Developing a Language for 3D Cartography

Developing a Language for 3D Cartography

Kenneth Field
ESRI
#nacis2015

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Nathaniel V. KELSO

October 16, 2015
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  1. DEVELOPING A LANGUAGE FOR 3D CARTOGRAPHY Kenneth Field @kennethfield kfield@esri.com

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  3. 2300 B.C.

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  7. Length Area Volume

  8. Length Area Volume

  9. Scale Roger Smith, Geographx

  10. Scale Direction Roger Smith, Geographx

  11. Scale Direction Focus Roger Smith, Geographx

  12. Scale Direction Focus Occlusions Roger Smith, Geographx

  13. Scale Direction Focus Occlusions Sectioning Roger Smith, Geographx

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  15. Perception of 3D pie charts

  16. 3D extrusion

  17. 3D extrusion

  18. Difficulties with 3D Comparisons Estimation of value/volume Perspective distortion Symbol

    scale distortion Directional inconsistencies Focal point Occlusions Sectioning Rotation disorientating Technically challenging
  19. Difficulties with 3D Comparisons Estimation of value/volume Perspective distortion Symbol

    scale distortion Directional inconsistencies Focal point Occlusions Sectioning Rotation disorientating Technically challenging So why do we use 3D?… Visually interesting Real-world view Better terrain recognition Unconstrained Lacks rules Aesthetically exciting Pushes the limits More artistic/less graphic Great for marketing and advertising …because we’ve always used 3D
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  30. 3D guidelines • Use dictates structure - Promotional maps require

    less structure. Thematics require more structure • Impact - 3D can be powerful, eye-catching and immersive. Use to support attention- grabbing needs • Content - Simplification and Generalisation have never been more important. Clean. Simple. Functional • Texture - Avoid flat colours…add textures • Natural realistic not photorealistic • Symbols - Mimetic symbols support easier recognition • Typography - Still important but don’t overload. Rotate with scene if possible but not to be overbearing • Projection - Use axonometric where possible to maintain scale particularly for analytical map functions
  31. 3D guidelines • Sky and haze – avoid sky but

    include haze which aids depth cue perception • Space-Time Cubes - Good for linear data, OK for point, poor for area…try not to overload or stack • Z value does not have to depict height or time (get creative!) • Scene control - Avoids occlusions by supporting multiple views but avoid too much rotation • Bookmarks - Guide users…supports camera reposition without user control • Interaction - Allow data to be recovered, overcomes measurement limits • Narration - Guides and improves interpretation
  32. If the third dimension doesn’t encode something useful… STICK WITH

    2D
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  35. carto.maps.arcgis.com @kennethfield kfield@esri.com Thank you