of Buddhism. Interestingly, the pillar bears an inscription left by Ashoka threatening dissenting monks with expulsion from the order.
bamboo documents, bronze and jade artefacts) Tomb of the first Emperor of Qin (and terracotta army) Tomb of the King of Nanyue (bronze and jade artefacts) Yangling Tomb of Emperor Jing of Han (terracotta figurines) Mawangdui Western Han tombs (painted coffins, silk manuscripts, funerary banners with earliest portraiture, textiles, lacquer ware) Shizhaishan (cemetery, bronzes) Alagou cemetery Bronze culture Niya major town on Silk Road Loulan major town on Silk Road Aluchaideng (cemetery; Ordos bronzes) Houma Jin royal cemetery; centre for bronze production Maoqingguo (cemetery; Ordos bronzes) Ba Dian Shu Chang’an Chu Changsha Chengzhou Sanmenxia (Guo cemetery) Dunhuang major town on Silk Road Zhao Wei Han Wenxian (covenant tablets) Shanbiaozheng (Wei cemetery) Jijiahu (Chu cemetery) Qi Nanyue Lu Wu Yue Xu Luoyang Chu Yan Qin Xianyang Beijing (Peking) Shanghai Xi’an Guangzhou (Canton) Chengdu Ürümqi Kunming Pyongyang Jiangling Yangtze Huai R iver Bo Hai Lop Nor Yellow River E A S T C H I NA S E A S O U T H C H I NA S E A YELLOW SEA H I M A L A Y A S QILIAN SHAN P L A T E A U O F T I B E T TA K L A M A K A N D E S E R T T I E N S H A N TA R I M BA S I N ORDOS DESERT Q I A N G (nomadic culture) SAKA (nomadic culture) (n HAINAN TAIWAN KOREA 1 Building the Empire, 500 BC-AD 300 ancient capital/political centre major archaeological site important royal/aristocratic tomb nomadic culture maritime trade route Silk Road fortifications (Great Wall) modern city SAKA 1 THE QIN EMERGED FROM THE NORTHWEST, defeated all their enemies and unified the country in 221 BC. The Qin king became the first emperor of China. The Qin dynasty was short-lived, but its successor, the Han dynasty, inherited its legacy and turned China into an empire. A state bureaucracy, territorial expansion, the opening of the Silk Road, Confucian philosophy and popular religious belief in the afterlife, all laid foundations for Chinese society for centuries to come.
d.396, Dai Yu 378-441, sculptors) Wuxi (Gu Kaizhi 346-407, painter) Dunhuang Turfan Kashgar Khotan Kucha Yungang Caves Mogao Caves Kezil Caves Longmen Caves Danyang tombs (pictorial bricks depicting famous scholars) Chang’an (silver) Dingzhou (silk) Jingzhou (paper) Jinyang (iron) Xuzhou (copper) Kuaiji (paper, ceramics) Qingzhou (Buddhist sculpture) Jianye (royal tombs, architecture, animal sculpture, ceramics) (paper, iron, lacquers) (copper mines, architecture, tombs) Beijing Shanghai Guangzhou Xi’an Chengdu Luoyang Nanjing S O U T H C H I NA S E A T I E N S H A N TA K L A M A K A N D E S E R T TA R I M BA S I N P L A T E A U O F T I B E T G O H I M A L A Y A S 2 China Divided, AD 300-600 ancient city important for raw materials/art production maritime trade route Silk Road important archaeological site site with Buddhist art city associated with artists modern city
GATHERER CULTURE AINU HUNTER- GATHERER CULTURE AINU HUNTER- GATHERER CULTURE Seoul (14th-16th c) Kaesong (10th-14th c) Kyongju Hakata Nara Kamakura Hiraizumi Ise Kyoto Echizen Seto Waifu Yamaguchi Okayama Gifu Wakamatsu Sanage Bizen Kanazawa Inuyama Odawara Tokoname Shigaraki Iga Matsumoto Tamba Sakai Negoroji Nam-gang Han-g ang Posong-gang Yello w Rive r Tu men Ya lu Amur C h’ongch’on-gang L.Biwa E A S T S E A E A S T C H I N A S E A Y E L L O W S E A KOREA BAY B O H A I P A C I F I C O C E A N KOREA STRAIT Mt Fuji Mt Koya Y E Z O KYUSHU SHIKOKU H O N S H U RY U K Y U I S O S U M I I S C H I N A JAPAN K O R E A M A N C H U R I A Silla 668-918 Koryo 918-1392 Choson 1392-1910 N 0 0 200 miles 300 kms 1 Japan and Korea, 600-1500 frontier of Japan, c.600 frontier of Japan, c.800 frontier of Japan, c.1000 Chinese culture and Buddhist arts, 7th-9th c Chinese culture and Buddhist arts, 8th-15th c Indian Buddhist arts, 8th c pottery kilns Koryo kiln sites lacquerware papermaking furniture, fine textiles metalwork paintings, Buddhist and secular Buddhist sculpture calligraphy book-printing centres major surviving castles, pre-Edo period 1 FROM THE SEVENTH CENTURY onwards, both Japan and Korea absorbed artistic influences from China, Central Asia and India, especially in Buddhist arts. Court culture in both countries was modelled on Chinese examples, although distinctive regional tastes and styles evolved. During periods of political unrest, such as the eleventh century, there was a tendency for more independent traditions to evolve in both Japan and Korea. Artistic production and patronage in Japan centered on the Kansai area (Nara and Kyoto) of the main island, while Korean cities developed along the coasts (Kyongju and Seoul). clothing often reflected regional styles.