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Undercover in the Knowledge Chain

Undercover in the Knowledge Chain

Designer, Paul-Jervis Heath goes undercover to search out latent, unspoken needs so that he can invent valuable and innovative new products and services. His work has led him and his team to spend a lot of time with scientists, researchers and academics; in their labs and in their offices; building up a picture of their research and publishing goals, their needs and the motivations for their work.

This type of undercover, ethnographic design research gives him a detailed view of the behaviour, goals and values of academics as they act as reader, author and reviewer of academic literature. It allows him to see why people do the things they do and behave the way they behave. It has enabled him to witness how people really find articles, how much effort researchers expend to keep up with the latest in their field and the three types of research reading. Beyond current behaviour it enables him and his team to predict the next wave of products and services in scholarly communication. It enables them to identify unmet needs, invent future products and services, and predict the value frameworks of future customers.

In this keynote, Paul-Jervis Heath will share his methods and some anecdotes from his work with academics. He’ll discuss behavioural models, bounded rationality and the knowledge chain: a mapping of scholarly communication from idea to impact. He’ll also talk about future opportunities for academic publishing and the needs for products and services that don’t exist yet.

Paul Jervis Heath

May 03, 2017
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  1. UNDERCOVER IN THE 
 KNOWLEDGE CHAIN
 Using Ethnography To Anticipate

    Future Publishing Needs Scholar One Manuscripts User Conference – Wednesday 3 March 2017 MODERN HUMAN
  2. MODERN HUMAN MODERN HUMAN Imagine what’s next… Modern Human is

    a boutique design practice and innovation consultancy that specialises in imagining disruptive new products, services and experiences then making them a reality. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  3. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman GOOD GRIPS MEASURING JUG by OXO

  4. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman INFORMATION What information is provided and

    at what stage INTERACTION How people use the product or service in order to achieve their goals STRUCTURE The structural relationships between channels, touchpoints, components and features CONCEPT How the product or service delivers the proposition PROPOSITION Value offered to customers from using the product or service DESIGN STRATEGY CONCEPTUAL DESIGN DETAILED DESIGN VISUAL The visual appearance of the product or service
  5. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMMERSE INSPIRE INVENT IMAGINE The 4

    modes of human-centred design can be applied strategically to choreograph the user experience.
  6. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMMERSE INSPIRE INVENT IMAGINE

  7. MODERN HUMAN Shadowing Shadowing is one of the key design

    research methods we use at Modern Human, because it allows us to observe real behaviour. By directly observing participants we are able to get a deeper understanding of their needs.
  8. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman GO PRO SESSION Wearable camera

  9. MODERN HUMAN Diary study The aim of a diary study

    is to record experiences, thoughts and activities over a period of time. It brings you as close as possible to your participants without actually being there.
  10. MODERN HUMAN Other ethnographic research methods _ Contextual Interviews _

    Expert interviews _ Direct experience _ Analogous experiences _ Guided tours _ Cultural probes
  11. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMMERSE INSPIRE INVENT IMAGINE

  12. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman What are we looking for? WORKAROUNDS

    Quick, seemingly efficient solutions that address the symptoms of a problem not the root cause. VALUES People’s values play an important role in their motivations. What do they value? What’s important to them? What’s not? INERTIA Situations in which customers act out of habit. How can you leverage or break that inertia? SHOULD VS WANT The tension between things they crave in the moment and things they know are good for them. How can you help people move from where they are to where they want to be?
  13. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman REPORT Assess success 
 of changes

    
 over time ACTION Implement incremental or major changes to what’s offered to customers and how. FACTS Information that defines very specifically what 
 has happened. FINDINGS Information that defines patterns & trends in what has happened 
 & can identify 
 influencing factors. INSIGHTS Explains why something is or isn’t happening and inspires and directs new opportunities. STRATEGY Reinvent what is offered to customers and how. WHAT OBSERVE & LISTEN WHY RESPOND MONITOR REACT TRANSFORM
  14. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman A good insight is… _ Intuitive

    _ Not obvious _ Generative _ Sticky
  15. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Turning insights into models A model

    is a visualisation of your data. After sharing your findings, your team will have a huge amount of unorganised data. Creating models to encapsulate your observations will help you to organise your information, and may also clarify complex patterns within your research data.
  16. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman RAW MATERIAL PRODUCER DISTRIBUTOR RETAILER CONSUMER

    SUPPLY CHAIN
  17. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IDEA PUBLISHER FUNDER LAB AUTHOR KNOWLEDGE

    CHAIN
  18. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman KNOWLEDGE CHAIN IDEA FUNDER LAB AUTHOR

    IMPACT LINK PUBLISHER CONSERVATIONIST ASSESSOR TEACHER JOURNALIST
  19. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman I’ve been a senior lecturer for

    many years now. I try to use my publishing experiences to help junior members of my team because I know that the pressure on them is more intense than it used to be. I use every opportunity to push them to network and to publish in relevant publications. What motivates me Setting aside my life commitment to research, I get most satisfaction from helping early career researchers develop their reputation and their academic skills. I want to improve academia simply because I recognise that there are limited opportunities to learn from mistakes. The publishing landscape is too complex and the stakes are too high for it to be left to chance. Where I want to get to My experiences of academia as a PostDoc researcher left me feeling that there should be more guidance for young academics by demonstrating not just what to do but also how to and when to do work. A quick, consistent publishing process while supporting researchers’ goals is important. I want to amplify change through academia by mentoring people and guiding the next generation of academics. Therefore I recommend Open Access publishing LQDOOLWVIRUPVRYHUSXEOLVKLQJWKURXJKSXEOLVKLQJYHKLFOHVUXQIRUSURĆWEXW,VHHWKDWWKLV isn’t an easy choice for many early career researchers. Experience goals Junior academics only have a limited amount of time to do research, write and publish their work where it can be counted toward REF, while academics seeking promotion need to be able to present published work in readiness for the appointment process, or they stand to wait another year for the work to count toward their job prospects. Therefore publishing in a transparent, easy way to navigate, while demonstrating fair play is important to me. What frustrates me The nature of academic employment is changing. There are more researchers than there WANTS TO BE THE BEST MENTOR “I know early career researchers are under so much pressure so I try and mentor and support them the best I can.” I’ve been a Reader for several years now. I use my publishing experiences to help junior members of my group because I know the pressure on them to publish in order to get a job has never been greater. I use every opportunity to push them to network and to publish in relevant publications. What motivates me I get a lot of satisfaction from helping early career researchers develop their reputation and their academic skills. My experiences as a PostDoc researcher left me feeling that there should be more guidance for young academics. I want to provide this guidance by demonstrating not just what to do but also how and when to do work. Where I want to get to I want to improve academia. I want research to be judged on its own merits not on the vechile of distrubution. I recommend Open Access publishing over publishers who make a SURĆWEXW,VHHWKDWWKLVLVQèWDQHDV\FKRLFHIRUPDQ\HDUO\FDUHHUUHVHDUFKHUV I believe I can amplify change by mentoring people and guiding the next generation of academics. My approach Junior academics only have a limited amount of time to do research, write and publish their work where it can be counted toward REF. Academics seeking promotion need to be able to present published work in time for the appointment process. If they’re not ready they have to wait another year for the work to count toward their job prospects. Once it didn’t matter WKDWWKHSHHUUHYLHZSURFHVVWRRNDQXQVSHFLĆIHGOHQJWKRIWLPHQRZLWèVYLWDOWRNQRZKRZ long the process will take and be able to rely on that. A quick, consistent publishing process which supports researchers’ goals is important. Publishing in a transparent, easy to navigate way, while demonstrating fair play is important to me. What frustrates me Christine, 49 INFLUENCES AND MOTIVATIONS REF Strategic Focussed Broadcast Emergent PUBLISHING APPROACH KEY CHARACTERISTICS Shares her experience widely Actively seeks new technologies Structured work to deadlines College position: N/A Departmental position: Reader Discipline: Mathematics Style of work: Group Published: Journals, books, conferences BACKGROUND INFORMATION Christine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èWZDQWWKHPWRGLFWDWHKRZP\ZRUN OGEHWKHUHWRVHUYHPH,UHFHQWO\FKRVHDQ PXFKPRUHWUDQVSDUHQWDQGIDVWHU DGHPLFVWRGD\,WIUXVWUDWHVPHWKDWFDUHHUV PHDVXUHPHQWVOLNHLPSDFWIDFWRUZKLFKUHDOO\ GIRUFHWKHPWREHKDYHLQZD\VWKDWGRQèW ,1)/8(1&(6$1'027,9$7,216 5() 6WUDWHJLF )RFXVVHG %URDGFDVW (PHUJHQW 38%/,6+,1*$3352$&+ .(<&+$5$&7(5,67,&6 5HDFKHVRXWWRWKHZRUOG $FWLYHO\EORJV &RQQHFWVWKURXJKVRFLDOPHGLD &ROOHJHSRVLWLRQSenior fellow 'HSDUWPHQWDOSRVLWLRQN/A 'LVFLSOLQHChemistry 6W\OHRIZRUNGroup 3XEOLVKHGJournal, book, conference, blog, Twitter %$&.*5281',1)250$7,21 Ivan STRATEGIC EMERGENT FOCUSED BROADCAST “I want to be the expert that people ORRNWRZKHQWKH\WKLQNRIP\ĆHOG 5HDFKLQJWKHULJKWDXGLHQFHLVNH\ë WANTS TO BE THE EXPERT $VDSURIHVVRUZLWKDORWRIH[SHULHQFH,ZDQWWRJHWUHFRJQLVHGIRU P\ZRUNDQGJHWUHZDUGHGZLWKIXQGLQJ0\UHSXWDWLRQLV HYHU\WKLQJ :KDWPRWLYDWHVPH ,ZDQWWRJHWUHFRJQLVHGIRUP\H[SHUWLVHDQGUDLVHWKHSURĆOHRIWKHGHSDUWPHQWLQ DFDGHPLFFLUFOHVDQGWKHFRPPHUFLDOVHFWRU7KLVKHOSVXVVHFXUHDGGLWLRQDOLQGXVWU\ IXQGLQJDQGJHWVPRUHSHRSOHLQWKHGHSDUWPHQWYDOXDEOHH[SRVXUH,IRFXVDORWRIHIIRUWRQ P\UHVHDUFKJURXSZKLFKFRQWLQXHVWRUHFHLYHH[FHOOHQWIXQGLQJ+DYLQJDJRRGWUDFN UHFRUGRIZLQQLQJJUDQWVLVJUHDWIRUP\FDUHHU Where I want to get to 0\FDUHHUDQGUHSXWDWLRQPHDQVHYHU\WKLQJWRPH,UHJXODUO\FRQVXOWLQLQGXVWU\DQGZDV WKULOOHGWREHDVNHGWRDSSHDURQ4XHVWLRQ7LPHDQG5DGLRODVW\HDU*HWWLQJP\ZRUN SLFNHGXSE\DELJQHZVSDSHULVP\QH[WJRDO 0\DSSURDFK ,KDYHHVWDEOLVKHGUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKSXEOLVKHUV0\ZRUNQHHGVWREHUHDGE\WKHULJKW SHRSOHDQGWKDWPHDQVJRLQJWRWKHULJKWSXEOLVKHU,GRQèWOLNHWROHDYHSXEOLVKLQJWRFKDQFH LWèVWRRLPSRUWDQW,SXEOLVKUHJXODUO\EXWUHFHQWO\GHFLGHGWRFRQFHQWUDWHRQZULWLQJERRNV DVWKHLULPSDFWLVJUHDWHUIRUERWKP\UHSXWDWLRQDQGWKHGHSDUWPHQW ,UHFHQWO\VWDUWHGXVLQJVRFLDOPHGLDWRSURPRWHP\ZRUNDQGLGHDVRQP\EORJ,FDQVHHLW KDGDSRVLWLYHHIIHFWIRUWUDFNLQJFLWDWLRQVDQGLPSDFWIDFWRUEXW,GRQèWZDQWWRVKDUHWRR RSHQO\\HW,WKLQNLWèVLPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHLQIRUPDWLRQLVXQGHUVWRRGLQFRQWH[W,èYHEHHQ EXUQHGE\MRXUQDOLVWVVKDULQJTXRWHVRXWRIFRQWH[WEHIRUHDQG,ZDQWDKDUGFRS\7KH\DUH PRUHWDQJLEOHDQGSURWHFWPHLIWKHRQOLQHYHUVLRQGLVVDSSHDUV :KDWIUXVWUDWHVPH 3XEOLVKHGDUWLFOHVQHHGWKHULJRUSHHUUHYLHZVJLYHWKHPEXW,èPWLUHGRIWKHSHHUUHYLHZ SURFHVVWDNLQJVRORQJ,QHHGWRNQRZZKHQP\ZRUNZLOOEHUHDG -XOLD  ,1)/8(1&(6$1'027,9$7,216 5() 6WUDWHJLF )RFXVVHG %URDGFDVW (PHUJHQW 38%/,6+,1*$3352$&+ .(<&+$5$&7(5,67,&6 0DUNHWVKHUVHOIWRLQGXVWU\ 2UJDQLVHVDFDGHPLFQHWZRUNV 6HHNVH[WHUQDOUHVSHFW &ROOHJHSRVLWLRQN/A 'HSDUWPHQWDOSRVLWLRQProfessor 'LVFLSOLQHHistory and Philosophy of Science 6W\OHRIZRUNGroup 3XEOLVKHGJournals, books, conferences, media %$&.*5281',1)250$7,21 Julia STRATEGIC EMERGENT FOCUSED BROADCAST “I’ve been working on this project for 15 years but I only sat down to write the book 3 months ago.” WANTS TO EXPLORE HIS FIELD I’ve been a professor for 5 years now. I’ve had opportunities that have led to my appointments, but I feel they’ve mostly occurred as a result of the work that I’ve carried out, not through planning. What motivates me I thrive on exploring every last detail and nuance of my area of study. It’s the most important part of my academic life. Of course, I’d like it if my work made a difference to other people, but I don’t let that affect what I do. I do research for it’s own sake. Where I want to get to ,èPGULYHQE\WKLVQHHGWRXQGHUVWDQGHYHU\WKLQJDERXWP\ĆHOG,WèVDVLPSOHEXW delightfully unachievable goal. Nothing pleases me more than to hear a new idea or perspective that allows me to see my research in a new light and explore new paths. Talking about my research at conferences and as a lecturer help me to structure my thoughts and allows me to explore the language I use to describe and communicate my ideas. For me writing a monograph is just a way to document my work; I like to look at it as a part of the thinking process rather than a strategic way of publishing. My approach I really enjoy doing research and challenging my understanding of my subject. It provides PHZLWKDVHQVHRIFDOPQHVVDQGWUDQTXLOLW\ZKLFK,GRQèWĆQGDQ\ZKHUHHOVH3XEOLVKLQJLV an intrusion on my research and it can take a long time. Over the years I have developed my own personal ways of working. They suit me, but I don’t think these are necessarily transferable to junior academics, and I’ve never really thought abuot my publishing strategy in much detail. What frustrates me 0\ZRUNGRHVQèWDOZD\VĆWLQWRWKHVWUXFWXUHVRUSURFHVVHVSUHVFULEHGE\WKHLQVWLWXWLRQ Having to go through the publishing process is often just an extra chore; I want to spend my Roger, 56 INFLUENCES AND MOTIVATIONS REF Strategic Focussed Broadcast Emergent 38%/,6+,1*$3352$&+ KEY CHARACTERISTICS Doesn’t share until he’s ready Focus on discipline, not department :RUNćH[LEO\ZLWKIHZGHDGOLQHV College position: N/A Departmental position: Professor Discipline: Philosophy Style of work: solo 3XEOLVKHGbooks, conferences, seminars %$&.*5281',1)250$7,21 Roger STRATEGIC EMERGENT FOCUSED BROADCAST
  20. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN 04_ New collaborator CLOSENESS RECIPROCITY COMMITMENT

    ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED
  21. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN The research pipeline

  22. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Post-publication The work has been published

    With the publishers The work is submitted to the peer review process Genesis & Pre-publication Triggers, hypotheses, research, writing, speaking, preparation and submission to a publisher Pitching a monograph based on a PhD Solo reseacher activities Research & publishing experience map What academics do from genesis to publication of research Change the world My goal is to reach and affect the widest possible audience, including the public, policy makers, industry as well as academics. My attitudes and publishing strategies reflect this goal. Excellent mentor My goal is to provide the best possible foundation of experience and skills for the researchers whom I have responsibility for. My attitudes and publishing strategies reflect this goal. The expert My goal is to become the acknowledged expert in my field, the benefits accrued through this will permeate throughout my department and discipline. My attitudes and publishing strategies reflect this goal. Explore my field My goal is to explore my field. The process of discovery and refining my proposition is everything to me. Publishing as such, is not central to my work and my attitudes and publishing strategies reflect this. This is the opportunity to follow my interests Relinquishing control of work Pay APC Monitor the works effects Watch the metrics e.g. Academia.edu View followers View citations Include work in CV Appointments and career development Maintain list of published work Follow academic metric e.g. Impact Factor Collate material for REF statement Research Excellence Framework Establish ownership of work Publishing work to get a job Publishing work to get a promotion Research group activities stem Research is initiated Collaborative activities e.g. internal reviews The problem Problems are formulated Writing and development Keep notes and drafts Rewrite / Redraft Publish to establish ownership Selecting appropriate publishing unit e.g. book, article Selection of language Assimilate new input to your existing mental model A request for a contribution or to speak Broaden idea base at a conference Communicating with immediate peers Discipline groups Structuring the ideas into chapters Rewrite / Redraft Manage junior researchers writing tasks Upload to publisher e.g. manuscript central Negotiate & agree contract with publisher Send example work e.g. working paper or chapter Conference presentation to refine ideas and language Consider merit of sharing prior to publication Publish data sets / image sets Triggers Research genesis Personal research over a lifetime: Assimilate new input to your existing mental model. The line between research genesis and maturation is indistinct. Research maturation Ideas are collected continuously e.g. notebooks A new perspective on an existing idea New funding becomes available Existing research is extended Formal literature review Funds are actively sought to fund an idea Problems are fully understood Doing the research Sharing during research Assimilate new input to your existing mental model (Note: this never stops) Writing and trying ideas out: The filtering process is an external distributed process Arranging seminars Gaining input from seminars Arranging a specific conference Communicating with peers e.g. departmental, discipline Recording notes, data and technical information Preparing for publication e.g.LaTeX Technical reports Collected data Thinking really really hard Organise publication Prior to submission Organise publication Negotiate & agree contract with publisher Communicate with publisher / editor Sharing prior to submission Upload to publisher e.g. manuscript central Sharing prior to submission Continue to explore topic via a seminar Teaching Departmental activities Organising PostDoc / JRF researchers Manage / monitor group activity Organise group work e.g. who writes what Existing research groups Selection of journal or publishing house Consider Impact or the need to publish A new grant opens Drawing on external ideas and views Choosing and inviting attendees Planning the group Creating a new research group Initiating the new group Establishing the new group Review peer review comments Respond to comments Revise the work Choose another publishing outlet Revision / Resubmission Editorial rejection Infer who the reviewers are Build relationship with an editor Editorial / Peer review process Publish to a personal website Publish to a departmental website Publish to a specialist website Conference presentation to establish ownership Prior to publication Sharing prior to publication Sharing prior to publication Publish to a specialist website Peer reviewed publication process Relinquishing control Pay APC Post publication Contributing to the REF business case Monitor the works effects Watch the metrics e.g. Academia.edu View followers View citations Follow academic metric e.g. Impact Factor Appointments and career development Research Excellence Framework Include work in CV Maintain list of published work Collate material for REF statement Publishing work to get a new job Publishing work to get a promotion Contributing to the REF business case Emotional engagement University Organisational touchpoints External funding organisations Publishing houses Online repositories & archives ⁃ Funding councils ⁃ Independent funding bodies ⁃ Industry investment ⁃ Research office ⁃ Department ⁃ administrator ⁃ email ⁃ telephone call ⁃ Human Resources ⁃ Teaching work ⁃ University procurement ⁃ E.g. Academia.edu, SSRN ⁃ Organising writing sabbatical SOLO ⁃ Collaborative conference or seminar SOLO ⁃ Enterprise advice External organisations stem ⁃ Patent consultancy ⁃ Patent lawyers stem ⁃ Publishing negotiations ⁃ Departmental website team stem SOLO ⁃ APC payments Research Office ⁃ Rights owners SOLO ⁃ Reject ⁃ Review ⁃ Discuss ⁃ Seek extra funds ⁃ Posting to repository stem ⁃ Departmental website team ⁃ Posting torepository ⁃ Department REF admin ⁃ REF assessment ⁃ Department ⁃ HR ⁃ Personal website ⁃ Academic tools e.g. Symplectic ⁃ Proof of open access ⁃ Monitor metrics + _ Collaborative proposals take so much time Research, this is what it's all about Pitching work to publishers is really hard Publishing decisions are hard solo PhD SOLO Publishing decisions are hard stem I love to share my work I don't like to let go Rejection isn't nice I love to share my work REF is such a pressure Everything depends on where I publish JRF AHSS stem Formulate and write proposal and budget Present or defend proposal Proposal review process REF - pressure to publish Teaching Departmental activities Organising PostDoc / JRF researchers Ideas are filtered through group peers stem Ideas are filtered through group peers stem REF - pressure to publish Solo Publish to establish ownership Solo Solo Individual research STEM STEM research Establish ownership of work e e e e e e e e e Extrinsically motivated e Intrinsically motivated i e Publish to a departmental website e Publish to a personal website i e To receive royalty payments e Solo Conference presentation to establish ownership e Share data sets / image sets STEM e i e Continue to explore via seminar i Solo STEM e e e e e e e e e e e e e e AH AH research Source copyright material e.g. images Arrange permission for copyright material Pay for copyright material Find funding for copyright images Solo Solo i STEM e Supply work to publisher Receive publication time plan Upload to publisher e.g. manuscript central Supply work to publisher Receive publication time plan Map out next steps based on publication timetable Map out next steps based on publication timetable Map out next steps based on publication timetable Early interaction with publisher Solo STEM e e i i i Business strategy Patent application Seek advise STEM stem stem stem Discuss ideas with a publisher Early interaction with publisher Solo Determine publishing strategy Formulate and write proposal and budget Communicate proposal Present or defend proposal Proposal review process Great to see the research having an effect ! ! Pain point ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 'harvesting' journal articles from a PhD thesis ! ! ⁃ email ⁃ telephone call SOLO ⁃ Collaborative conference or seminar SOLO Communicate with publisher / editor Upload to publisher e.g. manuscript central ! ! Determine publishing strategy Consider merit of sharing prior to publication Selection of journal or publishing house based on knowledge of audience Selection of journal or publishing house based on metric or prestige Selecting appropriate publishing unit e.g. book, article Generate multiple papers during the research ! PhD Junior academic stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO stem SOLO Correct errors created by the publisher ! ! ! Map out next steps based on publication timetable ! ! 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 2 9 Notes about pain points (an * indicates that the pain point is a duplicate for solo and group based research) 1 Pitching a monograph based on a PhD. PhD students and PostDoc researchers feel intense pressure to publish their thesis through a prestigious publisher or journal. Usually as a monograph (AHSS) or extracting papers for journals (STEM) * 2 REF pressure. Academics, particularly those in the early stages of their career, feel a compelling pressure to publish material. Anecdotally, their publishing related strategies appear skewed toward quantity of publications, rather than fewer with more cohesive narratives. 3 Map out next steps based on publication timetable. Reliable publication timescales appear to be rare. Understanding when work will be released publicly is essential to the planning of future publications, next steps in research, appointments, promotions, REF and grant applications to name but a few instances. Note: new publishers e.g. Openbook and eLife have differentiated themselves by focussing on providing reliable publishing timescales. 4 Determine publishing strategy How, when, where and what to publish is a complex decision. Factors include: the status of the topic in the wider academic community, the perceived impact of the work, the need to publish, the desired audience, timing in relation to similar work and the presentation style. Note: Early career academics are rarely able to practice this decision making process. Additionally, the complete range of factors determining the outcome of a publishing decision have not been identified in this study. Research to Identify the range of factors is highly recommended. 5 Pay for copyright material. The type and amount of material nor the final publication media are know in advance of completing work, making it hard to plan for and fund licensing copyright material. Open Access publication models will complicate this as volume may not be prescribed in the initial contract. 6 Pay APC (after acceptance). The tasks and responsibilities surrounding the organisation, management and payment of APC charges are confusing and surrounded by myth and rumour. Adoption of and engagement with Open Access is hindered by anxiety centred around loss of academic autonomy. 10 Appointments and career development. Peoples approach to publishing varies between fatalism and optimistic determination. PostDoc and early career academics perceive an unequivocal link between the prestige of the publisher or journal and their career. The current publishing system is opaque, complex and changing rapidly. The success of their career hangs on publishing early, frequently and for maximum prestige. The decisions that lead to publishing are difficult to judge there are opportunities to more junior academics make these decisions better whatever their attitude is to begin with. 7 Negotiate & agree contract with publisher. The publishing landscape has changed substantially since senior academics learnt their negotiating skills. The established processes of sharing wisdom and skills with junior academics has been overturned. Contract negotiation is now tackled with little opportunity for rehearsal. People are apprehensive about their legal position regarding their work and their responsibility to Open Access. 8 Publish to a departmental website. People will always take the path of least resistance to complete a task, particularly tasks where the value to the individual is perceived as minimal e.g. engaging with university / departmental IT services to update webpages or adopting 'new' services like DSpace. People around the university are inundated with information, services and requests for help where the value to the individual is hard to see. The case for using services needs to be coupled to value and aligned to a path of low resistance. 9 Research Excellence Framework. Everyone is completing the REF for the first time and therefore it's not well understood. Lack of understanding breeds disquiet and myths are advanced. Politically, it appears, the REF should be deplored, leading to an increased circulation of REF myths. ê,SXEOLVKQRZWRLQćXHQFHWKHZRUOG QRWWRLQćXHQFHP\FDUHHU,MXVWZDQW WREHUHDGë WANTS TO CHANGE THE WORLD ,EHFDPHDVHQLRUIHOORZ\HDUVDJR(DUOLHULQP\FDUHHU, FRQVLGHUHGTXLWWLQJDVP\GHVLUHWRGRWKHULJKWWKLQJDQGVKDUHP\ NQRZOHGJHFRQćLFWHGZLWKP\SXEOLVKLQJREOLJDWLRQV :KDWPRWLYDWHVPH 0\ZRUNLVDQH[WHQVLRQRIP\EHOLHIWKDW,VKRXOGWU\WRPDNHWKHZRUOGDEHWWHUSODFH SXEOLVKLQJLVRQO\DPHDQVWRDQHQG :KHUH,ZDQWWRJHWWR ,ZDQWWRFKDQJHWKHZRUOGVRLWèVLPSRUWDQWWRPHWREHZLGHO\UHDGDQGNQRZSHRSOHDUH UHDGLQJDQGPDNLQJXVHRIP\UHVHDUFKDQGLGHDV0\EORJ7ZLWWHUDQG$FDGHPLDHGXKHOS PHXQGHUVWDQGVRPHRIWKHUHDFKDQGLPSDFWRIP\ZRUN 0\DSSURDFK ,NQRZKRZWRSXEOLVK,èYHEHHQGRLQJLWIRUWKHEHVWSDUWRIP\OLIH$WWKLVVWDJHLQP\ FDUHHU,KDYHWKHIUHHGRPWRSXEOLVKP\ZRUNWRKDYHWKHJUHDWHVWLPSDFWRQWKHJUHDWHVW QXPEHURISHRSOHZKLFKLVQèWQHFHVVDULO\WKURXJKDSUHVWLJLRXVWUDGLWLRQDOMRXUQDO ,DFWLYHO\EORJDERXWP\ZRUN,KDYHDODUJHDXGLHQFHRQ7ZLWWHUDQG,HQMR\UHDGLQJDQG UHSO\LQJWRFRPPHQWV,OLNHWKDWGLUHFWLQWHUDFWLRQDQGNQRZLQJKRZPDQ\SHRSOHDUH VHHLQJDQGKRSHIXOO\UHDGLQJP\ZRUN,DOZD\VFRQVLGHUZKR,ZDQWWRUHDFKDQGKRZZHOO UHDGDPHGLXPLVZKHQGHFLGLQJZKHUHWRSXEOLVK :KDWIUXVWUDWHVPH ,èPIUXVWUDWHGE\WKHVSHHGDQGDPELJXLW\HVWDEOLVKHGSXEOLVKHUVRSHUDWHDWDQGWKHLU XQZLOOLQJQHVVWRGLVWULEXWHP\ZRUNPRUHZLGHO\,GRQèWZDQWWKHPWRGLFWDWHKRZP\ZRUN LVSXEOLVKHGDQGGLVWULEXWHG3XEOLVKHUVVKRXOGEHWKHUHWRVHUYHPH,UHFHQWO\FKRVHDQ 2SHQ$FFHVVSXEOLVKHUDQGIRXQGWKH\ZHUHPXFKPRUHWUDQVSDUHQWDQGIDVWHU ,èPQRWXQGHUWKHVDPHSUHVVXUHDV\RXQJDFDGHPLFVWRGD\,WIUXVWUDWHVPHWKDWFDUHHUV DQGDSSRLQWPHQWVDUHRIWHQGHWHUPLQHGE\PHDVXUHPHQWVOLNHLPSDFWIDFWRUZKLFKUHDOO\ OLPLWMXQLRUDFDGHPLFVSXEOLVKLQJFKRLFHVDQGIRUFHWKHPWREHKDYHLQZD\VWKDWGRQèW VXSSRUWWKHLUUHDOJRDOVDQGEHOLHIV :KDW,WKLQNDERXW2SHQ$FFHVV ,EHOLHYHLQ2SHQ$FFHVVDVLWDOORZVSHRSOHZKRZRXOGQèWRUGLQDULO\UHDGP\ZRUNWRDFFHVV LW6KDULQJP\UHVHDUFKZLGHO\LQFUHDVHVLWèVYDOXHWRWKHZRUOGDQGRIFRXUVHLWèVWKHULJKW WKLQJWRGR+RZHYHU,èPDQ[LRXVWKDWWKHRSHQDFFHVVPRGHOSURSRVHGE\WKH5&8.PD\ GLVUXSWP\IUHHGRPWRSXUVXHLQWHUHVWVSXEOLVKDQGGLVWULEXWHLQWKHZD\,ZDQW :K\DUHWKH\DFKDOOHQJH" ,YDQUHVSHFWVWKHIUHHGRPWKH8QLYHUVLW\SURYLGHVEXWIHHOVWKHVHIUHHGRPVDUHXQGHU WKUHDWDVWKHDFDGHPLFZRUOGFKDQJHV+HQHHGVUHJXODUUHOHYDQWFRPPXQLFDWLRQWRDOOD\ WKRVHIHDUV ,YDQ 62 ,1)/8(1&(6$1'027,9$7,216 5() 6WDWXVTXR 6HHNVFUHGLW ,QćXHQFHWKHZRUOG 0HQWRUMXQLRUV ([SORUHĆHOG 7HFKQRORJ\XVH &DUHHU 6WUDWHJLF )RFXVVHG %URDGFDVW (PHUJHQW 38%/,6+,1*$3352$&+ .(<&+$5$&7(5,67,&6 5HDFKHVRXWWRWKHZRUOG $FWLYHO\EORJV &RQQHFWVWKURXJKVRFLDOPHGLD &ROOHJHSRVLWLRQSenior fellow 'HSDUWPHQWDOSRVLWLRQN/A 'LVFLSOLQHChemistry 6W\OHRIZRUNGroup 3XEOLVKHGJournal, book, conference, blog, Twitter %$&.*5281',1)250$7,21 I’ve been a senior lecturer for many years now. I try to use my publishing experiences to help junior members of my team because I know that the pressure on them is more intense than it used to be. I use every opportunity to push them to network and to publish in relevant publications. What motivates me Setting aside my life commitment to research, I get most satisfaction from helping early career researchers develop their reputation and their academic skills. I want to improve academia simply because I recognise that there are limited opportunities to learn from mistakes. The publishing landscape is too complex and the stakes are too high for it to be left to chance. Where I want to get to My experiences of academia as a PostDoc researcher left me feeling that there should be more guidance for young academics by demonstrating not just what to do but also how to and when to do work. A quick, consistent publishing process while supporting researchers’ goals is important. I want to amplify change through academia by mentoring people and guiding the next generation of academics. Therefore I recommend Open Access publishing LQDOOLWVIRUPVRYHUSXEOLVKLQJWKURXJKSXEOLVKLQJYHKLFOHVUXQIRUSURĆWEXW,VHHWKDWWKLV isn’t an easy choice for many early career researchers. Experience goals Junior academics only have a limited amount of time to do research, write and publish their work where it can be counted toward REF, while academics seeking promotion need to be able to present published work in readiness for the appointment process, or they stand to wait another year for the work to count toward their job prospects. Therefore publishing in a transparent, easy way to navigate, while demonstrating fair play is important to me. What frustrates me The nature of academic employment is changing. There are more researchers than there are permanent academic positions. The pressure on them to publish in order to get a job has never been greater. The publishing decisions that a junior researcher makes will have profound effects on the direction and success of their career. The decision making process is complex, factors like where to publish, when to share publicly, how to best present the work are poorly understood at the beginning of a career, and on top of that they’re poorly communicated. What I think about Open Access I’m concerned that the RCUKs proposal for Open Access will lead to a ‘committee’ having control over what is deemed acceptable research. The advent of Open Access will change the environment again and will need to be incorporated into graduate training too and that will change the strategies for publishing. WANTS TO BE THE BEST MENTOR “I know early career researchers are under so much pressure so I try and mentor and support them the best I can.” I’ve been a Reader for several years now. I use my publishing experiences to help junior members of my group because I know the pressure on them to publish in order to get a job has never been greater. I use every opportunity to push them to network and to publish in relevant publications. What motivates me I get a lot of satisfaction from helping early career researchers develop their reputation and their academic skills. My experiences as a PostDoc researcher left me feeling that there should be more guidance for young academics. I want to provide this guidance by demonstrating not just what to do but also how and when to do work. Where I want to get to I want to improve academia. I want research to be judged on its own merits not on the vechile of distrubution. I recommend Open Access publishing over publishers who make a SURĆWEXW,VHHWKDWWKLVLVQèWDQHDV\FKRLFHIRUPDQ\HDUO\FDUHHUUHVHDUFKHUV I believe I can amplify change by mentoring people and guiding the next generation of academics. My approach Junior academics only have a limited amount of time to do research, write and publish their work where it can be counted toward REF. Academics seeking promotion need to be able to present published work in time for the appointment process. If they’re not ready they have to wait another year for the work to count toward their job prospects. Once it didn’t matter WKDWWKHSHHUUHYLHZSURFHVVWRRNDQXQVSHFLĆIHGOHQJWKRIWLPHQRZLWèVYLWDOWRNQRZKRZ long the process will take and be able to rely on that. A quick, consistent publishing process which supports researchers’ goals is important. Publishing in a transparent, easy to navigate way, while demonstrating fair play is important to me. What frustrates me The nature of academic employment is changing. There are more researchers than there are permanent academic positions. The publishing decisions that a junior researcher makes will have profound effects on the direction and success of their career. The decision making process is complex, knowing where to publish, when to share publicly and how to best present your work are poorly understood at the beginning of a career. On top of that they’re poorly communicated. What I think about Open Access I’m concerned that the RCUKs proposal for Open Access will lead to a ‘committee’ having control over what is deemed acceptable research. The advent of Open Access will change the environment again and will need to be incorporated into graduate training too and that will change the strategies for publishing. Christine, 49 INFLUENCES AND MOTIVATIONS REF Status quo Seeks credit ,QćXHQFHWKHZRUOG Mentor juniors ([SORUHĆHOG Technology use Career Strategic Focussed Broadcast Emergent PUBLISHING APPROACH KEY CHARACTERISTICS Shares her experience widely Actively seeks new technologies Structured work to deadlines College position: N/A Departmental position: Reader Discipline: Mathematics Style of work: Group Published: Journals, books, conferences BACKGROUND INFORMATION “I want to be the expert that people ORRNWRZKHQWKH\WKLQNRIP\ĆHOG 5HDFKLQJWKHULJKWDXGLHQFHLVNH\ë WANTS TO BE THE EXPERT $VDSURIHVVRUZLWKDORWRIH[SHULHQFH,ZDQWWRJHWUHFRJQLVHGIRU P\ZRUNDQGJHWUHZDUGHGZLWKIXQGLQJ0\UHSXWDWLRQLV HYHU\WKLQJ :KDWPRWLYDWHVPH ,ZDQWWRJHWUHFRJQLVHGIRUP\H[SHUWLVHDQGUDLVHWKHSURĆOHRIWKHGHSDUWPHQWLQ DFDGHPLFFLUFOHVDQGWKHFRPPHUFLDOVHFWRU7KLVKHOSVXVVHFXUHDGGLWLRQDOLQGXVWU\ IXQGLQJDQGJHWVPRUHSHRSOHLQWKHGHSDUWPHQWYDOXDEOHH[SRVXUH,IRFXVDORWRIHIIRUWRQ P\UHVHDUFKJURXSZKLFKFRQWLQXHVWRUHFHLYHH[FHOOHQWIXQGLQJ+DYLQJDJRRGWUDFN UHFRUGRIZLQQLQJJUDQWVLVJUHDWIRUP\FDUHHU Where I want to get to 0\FDUHHUDQGUHSXWDWLRQPHDQVHYHU\WKLQJWRPH,UHJXODUO\FRQVXOWLQLQGXVWU\DQGZDV WKULOOHGWREHDVNHGWRDSSHDURQ4XHVWLRQ7LPHDQG5DGLRODVW\HDU*HWWLQJP\ZRUN SLFNHGXSE\DELJQHZVSDSHULVP\QH[WJRDO 0\DSSURDFK ,KDYHHVWDEOLVKHGUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKSXEOLVKHUV0\ZRUNQHHGVWREHUHDGE\WKHULJKW SHRSOHDQGWKDWPHDQVJRLQJWRWKHULJKWSXEOLVKHU,GRQèWOLNHWROHDYHSXEOLVKLQJWRFKDQFH LWèVWRRLPSRUWDQW,SXEOLVKUHJXODUO\EXWUHFHQWO\GHFLGHGWRFRQFHQWUDWHRQZULWLQJERRNV DVWKHLULPSDFWLVJUHDWHUIRUERWKP\UHSXWDWLRQDQGWKHGHSDUWPHQW ,UHFHQWO\VWDUWHGXVLQJVRFLDOPHGLDWRSURPRWHP\ZRUNDQGLGHDVRQP\EORJ,FDQVHHLW KDGDSRVLWLYHHIIHFWIRUWUDFNLQJFLWDWLRQVDQGLPSDFWIDFWRUEXW,GRQèWZDQWWRVKDUHWRR RSHQO\\HW,WKLQNLWèVLPSRUWDQWWKDWWKHLQIRUPDWLRQLVXQGHUVWRRGLQFRQWH[W,èYHEHHQ EXUQHGE\MRXUQDOLVWVVKDULQJTXRWHVRXWRIFRQWH[WEHIRUHDQG,ZDQWDKDUGFRS\7KH\DUH PRUHWDQJLEOHDQGSURWHFWPHLIWKHRQOLQHYHUVLRQGLVVDSSHDUV :KDWIUXVWUDWHVPH 3XEOLVKHGDUWLFOHVQHHGWKHULJRUSHHUUHYLHZVJLYHWKHPEXW,èPWLUHGRIWKHSHHUUHYLHZ SURFHVVWDNLQJVRORQJ,QHHGWRNQRZZKHQP\ZRUNZLOOEHUHDG What I think about2SHQ$FFHVV 7KHFXUUHQWV\VWHPZRUNVSHUIHFWO\ZHOODQG,GRQèWVHHZK\ZHQHHGWRFKDQJH,èP DSSUHKHQVLYHDERXW2SHQ$FFHVV,èPZRUULHGSHRSOHZLOOWDNHP\PDWHULDORXWRIFRQWH[W DQGORVHLWèVPHDQLQJ:KHQNQRZOHGJHLVIUHHO\DYDLODEOHSHRSOHGRQèWUHVSHFWLWDVPXFK ,èPDQ[LRXVDERXWOLFHQVLQJLPDJHV$UUDQJLQJOLFHQVLQJDQGSD\LQJIRUWKHPLVDOZD\VD FKRUH7KHUHLVYHU\OLWWOHKHOSDQGLWDOOJHWVDORWPRUHFRPSOH[ZLWK2SHQ$FFHVV Why are they a challenge? -XOLDKDVHQWUHQFKHGSXEOLVKLQJVWUDWHJLHVDQGHVWDEOLVKHGUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKSXEOLVKHUV ,QWURGXFLQJQHZPHWKRGVZLOOEHPHWZLWKUHVLVWDQFH6KHQHHGVWRNQRZVKHFDQVWLOO DFKLHYHKHUJRDOVDQGPHHW5&8.FRPSOLDQFHZLWK2SHQ$FFHVV -XOLD  ,1)/8(1&(6$1'027,9$7,216 5() 6WDWXVTXR 6HHNVFUHGLW ,QćXHQFHWKHZRUOG 0HQWRUMXQLRUV ([SORUHĆHOG 7HFKQRORJ\XVH &DUHHU 6WUDWHJLF )RFXVVHG %URDGFDVW (PHUJHQW 38%/,6+,1*$3352$&+ .(<&+$5$&7(5,67,&6 0DUNHWVKHUVHOIWRLQGXVWU\ 2UJDQLVHVDFDGHPLFQHWZRUNV 6HHNVH[WHUQDOUHVSHFW &ROOHJHSRVLWLRQN/A 'HSDUWPHQWDOSRVLWLRQProfessor 'LVFLSOLQHHistory and Philosophy of Science 6W\OHRIZRUNGroup 3XEOLVKHGJournals, books, conferences, media %$&.*5281',1)250$7,21 “I’ve been working on this project for 15 years but I only sat down to write the book 3 months ago.” WANTS TO EXPLORE HIS FIELD I’ve been a professor for 5 years now. I’ve had opportunities that have led to my appointments, but I feel they’ve mostly occurred as a result of the work that I’ve carried out, not through planning. What motivates me I thrive on exploring every last detail and nuance of my area of study. It’s the most important part of my academic life. Of course, I’d like it if my work made a difference to other people, but I don’t let that affect what I do. I do research for it’s own sake. Where I want to get to ,èPGULYHQE\WKLVQHHGWRXQGHUVWDQGHYHU\WKLQJDERXWP\ĆHOG,WèVDVLPSOHEXW delightfully unachievable goal. Nothing pleases me more than to hear a new idea or perspective that allows me to see my research in a new light and explore new paths. Talking about my research at conferences and as a lecturer help me to structure my thoughts and allows me to explore the language I use to describe and communicate my ideas. For me writing a monograph is just a way to document my work; I like to look at it as a part of the thinking process rather than a strategic way of publishing. My approach I really enjoy doing research and challenging my understanding of my subject. It provides PHZLWKDVHQVHRIFDOPQHVVDQGWUDQTXLOLW\ZKLFK,GRQèWĆQGDQ\ZKHUHHOVH3XEOLVKLQJLV an intrusion on my research and it can take a long time. Over the years I have developed my own personal ways of working. They suit me, but I don’t think these are necessarily transferable to junior academics, and I’ve never really thought abuot my publishing strategy in much detail. What frustrates me 0\ZRUNGRHVQèWDOZD\VĆWLQWRWKHVWUXFWXUHVRUSURFHVVHVSUHVFULEHGE\WKHLQVWLWXWLRQ Having to go through the publishing process is often just an extra chore; I want to spend my time researching rather than reviewing and publishing. I add a lot of images to my publications which can be expensive and hard to estimate for at the beginning of a project. What I think about Open Access I’m concerned by any change to the publishing landscape. I don’t know much about Open Access, it’s confusing and I don’t see how it will be useful. There’s only a small group of SHRSOHLQWHUHVWHGLQP\VSHFLĆFĆHOGZKRRXWVLGHWKDWJURXSZLOOZDQWWRUHDGLW" I’m worried what effect Open Access will have on my publishing choices. How can a PRQRJUDSKEHPDGH2SHQ$FFHVVDQGZKRZLOOSD\IRULW":LOO,KDYHWRPDNHZRUNWKDW ZDVQèWIXQGHGE\DJUDQWDYDLODEOHWKURXJK2SHQ$FFHVV" Roger, 56 INFLUENCES AND MOTIVATIONS REF Status quo Seeks credit ,QćXHQFHWKHZRUOG Mentor juniors ([SORUHĆHOG Technology use Career Strategic Focussed Broadcast Emergent 38%/,6+,1*$3352$&+ KEY CHARACTERISTICS Doesn’t share until he’s ready Focus on discipline, not department :RUNćH[LEO\ZLWKIHZGHDGOLQHV College position: N/A Departmental position: Professor Discipline: Philosophy Style of work: solo 3XEOLVKHGbooks, conferences, seminars %$&.*5281',1)250$7,21 168 ACTIONS 2 DISTINCT PROCESSES
  23. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman solo or collaborative medium of discourse

    transparency necessity of external funding source of funding pace FRAMEWORK OF DISCIPLINE PUBLISHING CULTURES
  24. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman 7:00 8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00

    13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 6:00 Alecia Carter: early career, group researcher Junior Research Fellow at Churchill, works at Zoology. Research Group of 5 post docs and 2 PhD students Alecia Carter Research Teaching Admin Article has been rejected Day 2, Michaelmas Term Coffee with friends This is so cool! I really like this journal Teaching a practical as cover for a colleague Supervision of final year project No image available Pub with colleagues Chat with a colleague about a new type of analysis No image available Breakfast! Writing up comments on students and marking papers Seminar in the department No image available “I wish academia was more like science. Science is so idealistic. I hate the spinning stories, networking and nepotism and all the stuff that goes with academia” I really like talking about science and facilitating research This is a one off. Thankfully I don’t have to do any teaching normally He says it’s “not novel enough” - what a f**ker! No image available Emails Investigating a journal she might publish in Editing another article for resubmission Marking papers This is such a huge chunk out of my day It’s a really, really lovely group
  25. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TECHNICAL Find specific literature directly related

    to their current experiment or research project. POSITIONAL Find literature that supports an assertion or hypothesis to cite in a scholarly article or grant proposal. LANDSCAPE Keep up to date with the latest developments in their field for new ideas and the impact on their own research. The 3 goals of academic reading
  26. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman “Chemists are very satisfied with the

    available tools that allow them to search for articles, data, and other information, but they lack resources for maintaining awareness of the newest scholarship directly relevant to their interests, or for serendipitously discovering scholarship not previously understood to be related to their needs.” Matthew Long and Roger Schonfeld. "Supporting the Changing Research Practices of Chemists." Ithaka S+R. February 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.18665/sr.22561.
  27. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Academics exhibit 4 tactics for keeping

    up with their field: 01_ Established, RSS-based 02_ Notification-based 03_ Person-based 04_ Round-robin reading
  28. MODERN HUMAN Moving to design There comes a point in

    the process where you naturally transition from observing and understanding to using the insights and models you have identified to inspire ideas for design interventions.
  29. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMMERSE INSPIRE INVENT IMAGINE The 4

    modes of human-centred design can be applied strategically to choreograph the user experience.
  30. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons Attribution -

    No Derivatives (CC-BY-ND) license. This license allows for you and others to redistribute this presentation for commercial or non-commercial purposes, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole. When doing so you must acknowledge Modern Human. If in doubt, just ask us. We won’t bite. For more information on what you can do with the content and ideas in this presentation, please visit: http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nd/4.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro street, suite 900, Mountain view, California, 94041, USA. MODERN HUMAN Paul-Jervis Heath pjh@modernhuman.co +44 79 2983 9302 @pauljervisheath