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Physical space design: a human-centred approach

Paul Jervis Heath
September 14, 2016

Physical space design: a human-centred approach

It has become relatively common practice for UX methods to be used in software, web or application design. Surprisingly, such methods are less commonly used within architectural practice and the design of physical environments, despite the fact that larger building projects can cost millions of pounds and are expected to have a design life of at least 60 years.

Paul-Jervis Heath talked about how Modern Human have combined architecture and human-centred design to create physical environments designed for the needs of the people who inhabit them. He talked through the human-centred design process they used for the Protolib project, which researched, prototyped and designed new types of library spaces for the University of Cambridge. He discussed the UX methods used for requirements gathering, data collection, analysis and collaborative design and their role in involving users and stakeholders in the design process. He will also explain how this work was translated into a set of design principles and a pattern library that describes how these new spaces could be incorporated into existing and new libraries across the University.

Methods discussed included co-design workshops, Lego Serious Play workshops, space prototyping, observation studies and behavioural mapping. In addition to library environments, he drew on a variety of other projects including cancer counselling centres, environments for patients suffering from Alzheimers and innovative retail environments to show how these methods can be adapted to very different projects and timeframes.

This session examined how human-centred design can be applied beyond websites and software. It demonstrated how a collaborative design approach can engage users and stakeholders in the design of spaces, products, services or experiences.

Paul Jervis Heath

September 14, 2016
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  1. MODERN HUMAN DESIGNED ENVIRONMENTS A HUMAN-CENTRED APPROACH TO DESIGNING HUMAN

    HABITATS Paul-Jervis Heath Founding Principal and Chief Designer
 UX Cambridge on Wednesday 14 September 2016 MODERN HUMAN
  2. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN Imagine what’s next. Modern Human is

    a design practice and innovation consultancy that specialises in imagining disruptive new products, services and experiences and then making them a reality. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  3. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman “A house is a

    machine for living in.” — Vers Une Architecture (Towards an Architecture), Le Corbusier.
  4. MODERN HUMAN Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow. "A theory

    of human motivation”, Psychological Review. 1943. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1037/h0054346 http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Self-actualisation Esteem Love & belonging Safety Physiological
  5. MODERN HUMAN Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow, "Critique of

    self-actualization theory" in “Future visions: The unpublished papers of Abraham Maslow“ edited by Edward Hoffman. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Self-transcendence Self-actualisation Esteem Love & belonging Safety Physiological
  6. MODERN HUMAN ERG Theory Clayton Alderfer, “Existence, Relatedness, and Growth;

    Human Needs in Organizational Settings”, 1972. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH
  7. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  8. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Cambridge University Library

  9. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman K2 Telephone Kiosk Designed

    by 
 Giles Gilbert Scott
  10. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Cambridge University Library

  11. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Reimagine library environments for

    the 21st Century PROTOLIB - Physical environment design for Cambridge University Library
  12. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DEPARTMENT COLLEGE SUPERMARKET THE STUDENT TRIANGLE

  13. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman THE WEST CAMBRIDGE HUB AND HALO

    THE SIDGWICK HUB AND HALO THE CITY CENTRE HUB AND HALO MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  14. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  15. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  16. MODERN HUMAN Thinking by making: Synthesis as a problem solving

    strategy
  17. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman 50 VOLUNTEERS 317 hrs OF OBSERVATIONS

    127 EXIT INTERVIEWS QUESTIONNAIRES 377 FEEDBACK STICKIES 46
  18. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman LENGTH OF STAY WELLBEING ACTIVITY People

    choose their working environment based on 3 factors:
  19. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman People have an individual hierarchy of

    working activities Reflection or break Tertiary activities LENGTH OF STAY HIGHER INTENSITY ENVIRONMENT LOWER INTENSITY ENVIRONMENT Secondary activities Primary activities
  20. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Intensity is a defining factor of

    every environment TYPICAL LENGTH OF STAY 30-mins to 2-hours Low Intensity Environment Medium Intensity Environment TYPICAL LENGTH OF STAY 4-hours to 9-hours
  21. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman North Reading Room (Prototype 2.0) Heatmap

    showing the occupation of seats within the medium intensity prototype environment. Those chairs nearest the windows and plug points were the most popular. It is important to note that the presence of plants blocking sightlines reduced the feeling of being overlooked which would normally prevent people from choosing to sit in the middle of a room. South Reading room (Prototype 1.2) Heatmap showing the occupation of seats within the low intensity prototype environment. Those sofas near the windows and plug are distinctly more popular than those away from these facilities. Observation showed that these seats were in constant use and the first to be occupied in the prototype.
  22. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman North Reading Room (Prototype 1.1) Same

    as prototype 1.0 but with the addition of lamps and plug points. North Reading Room (Prototype 1.0) A more regular layout of large rectangular tables. 4 chairs to a table. North Reading room (original layout) Original layout featuring a mixture of café-style circular tables and rectangular tables. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 31 11 7 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 24 15 11 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 24 13 12
  23. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman North Reading Room (Prototype 2.0) Similar

    to prototype 1.0 to 1.2 but with the tables reorientated and placed next to windows. North Reading room (Prototype 1.2) Same as prototype 1.1 but with the addition of plants blocking sightlines. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 20 18 14 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 20 20 15
  24. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman South Reading Room (Prototype 2.0) Sofas

    reoriented so that none of them face each other. South Reading room (Prototype 1.2) Same as prototype 1.1 but with the addition of floor standing lamps giving each seat a personal light source. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 12 11 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 15 9 South Reading room (original layout) The original layout featured a mixture of comfortable chairs and large shared tables. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 28 10 8
  25. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The power of prototyping: Testing out

    a new reality
  26. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  27. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Involving all stakeholders: The client, the

    staff and the users
  28. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman OR Testing assumptions

  29. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  30. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman This is not typically

    how we design large scale, civic projects like schools, hospitals or airports but it should be.
  31. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Design for dementia: a visual snapshot

    prove way-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- ns, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 08). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment omoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations d criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in etch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet titled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). ser preferences_ latives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when ecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many eries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum scribed in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). yder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with zheimer’s, as ‘there is often an imbalance between activities forfeited the effects of Alzheimer’s, and new activities established in their wake’ Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i ng, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations untered throughout the research process were documented in h led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet r Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). rences_ with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when or their loved ones. The building seems to play as important received in the selection of a facility. In response to many w to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: go to any care establishment, I look at the layout ace. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular dementia means that he needs to wander around ly. If the home has only one room where residents cted to sit around - then that is immediately off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). aims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i se of nature, gar- one Foundation, ual environment ecommendations e documented in search; a booklet and dislike when play as important esponse to many zheimer’s forum for her husband: e layout rticular Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ CONNECTION WITH COMMUNITY INTERGENERATIONAL EXCHANGE PROVIDE PRIVACY AND RETREAT SPACE VISUAL CONNECTIONS LIGHT AND VIEWS IN CORRIDORS DINING: LOW CEILINGS, LIGHTING, ACOUSTICS STRONG CONNECTION BETWEEN INSIDE & OUT SHADINGS DEVICES OR STRUCTURES SECURITY DESIGN FOR CASUAL MEETING PARKING FOR VISITORS FAMILY PRIVACY ENCOURAGE VISITORS LARGE PRIVATE UNIT WINDOWS (±2sqm) RAISED PLANTING BEDS improve way-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- dens, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 2008). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment promoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations and criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in sketch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet entitled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). User preferences_ Relatives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when selecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important a role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many queries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum described in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Snyder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visua sketches used to visually document the research process. Re improve way-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- dens, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 2008). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment promoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations and criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in sketch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet entitled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). User preferences_ Relatives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when selecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important a role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many queries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum described in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Snyder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Alzheimer’s, as ‘there is often an imbalance between activities forfeited to the effects of Alzheimer’s, and new activities established in their wake’ which may in itself reduce quality of life. The assumption that those in care homes are no longer capable of doing normal, everyday things can lead to lack of meaningful activity and leave people despondent and discouraged, with one person commenting “I have some depression sometimes but I don’t think it needs to be analysed. I attribute it to doing the same thing over and over and Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examp sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as thera ar- on, ent ons in klet hen ant any um nd: Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ ding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- d animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, pf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment g, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations ountered throughout the research process were documented in ich led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). erences_ e with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when e for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important re received in the selection of a facility. In response to many ow to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum ail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout lace. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular f dementia means that he needs to wander around ntly. If the home has only one room where residents pected to sit around - then that is immediately Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples o sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_J y-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment eeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations encountered throughout the research process were documented in , which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet ign for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). eferences_ those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important e care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many ut how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: hen I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout he place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular m of dementia means that he needs to wander around nstantly. If the home has only one room where residents expected to sit around - then that is immediately ssed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). 00) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- peutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, cribes the benefits of a sensual environment ing and smelling. Design recommendations out the research process were documented in the first products of this research; a booklet isual snapshot’ (Figure 1). now exactly what they like and dislike when nes. The building seems to play as important selection of a facility. In response to many are home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum used for choosing a facility for her husband: establishment, I look at the layout ar in mind that Ken’s particular s that he needs to wander around as only one room where residents und - then that is immediately heimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i dens, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 2008). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment promoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations and criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in sketch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet entitled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). User preferences_ Relatives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when selecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important a role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many queries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum described in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Snyder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Alzheimer’s, as ‘there is often an imbalance between activities forfeited to the effects of Alzheimer’s, and new activities established in their wake’ which may in itself reduce quality of life. The assumption that those in care homes are no longer capable of doing normal, everyday things can lead to lack Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design fo sketches used to visually document th se of nature, gar- one Foundation, ual environment ecommendations e documented in search; a booklet and dislike when lay as important esponse to many zheimer’s forum for her husband: e layout rticular around esidents ediately Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ of nature, gar- ne Foundation, l environment mmendations documented in rch; a booklet d dislike when y as important onse to many eimer’s forum r her husband: ayout cular ound dents ately 8). Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i improve way-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- dens, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 2008). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment promoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations and criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in sketch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet entitled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). User preferences_ Relatives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when selecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important a role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many queries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum described in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Snyder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Alzheimer’s, as ‘there is often an imbalance between activities forfeited to the effects of Alzheimer’s, and new activities established in their wake’ which may in itself reduce quality of life. The assumption that those in care Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examp sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as thera improve way-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- dens, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 2008). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment promoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations and criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in sketch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet entitled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). User preferences_ Relatives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when selecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important a role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many queries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum described in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Snyder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Alzheimer’s, as ‘there is often an imbalance between activities forfeited to the effects of Alzheimer’s, and new activities established in their wake’ which may in itself reduce quality of life. The assumption that those in care homes are no longer capable of doing normal, everyday things can lead to lack Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i improve way-finding, or produce positive emotions and the use of nature, gar- dens, plants, and animals as therapeutic milieu (The Hearthstone Foundation, 2008). Anne Kapf (2008) also describes the benefits of a sensual environment promoting seeing, hearing, touching and smelling. Design recommendations and criteria encountered throughout the research process were documented in sketch form, which led to one of the first products of this research; a booklet entitled ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ (Figure 1). User preferences_ Relatives of those with dementia know exactly what they like and dislike when selecting a home for their loved ones. The building seems to play as important a role as the care received in the selection of a facility. In response to many queries about how to choose a care home, a lady in one Alzheimer’s forum described in detail the process she used for choosing a facility for her husband: “When I go to any care establishment, I look at the layout of the place. I have to bear in mind that Ken’s particular form of dementia means that he needs to wander around constantly. If the home has only one room where residents are expected to sit around - then that is immediately crossed off my list” (Alzheimer’s Talking Point, 2008). Snyder (2000) claims that meaningful activity is crucial for those with Alzheimer’s, as ‘there is often an imbalance between activities forfeited to the effects of Alzheimer’s, and new activities established in their wake’ which may in itself reduce quality of life. The assumption that those in care Figure 1_Cover image of ‘Design for Dementia- A visual snapshot’ showing examples of thumbnail sketches used to visually document the research process. Revista AUS 9 _Design as therapy_Jenny Willatt_ 2i
  32. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Human-centred design can be

    used to reinvent retail environments
  33. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman …and to make working

    habitats more conducive to 21st Century work.
  34. MODERN HUMAN FIND OUT MORE Paul-Jervis Heath paul@modernhuman.co +44 79

    7456 7823 @pauljervisheath