Strategic Service Design for Libraries

15f2b8221f247985a27a627d2ece72f0?s=47 Paul-Jervis Heath
December 04, 2018

Strategic Service Design for Libraries

In this workshop, presented at the Library Assessment Conference 2018, Paul-Jervis Heath focused on applying service design strategically to library services. The workshop showed how service design can be used to invent new services based on deep understanding of library users’ changing needs or improve existing services to better deliver on the strategic priorities of the library.

The material draws on PJ's deep experience of service design in commercial settings and his studio’s work on FutureLib for Cambridge University Libraries. In the workshop he shares a series of case studies from retail, financial services, the public sector and the FutureLib programme to show how service design can be applied strategically in libraries. In a series of practical, hands-on activities the workshop covered:

* using innovative, ethnographic design research to understand library users’ latent needs;
* mapping users’ experiences of libraries;
* creating new library services;
* aligning services to strategic priorities;
* designing great customer service with service blueprints; and
* planning the delivery of future library services using service roadmaps.

Whilst the workshop won't make anyone a service design expert in a single-day, delegates will leave with an understanding of service design techniques (experience mapping, service blueprinting, service roadmaps). They will have applied service design techniques in a series of practical, hands-on activities. Delegates will be able to apply service design strategically in the library context.

15f2b8221f247985a27a627d2ece72f0?s=128

Paul-Jervis Heath

December 04, 2018
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Transcript

  1. STRATEGIC SERVICE DESIGN FOR LIBRARIES Library Assessment 2018 - Tuesday

    4 December 2018 MODERN HUMAN
  2. Paul-Jervis Heath Principal & Chief Designer Modern Human MODERN HUMAN

    http://modernhuman.co @modhuman
  3. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Strategic Service Design 01_ Introductions and

    icebreaker [15 mins] 02_ What is service design? [15 mins] 03_ Ethnographic design research: observing & interpreting [1 hour] 04_ Ethnographic design research: the art of the research question [1 hour] 05_ Developing insight: analysis [1 hour] 06_ Developing insight: storytelling & narrative [30 mins] 07_ Service blueprints [1 hour] 08_ Prototypes and pilots [1 hour]
  4. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman What is service design?

  5. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Service design is all about making

    the service you deliver useful, usable, efficient, effective and desirable. – The Design Council
  6. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman INDIFFERENCE USABLE (Hygiene Factors) DESIRABLE (Differentiators)

    Understandable Efficient Useful Compelling Indispensable ADVOCACY
  7. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman It’s not intangible or about the

    feeling you give customers or users. It's about actual things, which service designers call touchpoints. – The Design Council
  8. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TOUCHPOINT INTERACTION MECHANISMS PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT SOCIALITY

    TEMPO STAGE GOAL OR 
 DESIRED OUTCOME
  9. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman So, a service design project is

    a strategic project which uses design techniques like thorough customer research, collaborative idea generation and early stage prototyping to deliver services that are built around the real needs of customers, that simplify complex problems and deliver solutions that are future focused and cost conscious. – The Design Council
  10. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Touchpoint A point of interaction between

    a person and any agent or artefact of an organisation. These interactions take place at a certain point in time, in a certain context, and with the intention of meeting a specific customer need.
  11. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Channel A medium of interaction with

    customers or users. Print, the web, mobile, voice calls, and bricks & mortar locations are all common channels for reaching out to and interacting with customers. A channel defines the opportunities or constraints of a touchpoint.
  12. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMMERSE INSPIRE INVENT IMAGINE

  13. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMMERSE INSPIRE INVENT IMAGINE

  14. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Ethnographic Design Research Observing and Interpreting

  15. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Our ‘chimp brains’ The limbic system

    drives all our emotions and behaviour
  16. None
  17. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  18. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Shadowing Shadowing is one of the

    key design research methods we use at Modern Human, because it allows us to observe real behaviour. By directly observing participants we are able to get a deeper understanding of their needs.
  19. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Diary study The aim of a

    diary study is to record experiences, thoughts and activities over a period of time. It brings you as close as possible to your participants without actually being there.
  20. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Other ethnographic research methods _ Contextual

    Interviews _ Expert interviews _ Direct experience _ Analogous experiences _ Guided tours _ Cultural probes
  21. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Observing & interpreting Facilitation skills are

    important, but mastering observation and interpretation is essential
  22. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Your observation toolkit

  23. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman How to observe & interpret (1)

    _ Take down fieldnotes _ Describe what you can see and hear: the physical setting, the actions, behaviours and conversations of the people you’re observing _ Reflections on what you’re observing: your impressions, thoughts, ideas, critiques and questions about what you’re seeing and hearing. As well as your speculations about what might driving the behaviours and actions you’re seeing _ Take photographs: capture what you think is important about the space, and how people are behaving within it
  24. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman How to observe & interpret (2)

    _ Be accurate: note down rich descriptions about what you’re seeing and hearing; don’t rely on photographs to do this for you. _ Be subtle: people who sense they are being observed tend to adjust their behaviour
  25. None
  26. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Research What design research techniques would

    you use?
  27. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Ethnographic Design Research The art of

    the research question
  28. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Making a better first impression “How

    do people find inspiration for their holidays and what criteria do they use for choosing a holiday provider?”
  29. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN What are holidays 
 to our

    customers?
  30. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The lenses of inquiry: People PEOPLE

    EXPERIENCE CULTURE SOCIETY Discovery research Customer Experience Research _ What do people think about the subject of our research? _ What relevant mental models do they have? _ What are their perceived needs and how well are existing products and services addressing these? _ What relevant products, services and tools do they use? And what preferences do they have for these?
  31. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The lenses of inquiry: Experience _

    What’s their experience of the subject we’re researching? _ What approaches and strategies do they have for fulling their perceived needs? _ What’s predictable about what they do, and what’s unpredictable? _ How do their experiences shape how they think about the topic of our research? PEOPLE EXPERIENCE CULTURE SOCIETY Discovery research Customer Experience Research
  32. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The lenses of inquiry: Culture _

    How do they relate their experiences to the experiences of others they know? _ How do their experiences relate to their values and beliefs, and how has their cultural context shaped these values and beliefs? PEOPLE EXPERIENCE CULTURE SOCIETY Discovery research Customer Experience Research
  33. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The lenses of inquiry: Society _

    How do societal trends, public opinion, news media, and politics inflect their expectations and experiences of the topic we’re studying? _ How does society view their experiences, and what does that say about them? PEOPLE EXPERIENCE CULTURE SOCIETY Discovery research Customer Experience Research
  34. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN What’s your research question? What’s the

    phenomena at the heart of your topic of interest, and make that the focus of your research question
  35. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Developing Insight Analysis

  36. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Assess success of changes over time

    Implement incremental or major changes to what’s offered to customers and how. Information that defines very specifically what 
 has happened. Information that defines patterns & trends in what has happened & can identify influencing factors. Explains why something is or isn’t happening and inspires and directs new opportunities. Reinvent what is offered to customers and how. WHAT WHY OBSERVE & LISTEN FACTS FINDINGS INSIGHTS REPORT ACTION STRATEGY RESPOND MONITOR REACT TRANSFORM
  37. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN FACT 11.4 million people 65 or

    over in the UK
  38. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN FINDING We have an increasingly ageing

    population, that will create new challenges for the economy & public service provision.
  39. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Assess success of changes over time

    Implement incremental or major changes to what’s offered to customers and how. Information that defines very specifically what 
 has happened. Information that defines patterns & trends in what has happened & can identify influencing factors. Explains why something is or isn’t happening and inspires and directs new opportunities. Reinvent what is offered to customers and how. WHAT WHY OBSERVE & LISTEN FACTS FINDINGS INSIGHTS REPORT ACTION STRATEGY RESPOND MONITOR REACT TRANSFORM
  40. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman What is an insight? Insights are

    unexpected discoveries about how things work and how to make them work better. Insights shift us toward a new story, a new set of beliefs that are more accurate, more comprehensive and more useful. – Gary Klein, Cognitive Psychologist and author of ‘Seeing what others done: the remarkable way we gain insight’
  41. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Puzzle Draw a dot in a

    circle, without your pen leaving the piece of paper
  42. None
  43. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Triple path model of insight –

    Gary Klein from ‘Seeing what others don’t: the remarkable ways we gain insight’ CREATIVE DESPERATION
  44. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Beware ‘Best Practice’ and Received Wisdom

    The myths organisations and whole industries perpetuate
  45. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Turning insights into models A model

    is a visualisation of your data. After sharing your findings, your team will have a huge amount of unorganised data. Creating models to encapsulate your observations will help you to organise your information, and may also clarify complex patterns within your research data.
  46. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Two types of models 01_ Mental

    models 02_ Experience maps
  47. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Mental models

  48. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman What is a mental model? _

    Mental models are affinity diagrams of behaviours made from ethnographic data gathered from research _ Mental models provide deep understanding of what users are trying to accomplish and their thought processes at that time _ Mental models help to describe the emotional and philosophical landscape in which the user is operating
  49. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Why use a mental model? _

    Confidence in your design – they help to guide the design of the solution _ Clarity in direction – they help teams to make good user and business decisions _ Continuity of strategy - they help to protect the longevity of vision and opportunity
  50. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Experience maps

  51. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman What is an experience map? _

    An experience map is a strategic tool for capturing and presenting key insights into the complex customer interactions that occur across experiences with a product, service, or ecosystem. _ At the heart of an experience map lies the customer journey map or model, an archetypal journey created from an aggregate of all customers going from point A to point B as they attempt to achieve a goal or satisfy a need.
  52. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Why use an experience map? _

    The activity of mapping builds knowledge and consensus across teams and stakeholders, _ The map as artefact allows you to create and support better customer experiences. _ Experience mapping is a journey that can involve and impact the entire organisation.
  53. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TIME EMOTION Activity Activity Activity

  54. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TIME EMOTION Activity Activity Activity +

    touchpoint + context + touchpoint + context + touchpoint + context
  55. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman TIME EMOTION Stages of the typical

    customer journey STAGES
  56. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman PROFILE STAGES ACTIONS THINKING FEELING OPPORTUNITIES

  57. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman

  58. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Incorporate clear takeaways _ Takeaways are

    typically added to the map late in the process. _ They become apparent as you pivot from understanding the current state of your customer experience to envisioning the future state. _ There are different takeaways you could include, but they should answer the questions “So what?” and “What now?”
  59. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman A good experience map… _ has

    a point of view _ considers the audience _ is designed for impact
  60. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Build the map around a strong

    central storyline _ Decide what will be included in the final map and what won’t _ Separate the important insights from the nice-to-have details _ Prioritise the key story components _ Take a step back and walk through your key points
  61. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Alternative orientations _ Action oriented: using

    your customers’ actions across time as the spine of the story is the action oriented approach. _ Emotion oriented: take feeling and draw the emotional journey of your customers. _ Place oriented: choose place and organise your key insights by decision points within a physical context.
  62. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Developing Insight Storytelling & Narrative

  63. None
  64. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman The power of stories _ Story

    structures help us make sense of the things we see, hear and experience _ Stories are powerful; they transform our beliefs and our understanding _ This power comes from the way stories evoke an emotional response; making us feel like participants rather than spectators
  65. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman So, how do you create a

    compelling story?
  66. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Three key ingredients _ Creating empathy:

    making your audience feel a connection _ Building tension: drawing your audience in by creating intrigue _ Making them believe: giving your audience an engaging conclusion
  67. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Assess success of changes over time

    Implement incremental or major changes to what’s offered to customers and how. Information that defines very specifically what 
 has happened. Information that defines patterns & trends in what has happened & can identify influencing factors. Explains why something is or isn’t happening and inspires and directs new opportunities. Reinvent what is offered to customers and how. WHAT WHY OBSERVE & LISTEN FACTS FINDINGS INSIGHTS REPORT ACTION STRATEGY RESPOND MONITOR REACT TRANSFORM
  68. None
  69. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN I CAN HAZ MEMES?

  70. MODERN HUMAN The Status Quo The Observations CREATE EMPATHY The

    Story The Insight Tell them what they don’t know The Opportunity Give them the turning point The Analogy Make it familiar The Solution The Advantages Make change appealing The Ethos Leave them on a high http://modernhuman.co @modhuman BUILD TENSION MAKE THEM BELIEVE
  71. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Service blueprints

  72. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman What is a service blueprint? _

    A service blueprint is an operational tool for capturing the flow of a current service or conceptualising the flow of a new one _ The service blueprint is made up of 5 layers: customer actions, on-stage actions, backstage actions, support processes and systems, physical evidence
  73. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Why use a service blueprint? _

    The activity of blueprinting builds knowledge and consensus across teams and stakeholders _ The blueprint as artefact allows you to improve existing services or imagine completely new ones _ A service blueprint lays the operations of a service out in the open. It often reveals hidden inefficiencies and the root causes of poor customer experiences _ As a design tool, it forces a team to get specific and detailed about the service they are going to create
  74. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Creating a service blueprint Start low-fi

    so you can play around with how the service will work.
  75. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Service blueprinting Let’s blueprint a restaurant

    experience
  76. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman PHYSICAL EVIDENCE CUSTOMER ACTIONS ON-STAGE BACKSTAGE

    SUPPORT PROCESSES & SYSTEMS The line of interaction The line of visibility
  77. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Prototypes and pilots

  78. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Adapted from: The future of prototyping

    is now live. David Aycan and Paolo Lorenzoni, Harvard Business Review. What are the different ways we could solve this problem? Does our solution resonate in the marketplace? PURPOSE Can the problem be solved this way? Early to explore options and midway to explore way to deliver specific features Once an opportunity area has been identified to explore market appeal TIMING After functionality has been identified but before means is determined. Low Just enough to appear real in the marketplace FIDELITY High enough to prove feasibility RAPID PROTOTYPING LIVE PROTOTYPING TECHNICAL PROTOTYPING Are the economics attractive enough to justify scaling? Late Very high PILOT
  79. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Validate the concept Now that you

    have a prototype, you need to get it in front of the people you’re designing for. Feedback from your target users is crucial to the human-centred design process, and it will help push your idea forward and ensure you are creating something is meaningful for real people.
  80. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Determine what to prototype Building a

    prototype forces you to be specific about what your concept might do and how it will be used. It also starts the process of learning how your audience might react to your concept, so you can hone it accordingly.
  81. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman ROLE LOOK & FEEL IM PLEM

    ENTATION INTEGRATION Adapted from: What do prototypes prototype? 
 Stephanie Houde and Charles Hill (1997).
  82. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Experimenting with prototypes _ Use prototypes

    to learn about user behaviour with your concept _ Validates emergent service against business objectives and goals _ Validates Concepts with Users _ Use Scenario Testing, Concept Probes, Cognitive Walkthroughs with Real Users, Mock environments, Roleplay.
  83. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Prototyping methods _ Day-in-the-life videos _

    Scenario testing and concept probes _ Wizard of Oz and paper prototyping _ Service walkthroughs, role play and bodystorming _ Mock environments and pop-up shops
  84. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Pilot The objective of a pilot

    is to learn as much as possible from exposing your product or service to market forces.
  85. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Why do we pilot? We pilot

    or prototype to improve potential solutions and to learn how people respond.
  86. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman HYPOTHESIS We believe that… APPROACH To

    verify that we will… MEASURE And measure… CRITERIA We are right if…
  87. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman If some of your prototypes and

    pilots don’t fail, then you’re not learning hard enough. You are robbing the team (and the organisation) of opportunities to learn.
  88. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Things your pilot might tell you

    about _ Your hypothesis _ The type of people who use your product, service or solution _ The way people interpret your product, service or solution - this reveals how they think. _ The way people use your product, service or solution - this reveals how they act. _ How your product, service or solution influences their behaviour and the culture of the organisation
  89. http://modernhuman.co @modhuman MODERN HUMAN Piloting Let’s pilot your restaurant experience

  90. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman Iterate to launch Continue to iterate

    on your product or service throughout Invent mode. Each iteration should test a potential improvement and prepare your product or service to be used in real life by real people.
  91. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman IMPROVE & SCALE

  92. MODERN HUMAN http://modernhuman.co @modhuman ADD FEATURES

  93. MODERN HUMAN Paul-Jervis Heath paul@modernhuman.co +44 79 7456 7823 @pauljervisheath