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Hayward and Whitten

Hayward and Whitten

A snapshot of positions - Brexit


QPol at Queen's

May 15, 2018

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  1. DUP Source: 2017 Manifesto SF Source: 2017 Manifesto; Policy Paper

    One & Two Alliance Source: Policy Papers UUP Source: Policy Paper & Manifesto & MEP statement SDLP Source: 2017 Manifesto & statement from leader Brexit Priorities • To make sure NI gets the best Brexit deal. • “recognizing that we share a land frontier with the Republic and the particular circumstances of our unique history and geography”. • “The stronger and more positive the agreements reached, especially on trade & customs relationships, then the better for…NI”. • “A special designated status for the north within the European Union that ensures Ireland is protected”. • + a Free and Fair Trade UK-EU Agreement rooted in equivalence of standards and mutual recognition. • Agree “special deal” for NI that allows it to remain full participant in EU Single Market and UK internal market. • Preference for the “softest” Brexit possible for all-UK. • Any deal should recognise special circumstances of NI. • Establish NI as an “Enterprise Zone” • Ensure no hard border is introduced on the island of Ireland, and no new internal UK borders. • NI needs the “best deal” not just any deal, given how important the issue is to NI’s future. • Agree “bespoke status” for NI that involved treating the whole island of Ireland as part of the EEA after UK Exit. • Consider the 1998 Agreement at the heart of distinct arrangements for NI in Brexit. Customs • Comprehensive customs agreement with the EU + that establishes NI as a hub for trade between ROI &UK + which facilitates trade with new & existing markets. • NI to remain in the Customs Union. • NI participation in the Customs Union and the Common External Tariff. • NI should not be inside a customs union and single market with the EU if the rest of the UK is outside it. • Full access and full alignment with the single market and customs union. • Supports Labour’s position of a permanent Customs Union with the EU. Single Market • Comprehensive free trade agreement that facilitates “ease” of movement of people goods and services. • NI to remain in the EU Single Market. • Must have free movement of “our” people, goods, and services on a north/south basis, and between the other member states of the EU. • NI participation in the EU Single Market (as an EEA member) and adhere to the Four Freedoms. • NI covered by EU directives and Assembly control over EU directives. • Arrangements to facilitated “unfettered access” to EU Single Market on “no less favourable terms” than currently exist. • NI participation in the EU Single Market. • UK should remain in the EEA. • To retain access to the free movement of goods, people, services and capital. North/ South • Arrangements to facilitate “ease of trade” with ROI and a “frictionless border” assisting those working or travelling in the other jurisdiction. • To continue N-S cooperation and strengthen all-Island bodies. • Trade tariffs, physical checks or border passport controls are unacceptable. • To continue N-S cooperation and strengthen all-Island bodies. • Protect existing areas of N-S market integration by NI adherence to EU regs. • No hard border. • Ensure UK government awareness of NI circumstance re: aspects of the all- Island market. • NI to uphold EU standards in areas of N-S cooperation. • Create a ‘North-South Structural Fund’. Sectoral priorities • Ensure energy market stability. • Agri-food: importance to NI recognised; strong protections to guard against cheap inferior imports; appropriate support prog for farmers. • Business to retain competiveness and not face additional costs. • Protections for existing areas of N-S coordination and market integration • Protect EU access to employment, social security and healthcare. • Workers’ rights and conditions. • Environmental protection. • Recognise importance of agri-food in NI; ensure not undermined by lower standard imports & labour availability. • Protect existing EU environmental directives. • Design a fit-for-purpose scheme of support for farmers for after 2022. • Protection of the all-island electricity market. • All-island market for suitable sectors such as electricity. • Preserve environmental protection standards. East- West • Maintain Common Travel Area [CTA]. • Strengthen relationships across 4 component parts of the UK with no internal borders. • UK wide infrastructure funds should be estd., • Maintain CTA. • Work more closely with other UK regions through British-Irish Council. • Maintain CTA. • Devolution & balance of competences continuing, local taxes paid to UK, UK govt handles non-EU defence & foreign policy. • Maintain CTA. • No hindrance to trade with Great Britain. • No internal borders within the UK. • Maintain CTA. • Strengthen intergovernmental and interregional cooperation via the British Irish Intergovernmental Conference. NI specific solutions • “Northern Ireland-specific solutions achieved through active Executive engagement”. • The “particular circumstances of NI with a land border with the EU fully reflected” as a focus and objective in negotiations. • Continued political representation of NI at EU level (EP, Committee of the Regions, EESC, Exec Ministers at Council of Ministers). • Greater devolution of powers to facilitate aspects of “special deal”. • UK government to pay contribution to EU budget on NI behalf. • Rights to EU citizenship for all born in NI. • Proposed “Enterprise Zone” to potentially include tax reliefs, reduced rate of VAT, abolition of Air Passenger Duty and £1billion venture capital fund for NI. • All-island representation in the European Parliament, Committee of the Regions and other EU institutions to enable “direct dialogue”. Plus • Ability to opt-in to EU funds. • Fair share for NI from dividends from leaving EU. • Jurisdiction of ECJ ended, greater control over laws. • Must retain economic benefits of agriculture and fisheries funding, structural and investment funds and peace funding from EU. • Access to structural and competitive funds. • Referendum on the terms of any deal. • Provide assurance for those in receipt of EU funds. • Invest in skills and infrastructure network to protect economy. • Human rights and protections derived from EU legislation. • EU standards on workers’ rights, inc cross-border workers. Stated positions on Brexit: Northern Ireland Political Parties Katy Hayward & Lisa Whitten, Queen’s University Belfast, Work in Progress
  2. Key Areas of Convergence Specific arrangements for Northern Ireland No

    hard Irish border Ongoing access to EU Single Market Customs arrangements that facilitate frictionless N-S travel & trade + Maintain Common Travel Area Free movement on the island of Ireland of goods, people & services Ongoing Access to EU Funding Safeguard Rights of EU Citizens Specific Protections for NI Agri-Food Sector Arrangements to Protect Single Electricity Market Specific Arrangements DUP “specific solutions” for “particular circumstances” SF “special status” within the EU APNI “special deal” that includes EEA membership UUP NI to become “Enterprise Zone” SDLP “bespoke status” including EEA membership No hard Irish border DUP Frictionless border with Irish Republic; no internal UK borders SF No change to the Irish border APNI Hard border disastrous for NI; border as a bridge UUP No hard border, and no new internal UK borders SDLP A hard border in Ireland is not an option Summary of NI Political Party Positions Nature of Single Market Access DUP “comprehensive free trade agreement” SF “access” to EU Single Market APNI “participation” in EU Single Market UUP “unfettered access” to EU Single Market SDLP “participation” in Single Market Customs DUP “customs agreement” with the EU SF NI to “remain” in Customs Union APNI “participation” in Customs Union & CET UUP NI not to be in a CU if UK as a whole is not SDLP UK in a Customs Union with the EU
  3. The Executive Office Source:Letter to UK PM NSMC Source: Communiques

    One/Two & Annual Report BIC Source: 2016Communique & 2017 Communique & Annual Report NICS NB Not ‘positions’ but points raised in correspondence. Source: DfE working paper & DExEU briefing & Note to NI Trade data group & HOCS letter to DExEU Brexit Priorities • Achieve the “best possible outcome for the people” of NI • Ensure future arrangements take account of NI’s “unique” position. • Ensure the interests of NI/ROI are protected and the benefits of N-S cooperation are “fully recognised” in future arrangements. • Identified: agriculture, agri-food and fisheries, economy and trade, free movement of goods and people, the CTA, relations with the EU, status of citizens affected by UK exit & transition /implementation arrangements as key themes for collaboration among BIC. • Need for close coordination between Whitehall and NI Departmental Policy leads • Need for intensification of joint working arrangements between NI/Whitehall • Need to ensure inter-related issues are considered, east/west and north/south. • Need to recognise particular circumstances of Northern Ireland, especially given the land border. • DSO have emphasised the need for additional legal staff to complete Brexit related work. Customs & Single Market • Ensure the vulnerability of NI to potential tariff and non- tariff barriers to trade accounted for. • Retain the “ease” with which NI currently trades with EU Member States. • Future policies should be “sufficiently flexible” to allow access to (un)skilled labour. • Identified economy and trade as key priority area affected by UK Exit. [n/a] • NI economy has become integrated into both the Irish and GB markets, so there would be disruption and potential for negative economic impact whether the controls were sited at the land or sea border. • There is a need to understand the scale of complex supply chains on the island of Ireland and the scope of the potential rules of origin problem. • The implications of EU exit on the local services sector cannot be overlooked. • A need to ensure that the inter-related issues of standards (SPS controls), tariffs on goods, customs arrangements, trade in services, access to migrant labour, transiting arrangements and continuation of the CTA are not considered in isolation. North/ South • Ensure there is no new impediment to free movement of people, goods and services across the Irish border. • Ensure “nothing in negotiation process undermines” NI’s “vital” energy market. • Recognised utility of NSMC as forum for discussing issues related to UK Exit from EU. • Commissioned full sectoral audits of possible impact on areas of N-S cooperation and market integration. [n/a] • Agri-food and micro-businesses particularly exposed to disruption. • Businesses competing across the border could be at disadvantage if one side of the border has freer access to skills and labour than the other. • Cross-border travel and movements between NI and Ireland are very extensive and, for many people, a regular feature of everyday life. • A disorderly Exit would present a return to something akin to the ‘borders of the past’. • Goods crossing the land border could be in transit to GB, Europe or the RoW. East- West • Recognise “constructive initial discussions” between TEO and ROI through NSMC • Wish to input to future intergovtl engagement. • Identified British-Irish Relations and the CTA as two priority areas affected by UK Exit. • Reiterated importance of the BIC as “unique forum” to enhance cooperation and strengthen relationships among all Member Administrations. • CTA a priority • Risk to the NI labour market if restrictions placed on inward migration and if labour attracted from NI to GB (as per traditional patterns) • Wider context of NI / IE / GB freight trade via the ports including NI/GB goods using the Dublin-Holyhead transit route, and how these trade flows relate to sales to wider EU and RoW markets. NI specific solutions • Recognise the importance of EU funding to NI. • Protections for agri-food industry in particular. • Ensure existing EU funding progs. are successfully implemented & future EU funding streams are secured. • Established EU Future Relations Division to support and coordinate work on EU exit issues across NICS. • Appointment of a Director General of International Relations for Brexit Priorities in UK withdrawal: Northern Ireland governing institutions Katy Hayward & Lisa Whitten, Queen’s University Belfast, Work in Progress
  4. CBI Source: Analysis Paper & Brexit Report & press releases

    NICVA Source: Brexit Position Paper UFU Source: Brexit Discussion Paper & Priorities statement NIC-ICTU Source: Brexit Briefing Paper Brexit Priorities CBI propose six principles to guide UK government negotiating positions: (1) barrier-free future UK-EU trading relationship; (2) clear plan for regulation providing short-term certainty and balancing influence, access and opportunity in the long-term; (3) migration system that allows business to access skills and labour to enable growth; (4) renewed focus on global economic relationships; (5) approach that protects the social and economic benefits of EU funding; (6) smooth exit arrangements. NICVA highlight five areas to be protected through process of UK’s EU Exit: (1) peace and stability in NI; (2) economy and economic wellbeing; (3) social and economic rights; (4) health; (5) environment. UFU identify ten goals as the UK exits the EU; relevant aspects are summarised below. Ensure UK’s Exit from the EU is not used to dismantle rights and protections or drive down employment standards on the island of Ireland. Customs • Highlight the need for “greater clarity” on UK government proposals for customs arrangements on the island of Ireland. • Comprehensive customs union with the EU • Avoid “hard” customs border on island of Ireland. • Reduced and simplified regulations while ensuring UK production is not undermined by lower standard imports. • Must retain frictionless access to European markets • Continued UK membership of Customs Union. Single Market • Stay in the single market until final deal is in force • Avoid “hard” border on island of Ireland in regard to trade or migration. • Secure “best possible access” to EU markets and secure additional trade agreements outside the EU. • Ensure access to seasonal and full-time labour is maintained • Continued UK membership of Single Market. North/ South • Practical choices must rule out hard border on the island of Ireland • Emphasise the need for “more detail” on how UK governments’ principles for maintaining all-island cooperation and integration after UK exit can be achieved. • Retain all-island legal framework currently deriving from EU legislation to facilitate future N-S cooperation. • Retain current all-island legal framework including in regard to areas of market integration e.g. environmental standards, those relating to agri-food industry, healthcare. • To “minimise disruption” to existing N-S trading relations. • Safeguard GFA Institutions including NSMC. • Future of SEM is secured in UK-EU agreement and mutual recognition of professional qualifications after UK exit is secured. East-West • Support maintenance of CTA. • Preserve CTA and associated rights. • Need to protect the single UK market from competitive distortions • Safeguard GFA Institutions including BIC. NI specific solutions • Support upholding rights of EU citizens in NI and elsewhere. • NI retain access to EU funding including for medical & other research. • Establish NI as international centre of excellence for plant and animal health/breeding. • Designation of NI as “Enterprise Zone” • Calls on UK government to reaffirm commitment to GFA and ECHR. Shared Positions ‘Agreed Position on Brexit Negos. by Key Social Partners in NI’ • Open frictionless border between NI and ROI and GB and the island of Ireland • Preserve economic benefits of the EU Single Market and Customs Union until final UK-EU settlement is agreed/implemented. • Preserve Common Travel Area. • Agree migration system that protects migrants and allows business to access skills and labour. • Protect Good Friday Agreement. • Ensure outcome of any UK-EU negotiations does not delay complete implementation of GFA or alter its terms. • No diminution of workers’ rights or employment standards in NI. • Ensure outcome of UK-EU negotiations sustains the social and economic benefits of EU funding in NI. • Ensure civil society actors can input to UK-EU negotiations and their outcome. Stated positions on Brexit: Northern Ireland Key social partners Katy Hayward & Lisa Whitten, Queen’s University Belfast, Work in Progress
  5. Note on Sources Used NI Political Parties: In order to

    ascertain the positions of political parties on key Brexit matters as they relate to Northern Ireland, we have looked primarily on their most recent manifestos (2017 GE) and, where available, policy papers – as these are the positions that people voted for these parties on. Where there were gaps in information about the policy position, we have looked to most recent formal statements from the parties. The most significant addition has been for the SDLP in response to Labour’s position on the Customs Union. NI governing institutions We have used publically-available statements for the devolved, north/south and British-Irish bodies, as the main multilevel institutions involved in the governance of Northern Ireland. It is notable that there has been no update on positions from the Executive, NSMC or BIC since late 2016. For the NI Civil Service we have drawn on the documents that have been leaked by GUE/NGL, primarily those in which information has been imparted to Whitehall (specifically DExEU) by senior officials from Northern Ireland. We note that these do not express the ‘position’ of senior civil servants in Northern Ireland; but they do give a good indication of priorities for consideration that NICS have identified. Key social partners A joint statement was issued by key social partners in Northern Ireland in June 2017. We have drawn on this statement and on the public position/policy papers from the organisations specifically regarding Brexit. We have only used press releases and statements where there were gaps in these formal statements. These social partners (to quote the joint statement) include ‘the Northern Ireland Committee of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (NIC-ICTU) which represents over 200,000 workers through 24 affiliate trade unions across Northern Ireland; the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) in Northern Ireland which represents one third of all business in Northern Ireland; the Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action, (NICVA) which represents over 1,000 community and voluntary bodies which employ over 40,000 workers in the sector, and the Ulster Farmers’ Union, (UFU) which is the largest democratic organisations representing farmers and growers in Northern Ireland’. Acronyms APNI Alliance Party of Northern Ireland BIC British Irish Council BIIC British Irish Intergovernmental Conference CBI Confederation of British Industry CTA Common Travel Area DEXEU Dept for Exiting the EU (UK) DSO Departmental Solicitor’s Office DUP Democratic Unionist Party ECHR European Convention on Human Rights EEA European Economic Area EU European Union IE Ireland GB Great Britain GE General Election GFA Good Friday (1998 Belfast) Agreement GUE/NGL European United Left - Nordic Green Left HOCS Head of Civil Service NICS Northern Ireland Civil Service NIC-ICTU Northern Irish Congress of the Irish Congress of Trade Unions NI Northern Ireland NICVA Northern Ireland Council of Voluntary Action NSMC North/South Ministerial Council N-S North-South (island of Ireland) PM Prime Minister ROI Republic of Ireland RoW Rest of World SDLP Social Democratic and Labour Party SEM Single Electricity Market SF Sinn Féin TEO The Executive Office (NI) UFU Ulster Farmers’ Union UUP Ulster Unionist Party Abbreviations Govt Government Negos Negotiations Prog. Programme Regs Regulations Authors Katy Hayward k.hayward@qub.ac.uk @hayward_katy Lisa Whitten lwhitten02@qub.ac.uk @LisaClaireWhit1