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The Civil Rights Movement: Beginnings

The Civil Rights Movement: Beginnings

Why did it take nearly a century for African Americans to be able to exercise their Constitutional rights? Ultimate and Proximate factors are featured as a way to answer the above question.

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Spiro Bolos

March 07, 2022
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  1. …beginnings The Civil Rights Movement

  2. The Civil Rights Movement …beginnings

  3. None
  4. None
  5. “I am an “invisible man. “No, I am not a

    spook like those who “ haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I “ one of your Hollywood ectoplasms.
  6. None
  7. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone,

    and liquids, and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me…. When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination — indeed, everything and anything except me.
  8. None
  9. Nor is my invisibility exactly a matter of biochemical accident

    to my epidermis. That invisibility to which I refer occurs because of a peculiar disposition of the eyes of those with whom I come into contact. A matter of construction of their inner eyes, those eyes with which they look through their physical eyes upon reality.
  10. None
  11. I am not complaining, nor am I protesting either. It

    is sometimes advantageous to be unseen, although it is most often rather wearing on the nerves. Then, too, you’re constantly being bumped against by those of poor vision. Or again, you often doubt if you really exist.
  12. None
  13. You wonder whether you aren’t simply a phantom in other

    people’s minds. Say, a figure in a nightmare which the sleeper tries with all his strength to destroy.
  14. None
  15. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment,

    you begin to bump people back.”
  16. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment,

    you begin to bump people back.”
  17. It’s when you feel like this that, out of resentment,

    you begin to bump people back.”
  18. 2 Questions

  19. Ultimate Causes?

  20. Proximate Causes?

  21. CRM ≠ MLK

  22. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [February, 1965] “How would you rate the

    job that... Martin Luther King... has done in the fight for Negro rights?” 94% Positive 3% Negative 3% Not sure
  23. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about

    [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion Gallup Poll (AIPO) [August, 1963] “What are your feelings about [the] proposed mass civil rights rally to be held in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963?” 23% Favorable 60% Unfavorable 17% No opinion
  24. <1>

  25. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change

  26. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change 1. Ideological shifts 2. Nazi

    ideology & the Double “V” 3. Cold War 4. Migration & Urban Power 5. Economic Growth & Education
  27. Ultimate: Preconditions for Racial Change 6. Legal Defense Organizations 7.

    U.S. Military 8. Emmett Till 9. The Brown decision (SCOTUS)
  28. Ideological shifts

  29. Liberal Environmentalism

  30. Nazi ideology

  31. None
  32. None
  33. None
  34. Cold War Competition

  35. Migration From Jacob Lawrence’s The Migration Series (1940-41)

  36. > North, > cities

  37. 1910: 89% (80% rural) S

  38. None
  39. 1970s >80% (urban)

  40. Why?

  41. 50% 1960

  42. Urban power base

  43. Black Churches

  44. Af-Am Church

  45. Economic Growth

  46. United Negro College Fund

  47. Black Colleges

  48. Black High Schools

  49. Black High Schools

  50. Af-Am High Schools Photos by James Karales, courtesy of the

    High Museum of Art, ATL
  51. Af-Am High Schools

  52. Af-Am High Schools

  53. Af-Am High Schools

  54. 15,000 1930

  55. 75,000 1950

  56. Legal Defense

  57. National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peoples

  58. Thurgood Marshall

  59. Sgt. Isaac Woodard, 1946 3:49

  60. None
  61. Judge J. Waties Waring

  62. Pres. Harry S Truman

  63. 1948

  64. “Segregation is per se inequality”

  65. None
  66. The Murder of Emmett Till 1955

  67. None
  68. None
  69. None
  70. None
  71. 2:16

  72. None
  73. None
  74. None
  75. Supreme Court Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    (1954)
  76. majority Northerners

  77. 20%

  78. None
  79. “[F]rom this Cradle of the Confederacy, this very Heart of

    the Great Anglo-Saxon Southland…we sound the drum for freedom as have our generations of forebears before us done, time and time again through history…
  80. “Let us…send our answer to the tyranny that clanks its

    chains upon the South. In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust…and I say…segregation today…segregation tomorrow… segregation forever.”
  81. None
  82. “They [white southerners] are not bad people. All they are

    concerned about is…that their sweet little girls are not required to sit in school alongside some big overgrown Negroes.”
  83. </1>

  84. <2>

  85. Proximate: Anti- Segregation Tactics

  86. Proximate: Anti- Segregation Tactics 1. Bus Boycott(s) 2. Freedom Rides

    3. Sit-ins 4. Etc.
  87. “I know the one thing we did right Was the

    day we started to fight. Keep your eyes on the prize, Hold on, hold on.”
  88. Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955

  89. Rosa Parks

  90. None
  91. Women’s Political Council

  92. Jo Ann Robinson

  93. SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Council

  94. 381 days

  95. “unConstitutional” Alabama, 1956

  96. “Freedom Rides”

  97. CORE Congress of Racial Equality

  98. None
  99. None
  100. None
  101. None
  102. SNCC: Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee

  103. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you think ‘sit-ins’ at

    lunch counters, ‘freedom buses’, and other demonstrations by Negroes will hurt or help the Negro’s chances of being integrated in the South?” 57% Hurt 28% Help 16% No opinion
  104. Gallup Poll (AIPO) [May, 1961] “Do you think ‘sit-ins’ at

    lunch counters, ‘freedom buses’, and other demonstrations by Negroes will hurt or help the Negro’s chances of being integrated in the South?” 57% Hurt 28% Help 16% No opinion
  105. </2>

  106. <3>

  107. RESULTS: Legislative Triumph

  108. Civil Rights Act 1964

  109. Voting Rights Act 1965

  110. 43% registered 1964

  111. 62% registered 1969

  112. None
  113. 300 black mayors 1965

  114. 300 black mayors 1980

  115. None
  116. 72 black reps 1965

  117. 4200 black reps 1987

  118. </3>

  119. None
  120. None
  121. None
  122. “We had breakfast while we were waiting for the rain

    to stop, and I [was] sitting with the [Indianapolis] Clowns in a restaurant behind Griffith Stadium and hearing them break all the plates in the kitchen after we were finished eating. What a horrible sound.
  123. Even as a kid, the irony of it hit me:

    here we were in the capital in the land of freedom and equality, and they had to destroy the plates that had touched the forks that had been in the mouths of black men. If dogs had eaten off those plates, they’d have washed them.”
  124. “There was often a hate letter or two in the

    mail, and I was always concerned about Barbara and the kids being abused when they went to the ballpark….
  125. “You can hit all dem home runs over dem short

    fences, but you can’t take that black off yo’ face.”
  126. Returning to the South took some of the boy from

    Mobile out of me, and replaced it with a man who was weary of the way things were.
  127. I was tired of being invisible.

  128. “I was the equal of any ballplayer in the world,

    damn it, and if nobody was going to give me my due, it was time to grab for it.” – Henry Aaron
  129. None
  130. “[W]e shouldn’t have to say black lives matter. We should

    be able to take it for granted. In the 1780s the British Society for the Abolition of Slavery adopted as its official seal a woodcut of a kneeling slave above a banner that read, ‘Am I Not A Man And A Brother?’
  131. More than a hundred years later, black sanitation workers in

    the Poor People’s Campaign answered the slave’s question with signs worn around their necks that read: ‘I Am A Man.’” – Michelle Alexander December, 2015
  132. February 24th, 2018

  133. 0:25

  134. 3:50

  135. “Ain’t much matter what happens tomorrow, ‘cause we men, ain’t

    we?”
  136. None
  137. “I was a changed being after that fight…I was nothing

    before; I was a MAN NOW.”