Pupils, Pop-Ups and Prototyping: applying human-centred design to library environments

Pupils, Pop-Ups and Prototyping: applying human-centred design to library environments

This presentation was first given at the 12th International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries.

You can read more about Modern Human's work with the Futurelib programme at the University of Cambridge at: http://modernhuman.co/futurelib/

The abstract from the conference site described it like this…

PURPOSE
This session shared the methods of two Futurelib projects at Cambridge University Library: Protolib 1 and Protolib 2. The objective of both was to explore the needs of library users and create prototype library environments that satisfied those needs. These were documented through a set of patterns that could be applied across Cambridge Libraries. These design patterns enable librarians to rollout productive and inspiring library environments. The projects challenge assumptions about what a library can be by applying commercial human-centred design methods drawn from a variety of design disciplines to:
* understand user needs from observational design research;
* create pop-up prototypes of new environments;
* evaluate them using innovative methods like eyetracking (more often utilised in retail store design).

APPROACH
Both projects used a mixed-method approach more commonly used on commercial projects.

Protolib 1 explored the needs, attitudes, behaviour and values of library users using three discovery activities: a diary study, codesign workshops with undergraduates and postgraduates, baseline assessment of candidate prototype spaces. We then created 5 pop-up library environments, evaluated them quantitatively and qualitatively, then defined a set of design patterns.

Protolib 2 focused much more on the usability of physical spaces. Eyetracking was used in conjunction with shadowing to witness how people navigate the physical library space and find library resources. Wayfinding prototypes were deployed into representative libraries and evaluated by repeating the eyetracking and shadowing. This showed that our design interventions reduced the time taken to find a resource by 40%-60%. Results were documented as a set of design patterns for wayfinding.

FINDINGS
The key findings relate to how people work, select a working environment, use that environment and how libraries can be better designed to meet those needs. In addition, the findings provide a number of easy steps that can be taken to make libraries easier to use.

Our design research indicates that there are five factors which dictate an individual’s working behaviour. their location, their daily routine, their attitude to work-life balance, their attitude to habit and their approach to planning. This workshop explores how these factors influence their working behaviour and their needs for work spaces.

People in our design research chose their working environment based on 3 factors: their intended length of stay, their activity and their own sense of wellbeing. We will explore the implication this has for the design of library spaces. Although the specific tasks and behaviours are different for each person, most academic work involves a hierarchy of primary, secondary and tertiary activities and these affect where and how people choose to work. We will define primary, secondary and tertiary activities and describe the requirements for each. We will describe how we saw people switching between these categories of task to extend their own focus and productivity and the correlation with a change of physical environment.

Our design research found that environments were defined by their level of intensity. We will define intensity and the characteristics of high, medium and low intensity spaces. We will describe how the intensity of a space influenced how people use the space and how we designed spaces with particular intensity profiles.

In addition to our findings that relate to working behaviour, the projects also uncovered some lower level findings directly related to the design of working environments. These included:

Small elements of personal control over their working environment creates a disproportionate sense of satisfaction with an environment (even if those features are not used).

Location and context are important indicators as to how spaces will be used.

More chairs does not mean a higher level of occupancy for a given space.

The purpose of a space should be clearly defined.

Boundary delineation increases the popularity of workstations.

There are two models for how students navigate a library space depending on their previous experience and mental model of a library.

IMPLICATIONS
We believe that the findings of our design research and the design patterns that we have created are applicable beyond Cambridge. Our findings provide a deep understanding of how people select library spaces in which to work based on observation design research. They have the potential to inform how we think of designing library spaces. The methods used provide an approach for assessing the usability of any physical library spaces. The design methods used for prototyping physical library spaces provide a cost-effective and rapid approach to developing library spaces that better meet the needs of students and researchers.

CONCLUSIONS
The result of these projects was a set of design patterns for library environments that document the different types of space that all libraries include. A design pattern is a re-usable solution to a design problem. An organised collection of design patterns that relate to a particular field is called a pattern language. These patterns describe how library spaces can be designed to meet library user’s needs and make a library more usable, more comfortable, more productive and more inspiring.

Protolib 2, specifically, also created a detailed package of macro- and micro-level signage patterns, the thinking behind which could easily be applied to any library environment.

The session will…

…describe the innovative methods of design research, prototyping and evaluation used. The methods will be applied to measuring the usability of physical library spaces and improving them qualitatively and quantitatively. The methods could also be applied to cost-effectively and rapidly prototyping new types of library spaces.
share the findings of design research which describe users’ space needs and patterns of use. These are likely to be common to researchers and students at other institutions.

…share the resultant design patterns which describe the important factors to consider when designing particular types of library environment. These design patterns have been tested using pop-up prototypes and shown to increase the usage of spaces and satisfaction with them. The session will explore how they can be applied to many academic library environments.

Participants will be given the opportunity to explore this project in an interactive workshop format through a mixture of presentation and practical exercises.

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Paul-Jervis Heath

August 02, 2017
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Transcript

  1. PUPILS, POP-UPS AND PROTOTYPING Or, how we applied innovative human-centred

    design methods to create the right library environments at Cambridge University 12th International Conference on Performance Measurement in Libraries - Wednesday, 2 August 2017 MODERN HUMAN
  2. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN Imagine what’s next… We’re a boutique

    design practice and innovation consultancy that specialises in imagining disruptive new products, services and experiences then making them a reality. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  3. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Futurelib +

  4. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Protolib Physical environment design for Cambridge

    University Library
  5. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Carnaby Experience design for a European

    department store
  6. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Designing for dementia Physical environment design

    for a dementia facility
  7. MODERN HUMAN Methodology Protolib I + Protolib II http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  8. MODERN HUMAN METHODOLOGY: Step 1: Explore space needs http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

    01_ Meta-analysis of existing research 02_ Codesign workshops 03_ Serious Play workshop
  9. MODERN HUMAN METHODOLOGY: Step 1: Explore space needs http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

    04_ Iterative Prototyping 05_ Ethnographic observation 06_ Exit interviews 07_ Surveys 08_ Feedback mechanism 09_ Expert interviews 10_ Conceptual design
  10. MODERN HUMAN METHODOLOGY: Step 3: Understand how and when students

    use libraries http://modernhuman.co @modhuman 01_ Diary studies 02_ Geolocation 03_ Exit interviews DSCOUT Mobile Diary Study Platform
  11. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman 41 PARTICIPANTS 21 days LENGTH OF

    STUDY 1,361 DIARY ENTRIES 25 Undergraduates 8 MPhil 8 PhD 16,332 INDIVIDUAL DATA POINTS 16 Disciplines Asian and Middle Eastern Studies; Anglo-Saxon, Norse and Celtic; Business (MBA); Computer Science; Economics; Education; Engineering; English; Geography; History; Human, Social and Political Sciences; Law; Mathematics; Modern and Medieval Languages; Natural Sciences; Philosophy. 16 Colleges Churchill, Clare, Corpus Christi, Downing, Fitzwilliam, Hughes Hall, King’s, Magdelene, Murray Edwards, Pembroke, Queen’s, Robinson, Selwyn, St Catherine’s, Trinity Hall, Wolfson. METHODOLOGY: Diary study in numbers
  12. MODERN HUMAN 04_ Eyetracking 05_ Shadowing 06_ Observations METHODOLOGY: Step

    4: Understand peoples’ wayfinding behaviour once inside the library http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TOBII EYETRACKER Eyetracking headset
  13. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman METHODOLOGY: Library types studied The University

    Library 45,000 REGISTERED BORROWERS 13,250 BOOKS ISSUED/MONTH KEY USE Between-lecture workspace, longer term workspace and as a source of resources Humanities library with frequent collection use 1,363 REGISTERED BORROWERS 4,300 BOOKS ISSUED/MONTH KEY USE Between-lecture workspace, longer term workspace and source of reading materials Science library where the collection use is moderate 686 REGISTERED BORROWERS 220 BOOKS ISSUED/MONTH KEY USE Between-lecture workspace, longer term workspace and source of reading materials Science library with occasional collection use 1,000 REGISTERED BORROWERS 100 BOOKS ISSUED/MONTH KEY USE Between-lecture workspace.
  14. MODERN HUMAN 07_ Design and prototype 08_ Test interventions (eyetracking

    + shadowing) 09_ Iterate, refine and retest METHODOLOGY: Step 5: Design and test a series of design interventions to improve the usability of physical library spaces http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  15. MODERN HUMAN 10_ Ideation 11_ Concepting 12_ Concept Validation METHODOLOGY:

    Step 6: Create a design concept for libraries services within each of the the 3 University hubs http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  16. MODERN HUMAN Key Findings Design Research http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  17. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CULTURE SOCIETY PEOPLE EXPERIENCE

  18. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Assess success of changes over time

    Implement incremental or major changes to what’s offered to customers and how. Information that defines very specifically what 
 has happened. Information that defines patterns & trends in what has happened & can identify influencing factors. Explains why something is or isn’t happening and inspires and directs new opportunities. Reinvent what is offered to customers and how. WHAT WHY OBSERVE & LISTEN FACTS FINDINGS INSIGHTS REPORT ACTION STRATEGY RESPOND MONITOR REACT TRANSFORM
  19. MODERN HUMAN The mindset of a student influences their motivations

    and their aspirations The Grafter “I need to work really hard” The Balancer “It’s important to find a balance” The Networker “It’s a means to an end”
  20. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman There are five factors which dictate

    people’s studying behaviour STU D Y-LIFE BA LA N CE LOCATION TIMETABLE HABIT PLA N N IN G Extrinsic Factors Intrinsic Factors
  21. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Intrahub or Extrahub: The location of

    college and department influences a student’s needs DEPARTMENT COLLEGE SUPERMARKET THE STUDENT TRIANGLE
  22. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Putting it all together…

    Why Daisy works in her room STU D Y-LIFE BA LA N CE LOCATION TIMETABLE HABIT PLA N N IN G Extrinsic Factors Intrinsic Factors
  23. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman People have an individual hierarchy of

    working activities Reflection or break Tertiary activities LENGTH OF STAY HIGHER INTENSITY ENVIRONMENT LOWER INTENSITY ENVIRONMENT Secondary activities Primary activities
  24. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman LENGTH OF STAY WELLBEING ACTIVITY People

    choose their working environment based on 3 factors:
  25. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman “I had been in the UL

    all morning and needed a change of scene, somewhere comfy to do data analysis.” – PhD student, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge. Interviewed outside the South Reading Room low intensity prototype environment at the University Library. “ Varying their environment helps people to maintain concentration and productivity
  26. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The working week: Writing essays Weekends

    MON TUES WED THU FRI SAT SUN 3 DAYS READING 2 DAYS WRITING 1 DAY PROOFING
  27. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TIME SIGNIFICANCE Provided Groups Emergent Groups

    Social Groups: Students belong to two types of social groups and their involvement within them changes over time.
  28. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman More chairs does not mean a

    higher level of occupancy North Reading Room (Prototype 1.1) Same as prototype 1.0 but with the addition of lamps and plug points. North Reading Room (Prototype 1.0) A more regular layout of large rectangular tables. 4 chairs to a table. North Reading room (original layout) Original layout featuring a mixture of café-style circular tables and rectangular tables. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 31 11 7 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 24 15 11 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 24 13 12
  29. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman North Reading Room: fewer chairs, higher

    occupancy when sightlines blocked by plants North Reading Room (Prototype 2.0) Similar to prototype 1.0 to 1.2 but with the tables reorientated and placed next to windows. North Reading room (Prototype 1.2) Same as prototype 1.1 but with the addition of plants blocking sightlines. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 20 18 14 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 20 20 15
  30. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman South reading room: fewer chairs, less

    intense feel, similar occupancy South Reading Room (Prototype 1.1) Same as prototype 1.0 but with the addition of lamps and plug points. South Reading Room (Prototype 1.0) The large tables and chairs have been replaced with additional sofas and coffee tables, and the whole room has been made more cosy with the addition of cushions, blankets and rugs. South Reading room (original layout) The original layout featured a mixture of comfortable chairs and large shared tables. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 28 10 8 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 15 9 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 14 8
  31. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman South reading room: fewer chairs, less

    intense feel, similar occupancy South Reading Room (Prototype 2.0) Sofas reoriented so that none of them face each other. South Reading room (Prototype 1.2) Same as prototype 1.1 but with the addition of floor standing lamps giving each seat a personal light source. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 12 11 CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 15 9 South Reading Room (Prototype 3.0) Alternative lay out so that fewer sofas face each other. CHAIRS HIGHEST MEAN 22 13 10
  32. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman North Reading Room (Prototype 2.0) Heatmap

    showing the occupation of seats within the medium intensity prototype environment. Those chairs nearest the windows and plug points were the most popular. It is important to note that the presence of plants blocking sightlines reduced the feeling of being overlooked which would normally prevent people from choosing to sit in the middle of a room. South Reading room (Prototype 1.2) Heatmap showing the occupation of seats within the low intensity prototype environment. Those sofas near the windows and plug are distinctly more popular than those away from these facilities. Observation showed that these seats were in constant use and the first to be occupied in the prototype.
  33. MODERN HUMAN Designing at the site level: Hubs and Halos

    MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  34. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman THE WEST CAMBRIDGE HUB AND HALO

    THE SIDGWICK HUB AND HALO THE CITY CENTRE HUB AND HALO MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  35. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Food is an important part of

    a student’s working day “A panini for lunch is about as good as it gets on the Sidgwick site.” – Third year history undergraduate and president of their College JCR “
  36. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Library Environments: A pattern

    language
  37. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman PATTERN LANGUAGE 3-levels of design patterns:

    sites, layouts, spaces Site Layout Space Patterns corresponding to groups of buildings. These patterns provide approximate relative sizes and spatial relationships. These patterns are based on user needs. Patterns corresponding to groups of spaces. These patterns describe how spaces relate to one another and can be configured in usable arrangements. Patterns corresponding to individual spaces. These pattern describe the design of working spaces.
  38. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman THE SIDGWICK SITE: Target intensity ratios

    TARGET INTENSITY RATIO 
 Sidgwick hub 30% HIGH 50% MEDIUM 20% LOW EXISTING INTENSITY RATIO 
 Sidgwick hub 67% HIGH 29% MEDIUM 4% LOW
  39. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman THE SIDGWICK SITE: Space relationships ENGLISH

    HISTORY UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ALISON RICHARD LAW MML CRIMINOLOGY CLASSICS Notes This diagram illustrates approximate relative sizes and spatial relationships. The diagram shows one potential future configuration, many others are possible. This future configuration is based on user needs, other factors should of course be considered. MUSIC DIVINITY ECONOMICS HIGH MEDIUM LOW BREAK
  40. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Relative sizes ULTRA HIGH INTENSITY

    SPACE HIGH INTENSITY SPACE MEDIUM OR LOW INTENSITY SPACE
  41. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MULTI-ENVIRONMENT CONFIGURATION Transition zones A single

    transition zone can serve multiple space types at once A single transition zone can be shared between multiple space types. This will result in an increased amount of traffic in the transition zone. When this situation arises it may be more appropriate to create a landing zone. Landing zones are larger transition zones in which people can meet, gather or organise their belongings. Transition zones should be used to allow people to circulate between distinct space types The key role of transition zones is to preserve the individual qualities of distinct space types by acting as a buffer between them. They reduce the disruption caused by movement between spaces, and act as a distinct physical cue that prepares people for a change in behaviour appropriate to the new space. Examples of transition zones include spaces like vestibules, corridors and landing zones. Ultra high intensity spaces should be accessed through layered transition zones Due to the strict silence required in ultra high intensity spaces, they should be distanced from busier or noisier spaces by multiple transition zones. This will decrease the amount of disruption the high intensity spaces experience, and help to preserve a focused, disciplined atmosphere. LOW INTENSITY MEDIUM INTENSITY TRANSITION ZONE LOW INTENSITY MEDIUM INTENSITY TRANSITION ZONE HIGH INTENSITY LANDING ZONE LOW INTENSITY LOW INTENSITY LOW INTENSITY MEDIUM INTENSITY Distance from entrance ULTRA-HIGH INTENSITY
  42. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MULTI-ENVIRONMENT CONFIGURATION Complementary space relationships Expertise

    points should be located in areas with sufficient through-traffic, such as landing zones Expertise points should be located in landing zones or transition spaces. The increased amount of traffic in these spaces will provide more publicity for the space and help invite people to engage with experts in a more informal way. People will also feel more comfortable having discussions with experts in these areas, rather than in areas with noise restraints where talking is less acceptable. LANDING ZONE EXPERTISE POINT
  43. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MULTI-ENVIRONMENT CONFIGURATION Spatial boundaries / Boundary

    delineation Permeable boundaries Spaces with similar characteristics in terms of noise level or intensity can be separated by more permeable boundaries, such as changes in level, plants or even just their distance from each other. In many cases their awareness of each other can even be helpful, for example, in the case of a cafe generating helpful background noise for a between-lecture work environment. Solid boundaries Spaces with distinct characteristics, especially with regard to intensity or noise levels, should be separated by solid boundaries. This helps to preserve the specific characteristics of the spaces which are crucial to their role within the wider environment. Transition spaces should be introduced as a buffer between two solid boundaries, in cases where openings in a single solid boundary could disrupt the nature of a neighbouring space. No boundaries Some spaces can be located in other spaces, without any real perceived boundaries, to the advantage of both. For example, in the case of an expertise point located in a landing zone, the absence of boundaries could help increase awareness of the expertise point and increase its approachability by enabling more informal interactions. This in turn could create a landing zone which creates a good first impression, as the increased number of scholarly interactions would make it a hive of academic exchange. LOW INTENSITY MEDIUM INTENSITY HIGH INTENSITY LANDING ZONE BREAK SPACE BUFFER SPACE OR LANDING ZONE EXPERTISE POINT
  44. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman HUMANISING FEATURES One of the key

    differences between a high and medium intensity space is the existence of humanising features such as plants or artwork, which make the space feel more personal and less oppressive. The presence of plants on tables contributes to the medium intensity environment by blocking sight lines between workstations, which in turn helps reduce the sense of exposure in the space. DESKS AND CHAIRS WITH A GENEROUS AMOUNT OF SPACE PER PERSON Medium intensity spaces should be furnished with desks and chairs. Each individual should be provided with a surface depth of at least 60cm and a surface width of at least 120cm, in order to support the use of multiple materials during work activities. This increased amount of individual desk space also reduces the density of occupancy of the room, which contributes to the creation of a medium intensity environment. INDIVIDUAL TASK LAMPS AND PLUG SOCKETS Due to the amount of time people spend working in medium intensity environments, each desk space should be provided with its own individual task lamp and plug sockets. Individual task lamps enable people to work at desk spaces for longer, as they can adapt their workspace to different tasks, varying light conditions and personal preferences. People working for long periods of time may need to charge multiple devices throughout the day, and so provision should be made for at least 2 plug sockets per person. DESIGN PATTERN Medium intensity environment
  45. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Medium intensity environment

  46. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Medium intensity environment MAXIMUM 20-PERSON

    LAYOUTS Each medium intensity space layout can contain furniture blocks of between 2 and 4 people, with up to 20 people visible to each other at any one time. Layouts consisting of more than 20 people should be divided by a visual buffer, which lowers the degree of exposure by reducing the number of people visible in each section of the space to a maximum of 20. MAXIMISE ACCESS TO NATURAL LIGHT AND VIEWS Workstations next to windows are the most popular due to the provision of natural light and views of the outside world, which contributes to the medium intensity nature of the space. Space layouts should therefore maximise the number of workstations with access to natural light and views. GENEROUS SPACING BETWEEN DESKS An increased feeling of space is important in the creation of medium intensity environments. Generous spacing should be allocated between furniture blocks, in order to create a space which is less densely populated than higher intensity spaces.
  47. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Low intensity environment SOFAS

    AND ARMCHAIRS The use of living room-style furniture such as sofas and armchairs is essential in the creation of low intensity spaces. These soft furnishings provide people with the comfort they need when looking for a change of scenery from medium or high intensity spaces. A FLAT SURFACE FOR EACH SEAT People conduct a range of activities in low intensity spaces, some of which require a flat surface. Flat surfaces should therefore be provided for each seat. As a minimum, these flat surfaces could take the form of wide, flat arm rests on sofas, which can be used for working with books, notepads or laptops. As an optimum, they would take the form of high, moveable coffee tables which can be placed to the side of the sofa for setting books or a drink, or to the front of the sofa to allow for laptop use. ATMOSPHERIC LAMPS AND INDIVIDUAL READING LIGHTS Low intensity spaces are characterised by softer, living room-style environments, created in part through the use of atmospheric lighting. In addition to this, standing floor lamps with adjustable task lamps help to raise overall lighting levels in the space, whilst supporting users with their tasks. Provision of task lamps enable people to adapt their environment to changing lighting conditions or personal preferences.
  48. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Low intensity environment CUSHIONS

    AND BLANKETS Cushions and blankets increase personal wellbeing by enabling people to adapt the space to their own comfort requirements. Cushions are used to change seating positions or rest books on, whilst blankets are used for warmth and comfort when people are feeling cold, tired, stressed or unwell. HUMANISING FEATURES Humanising features such as plants, fresh flowers and artwork contribute to the low intensity environment by making the space feel more personal and familiar. ACCESS TO PLUG SOCKETS Along with windows, plug sockets are a feature which increases the popularity of seats within low intensity environments. People will move seats in order to gain access to available plug sockets. Each seat in a low intensity environment should have access to one or more plug sockets to enable people to charge their devices. PERSONAL SPACE The increased amount of personal space in low intensity environments provides people with a change from more densely populated medium and high intensity spaces. People make use of this additional personal space to think, reflect and recharge. People will take up the space they need to feel physically and mentally comfortable, for example, by taking up both seats on a two-seater sofa. Personal space must be carefully considered when designing layouts and furniture configuration for low intensity environments.
  49. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Low intensity environment

  50. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Low intensity environment

  51. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Closed Analysis Space PLENTY

    OF CLEAR WALL AND SURFACE SPACE Analysis spaces need to provide a large amount of wall and surface space, to facilitate the organisation and analysis of large piles of notes or data. Wall surfaces should be white to contribute to the airy, minimalist feel of the space, and smooth so that post-its will easily stick to them. The space will require at least one large table, or several smaller tables for organising piles of notes or data. Additional surfaces in the form of shelves or bookcases should be provided, for the storage and organisation of notes and analysis materials. ENCLOSED ROOM Due to the complex and lengthy nature of analysis activities, analysis spaces need to be enclosed, lockable spaces located near subject specialists. This enables people conducting analysis activities to store their work and belongings over longer periods of time and access the help they need as and when they need it. In situations where the provision of bookable or lockable spaces isn’t possible, provisions should be made for the storage of analysis work, for example in whiteboard lockers. WHITEBOARDS Whiteboards and flip-charts should be provided in addition to blank walls, in order to maximise the amount of surfaces available for analysis, whilst also enabling people to visualise complex ideas or summarise findings.
  52. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Closed Analysis Space MAXIMISE

    WALL SPACE WITHOUT SACRIFICING NATURAL LIGHT LEVELS Analysis spaces should be designed to allow for an optimum amount of wall space, without sacrificing the amount of natural light entering the room. The size or number of window openings should be proportional to the size of the room and/or amount of free wall space available. One way of doing this would be to keep openings focused on one of the four walls, leaving the other three clear for analysis. LARGE TABLE IN CENTRE OF ROOM FOR ORGANISING DATA Analysis spaces should contain a large table in the centre of the room to provide people with enough surface space to arrange large piles of notes and other other forms of data. CLEAR ACCESS TO PERIMETER WALLS The layout of an analysis space should ensure that people have clear access to all perimeter walls. This can be achieved by locating any furniture in the centre of the room and allowing clear circulation space around it.
  53. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN High intensity environment LARGE,

    OPEN-PLAN SPACE WITH A HIGH LEVEL OF EXPOSURE People experience more social pressure in larger, more densely occupied, open-plan spaces. The size and open-plan nature of the space is important, as the sense of peer pressure, low level of transience and self-policed level of silence in the space are directly linked to the number of people that can be seen working in the space. High intensity spaces should have open sightlines which create a high degree of exposure. This enables people in the space to be aware of all other occupants of the space. This in turn increases the amount of social pressure experienced by people working in high intensity spaces. TRADITIONAL TABLES AND CHAIRS WITH REDUCED AMOUNTS OF DESK SPACE PER PERSON High intensity spaces are furnished with traditional tables and chairs, in a layout which provides a reduced amount of desk space per person. This more densely populated layout results in people sitting closer together. This reinforces the disciplined nature of the space, as people have a feeling that others in neighbouring seats are monitoring their activity, and therefore stay more focused on their task. Desks in high intensity spaces should be longer and positioned more closely together than those in medium intensity spaces. This helps to create a more densely occupied space, which increases the intensity of the environment. STAFF DESK
  54. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Ultra-high intensity environment HIGH

    CEILINGS WHICH INCREASE SPATIAL VOLUME High ceilings increase the volume and perceived size of the space in which people are working. This increased height and volume creates a sense of stillness which people are reluctant to disrupt, which helps maintain the disciplined and focused atmosphere in ultra high space intensity spaces. TRADITIONAL SPACE AND FURNITURE Ultra high intensity spaces have a sense of grandeur and scholarly gravitas, created by traditional features such as paintings of historical figures, old wooden bookcases, traditional desks and chairs, archways and relief mouldings on ceilings. These features create an awe-inspiring environment, which motivates people to work by making them feel part of the academic tradition. LONG ROWS OF DESKS Long rows of densely populated desk spaces create an almost factory-like atmosphere in ultra high intensity space. The fact that people can see so many other people working under the same roof contributes to the industrious nature and heightened sense of productivity within the space. Ultra high intensity space layouts should accommodate long rows of desks in a densely packed configuration. The close proximity to neighbouring desks and reduced amount of circulation creates a more intense layout with a lower level of transience than lower intensity spaces.
  55. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Break spaces FURNITURE TO

    SUPPORT WORK AND BREAK ACTIVITIES People use break spaces for different kinds of breaks. Some people take 10 minutes to sit on a sofa, have a drink and a chat with a friend, or read the newspaper. Others use break spaces as a productive break from the library, to read a chapter of a book or to send some emails. High tables are particularly popular for eating lunch, playing games and doing laptop work, so it is important that they are provided as well as more comfortable furnishings such as sofas. PROXIMITY TO WORKSPACES The convenient location of break spaces is important, as it enables people to take short breaks near to where they are working. This ability to take short breaks increases people’s endurance and productivity, by enabling them to recharge at regular intervals without taking too much time away from their work. People are less likely to take breaks if the break spaces are located too far from their place of work, as this would result in them taking longer breaks than intended. ACCESS TO FOOD AND DRINK Food and drink should be provided in break spaces either in the form of vending machines or a cafe. If break spaces do not provide food and drink, people will have to choose between venturing elsewhere for their break or avoiding taking a break entirely for fear of taking too much time away from their work. Convenient access to food and drink therefore increases the amount of time people can spend working.
  56. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Between-lecture spaces FURNITURE TO

    SUPPORT WORK AND BREAK ACTIVITIES Furniture located in between-lecture spaces should consist of a mixture of soft furnishings and more formal workstations, in order to support a wide range of break and work activities. Desks and chairs are particularly valuable for enabling short bursts of work between lectures. PROXIMITY TO TIMETABLED ACTIVITIES AND REFRESHMENTS Between-lecture spaces should be located either directly next to or in very close proximity to lectures and supervisions, so that people can complete short bursts of work during gaps in their timetable. Access to refreshments is also important, as people like to fill gaps in their timetable productively whilst having a snack or a cup of coffee. CHARGING STATIONS Plug sockets are in high demand between lectures due to a shortage of plug sockets in lecture theatres. As a result, people gravitate towards available plug sockets in the periods of time between lectures. Between-lecture spaces should have a generous provision of plug sockets conveniently located next to desks and chairs, so that people can charge their devices and work at the same time.
  57. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Expertise points SIGNAGE Signage

    plays an important role in inviting people to engage with expertise points. Signage should clearly indicate that expertise points exist, be welcoming in tone, and give people an idea of the kind of expertise that is available to them. LOCATED IN A BUFFER SPACE OR LANDING ZONE Expertise points should be located in landing zones or transition spaces. The increased amount of traffic in these areas will provide more publicity for the space and the informal nature of the space will encourage people to engage with experts. The higher accepted noise levels in these areas will also help people feel more comfortable to initiate discussions with staff. DESK AND CONSULTATION AREA The design of expertise points should make experts approachable by locating them in open, welcoming environments. Soft furnishings can be used make consultation areas more approachable and invite informal discussions. Where desks are used, they should be open rather than enclosed. Busier expertise points should provide an area where people can wait for consultation appointments, or for an expert to become available. GLAZED CONSULTATION ROOM Enclosed consultation rooms should be provided for longer consultations providing in-depth guidance. This additional level of privacy will make it more comfortable for people to talk openly about their research. These enclosed rooms should be glazed, as this will enable others to see that consultations are happening and increase awareness of their existence. It will also make the expert seem more approachable.
  58. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Expertise points

  59. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Entrance area SELF-CHECKOUT &

    BOOK RETURNS These should be located next to the landing zone so people have space to set their books and bags whilst checking out or returning books. APPROACHABLE SERVICE DESK The service desk should be located to one side of the entrance space to avoid seeming confrontational. It should be approachable, easily accessible and constantly attended by a member of staff. Separate rooms or even glass walls enclosing service desks can create a perceived boundary that will prevent people approaching staff for help. LANDING ZONE The landing zone provides clear, flat surfaces to help accommodate people who are checking out or returning books and a seating area for those who are waiting for friends or colleagues. ENTRANCE LANDING ZONE SIGNAGE SIGNAGE Where necessary, way finding aids in the form of signage or maps should be provided in the entrance space to help library users orientate themselves within the library, find their way to a particular destination.
  60. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman CONFIGURATION Entrance area ENTRANCE AREA SIGNAGE

    ENTRANCE AREA (MINIMUM CONFIGURATION) Comprises a service desk, a self-checkout machine and landing zone with a flat surface and a chair. The service desk should be located to one side on entering the building to avoid seeming confrontational. It should be easily accessible and constantly attended by a member of staff. Separate rooms or even glass walls enclosing service desks prevent people approaching staff for help. ENTRANCE AREA SIGNAGE Signage should be provided at the entrance to the entrance area to inform users of any specific characteristics or rules of the library they are entering. Once inside the entrance area signage should be clearly located to help people orientate themselves in the space and find their way to their destination.
  61. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Landing zone LANDING ZONE

    NEXT TO CATALOGUE TERMINAL OR SELF-CHECKOUT MACHINE People need space to set down their bags or books whilst they search for a book on a catalogue terminal or scan books at the self-checkout machine. This could be a simple table or any kind of flat surface large enough to set a bag and some books. This provision of a single flat surface could be considered as the minimal viable landing zone. LANDING ZONE IN A TRANSITION SPACE OR ENTRANCE AREA Transition spaces and entrance areas provide distinct physical cues that prepare people for a change in behaviour appropriate to a new space. Some people may prepare for their transition to a new space by getting their materials out of their bags in advance of entering a high intensity workspace to avoid disturbing other people. Others may wait for friends. CATALOGUE TERMINAL LANDING ZONE HIGH INTENSITY SPACE LANDING ZONE
  62. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Wayfinding within library spaces

    Key findings
  63. MODERN HUMAN

  64. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The behaviour we witnessed in that

    video _ Scanning and moving aimlessly _ Scanning classmark labels _ Trying to decode the classmark system _ Memory vs system _ Lack of a strategy _ Giving up _ Need for reassurance _ Time taken
  65. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Common behaviours across participants _ Multiple

    classmark runs and separate collections cause confusion. _ Library-specific terminology and signage causes confusion. _ People blame themselves when they can’t find a book. _ People have trouble deciphering classmarks. _ People who are less familiar with libraries are fearful of elements that look library-specific. _ Science students are more likely to browse by topic than humanities students. _ People are more likely to use catalogue terminals and signage in larger, multi-storey libraries. _ Small, open plan, single-storey libraries give a false sense of confidence. _ Usability issues with iDiscover impact the wayfinding process.
  66. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman SIGNAGE TESTING What students said… I’m

    no good at libraries. – A 3rd year NatSci student. Sorry, I’m no good at finding things. – A 2nd year MML student. Either the book is out, it’s on someone’s desk or I’m a moron! – A 4th year NatSci student. “ “ “ I would have given up by now. – A 2nd year Education student. This code means jack all to me. – A 4th year NatSci student. I should be able to do this – my father is a librarian. – A PhD Chemistry student. “ “ “
  67. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Library Environments: Wayfinding and

    navigation patterns
  68. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman iDISCOVER CLASSMARK SLIPS floor, room, zone

    MACRO-LEVEL SIGNAGE floor, room, zone MICRO-LEVEL SIGNAGE stack, bay, shelf The wayfinding package: a hierarchy of spatial navigation tools and cues
  69. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman AREA : SUBJECT FLOOR P .

    . . SIZE DATE CODE S N W 1 : P . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 S 0 0 0 0 0 0 N W 1 P N W 1 P N W 1 : 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 : . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 S 0 0 0 0 0 0 : . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 S 0 0 0 0 0 0 N W 2 4 0 8 5 C 2 0 0 1 6 : P . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 S 0 0 0 0 0 0 N W 1 2 3 5 To find your book, start by finding the correct area and floor (1) in the library. Check whether it’s a periodical (2), then find the shelves for the right size (3). Next, look for subject (4). Finally locate the date code & running number (5). Quickly find your books Example Write your classmarks in the boxes below : P . . . 0 0 0 0 0 0 S 0 0 0 0 0 0 N W 1 1 4 RUNNING NUMBER UNIVERSITY LIBRARY CLASSMARK SLIP DESIGN PATTERN Classmark Slip
  70. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERNS Macro-level signage _ Macro-level

    signage helps users find the right floor, room, zone or general subject area in a library space. _ The addition of macro-level signage significantly improved the process of finding books by making it easier, quicker and less mentally demanding. _ Enables people to quickly identify the subject area or zone they were looking for using protruding signage on the end of each bookcase. Repetitive blocks of colour and text on this signage enabled people to identify distinct zones through high-level scanning of the library space. _ Signage is as important for eliminating sections of a library which are irrelevant to someone’s search as it is for locating the relevant sections. _ Good signage reduces the amount of mental bandwidth required to find their book, as they have less physical space to process. Floor guides Maps 3 COMPONENTS Stack-end 
 signage
  71. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Library Office Ask here for help

    Printer Books QA3 - QD701 Self-issue Machine Undergraduate Books Lift Lift Books Journals Reference Only Blue Book Collection Undergraduate Books Series Chemical Abstracts New Journals Books Reference Only Fire Exit Journals A-Z Blue Book Collection Series Chem. Abstracts Series Chem. Abstracts Book Returns LIBRARY MAPS DESIGN PATTERN Macro-level signage: Colour-coded maps
  72. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Macro-level signage: Stack-end signage

    (one subject area) Spanish E Spanish E STRIP OF COLOUR This strip of colour complements the other aspects of the wayfinding system by providing users with an additional visual cue with which to validate their navigation of the physical library space. LARGE BOLD TOPIC LABEL This is the largest and boldest element on the sign. It uses both the first letter of the classmark and the topic name. Users of the library for which this sign was designed search mostly using the first letter of the classmark and so the E element is larger than the “Spanish” topic label.
  73. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  74. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  75. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman SUBJECT AREA 1 SUBJECT AREA 2

    Catalan CAT Catalan CAT French F French F STRIP OF COLOUR This strip of colour complements the other aspects of the wayfinding system by providing users with an additional visual cue with which to validate their navigation of the physical library space. LARGE BOLD TOPIC LABEL This is the largest and boldest element on the sign. It uses both the letters of the classmark and the topic name. Users in this library search mostly using the first letter of the classmark and so the CAT element is larger than the “Catalan” topic label. DESIGN PATTERN Macro-level signage: Stack-end signage (two subject areas)
  76. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERNS Micro-level signage _ Micro-level

    signage helps users locate the specific stack, bay or shelf on which their book is located. _ Without micro-level signage users will resort to scanning individual book titles or classmark labels when navigating library collections. This can result in a significantly increased amount of time and effort on the part of the user. Shelf labels Classmark range signage 3 COMPONENTS Split-bay labels
  77. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Spanish E E7 DEL.M.10 to E7

    MADA 7 E7 BENE 1 to E7 DEL.M.8 LARGE BOLD TOPIC LABEL This is the largest and boldest element on the sign. Users in this library search mostly using the first letter of the classmark and so the E element is larger than the topic label DIVIDER LINE Reinforces the separation of one set of classmarks from the other to reinforce the fact that the classmarks are located on different sides of the bookcase. STRIP OF COLOUR This strip of colour complements the other aspects of the wayfinding system by providing users with an additional visual cue with which to validate their navigation of the physical library space. FIRST PART OF CLASSMARK IN BOLD FONT CLASSMARK RANGE (LEFT) This indicates the classmark range located on the left side of the bookcase a user is looking at CLASSMARK RANGE (RIGHT) This indicates the classmark range located on the right side of the bookcase a user is looking at DESIGN PATTERN Micro-level signage: Classmark range for each bookcase
  78. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Micro-level signage: Classmark range

    for each bookcase Books 723:29. c .95.197 to 724:5. c .95.373 STRIP OF COLOUR This strip of colour complements the other aspects of the wayfinding system by providing users with an additional visual cue with which to validate their navigation of the physical library space. SECOND PART OF THE CLASSMARK This is the second most important part of the classmark and so it s font is smaller and less prominent , but still larger than the last part of the classmark. THIRD PART OF THE CLASSMARK This is the least important element of the classmark in the order of the search process and so it is smaller and less prominent than the other two elements. RESOURCE TYPE LABEL The resource type label is in large, bold font to help users distinguish periodicals from books MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE CLASSMARK This is the first element of the classmark that users should look at in order to identify the right group of stacks to look at. This element is therefore larger and bolder than the other elements of the classmark.
  79. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman DESIGN PATTERN Micro-level signage: Protruding shelf

    labels Inorganic Chemistry QD 146 - 197 STRIP OF COLOUR This strip of colour complements the other aspects of the wayfinding system by providing users with an additional visual cue with which to validate their navigation of the physical library space. LARGE BOLD TOPIC LABEL This is the largest and boldest element on the sign. Users in this library search mostly by topic, and so the topic element of the label is bolder than the classmark element. CLASSMARK RANGE Indicates the classmark range in which this topic can be found, which helps users narrow their search of the shelves. Users were more likely to browse by topic in this library so the classmark range font is less prominent than the topic label font.
  80. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  81. MODERN HUMAN

  82. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman SIGNAGE TESTING Time on task TASK

    1
 Find a book in the Catalan section 0:08:15 BEFORE 0:03:10 AFTER TASK 2
 Find a book in the German section 0:06:27 BEFORE 0:00:57 AFTER Reduced time to find books by 60% BENEFITS Made tricky items easier to find
  83. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman SIGNAGE TESTING What students said… The

    signs with German, Catalan, Spanish on them really helped. – A 2nd year MML student referring to the new protruding stack-end signage at the MML Library. My method was to look at the signs and work out the order. – A 2nd year MML student after having found a book in the MML Library. I love the new signs. They make everything so much clearer and the colours really help. – A 4th year MML student whilst looking for a book in the library. “ “ “
  84. MODERN HUMAN Paul-Jervis Heath paul@modernhuman.co +44 79 7456 7823 @pauljervisheath