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Sufi Tabassum Gul - A Multi-granularity Design Exploration for Multi-standard SDR Terminals

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November 13, 2008

Sufi Tabassum Gul - A Multi-granularity Design Exploration for Multi-standard SDR Terminals

Fef83ca87fd2a7994d087631868acf8f?s=128

SCEE Team

November 13, 2008
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  1. Seminar SCEE A Multi A Multi- -granularity Design granularity Design

    Exploration for Multi Exploration for Multi- -standard standard SDR Terminals SDR Terminals SUPELEC - Campus de Rennes SCEE – Signal, Communications et Electronique Embarquée IETR – UMR CNRS 6164 Institut d'Electronique et Télécommunications de Rennes Sufi Tabassum GUL 13th November, 2008
  2. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 2 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  3. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 3 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  4. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 4 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR design GSM DRM WiMAX UMTS DVB-H DVB-SH GPS W iFi Galileo Bluetooth
  5. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 5 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR Design Velcro Solution SDR Approach Our Approach Set of Reconfigurable Common Operators Approach x
  6. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 6 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR Design ™ In a nutshell to design multi-standard reconfigurable radio, we have choice between two extremes ƒ One extreme: go “Velcro” o One self-contained module per standard. ƒ Other extreme: go “Primitive” o Use only adders, multipliers, etc. o Provide ”higher” functionality by multiple calls of simpler modules. ™ There may be other choices ƒ intermediate granularity (e.g. in NoC, SoC etc.) Î formalization at an intermediate granularity
  7. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 7 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Multi-standard SDR Design ™ “Velcro” is costly but efficient. ™ “Primitive” is cheaper but it has to meet deadlines of standards. ¾ Our aim is to find: ƒ Best trade-off between “Performance and Cost.” ™ One of the many possible solution is: ƒ Build a mathematical model in form of a graph to find the optimal point between two extreme architectures.
  8. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 8 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  9. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 9 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  10. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 10 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Overview of Our Methodology ™ Our objective is to find commonalities and hence Common Operators ™ We want to optimize graphs of multi-standard systems based on these Common Operators ™ Our procedure consists of three steps: 1. Drawing graphs of a radio system 2. Assigning cost parameters to various blocks of radio system 3. Running optimization algorithms to find the optimum solution
  11. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 11 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Overview of Our Methodology 1. Common Operators’ (COs) Approach ƒ Identification of an optimal level of granularity for operations 2. Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Model radio as graph of progressively simpler processing elements (PE). ƒ When necessary, a PE is called multiple times (not replicated). ƒ 2 critical parameters per PE: o cost and time (computational delay)
  12. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 12 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Common Operator ™ A common operator is a tuneable hardware operator which can carry out some common functions of several standards. ƒ FFT/Butterfly[1], DMFFT[2] and LFSR[3] are strong candidates for common operators. [1]. J. Palicot, C. Roland, “FFT: a Basic Function for a Reconfigurable Receiver,” ICT’03 Conference, Thaiti, France, 2003. [3]. L. Alaus, D. Noguet and J. Palicot, A Reconfigurable Linear Feedback Shift Register Operator for Software Defined Radio Terminal, ISWPC, Santorini, Greece, May 2008. [2]. Ali Al Ghouwayel, Yves Lou¨et and Jacques Palicot, A Reconfigurable Butterfly Architecture for Fourier and Fermat Transforms, IEEE WSR’2006, Karlsrhue, 1179 Germany, March 2006.
  13. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 13 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  14. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 14 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Graph Modeling Two Possible Dependencies in Graph Left: PE A needs: Either B OR C Right: PE A needs: Both B AND C AND OR level n level n-1 A B C A B C To model the system as graph, it is necessary to use a “hypergraph” instead of a simple graph in order to introduce two different types of dependencies between the nodes:
  15. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 15 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Graph Modeling NAND NOT XOR AND OR WiFi #1 WiFi #2 WiFi #3 WiMAX Scrambler/ Randomiser Convolutional Coder Interleaver Constellation Mapper FFT-N RS Encoder Butterfly Adder Multiplier LFSR LUT a a’ b b’ Very Fine Grain Velcro Increasing Granularity
  16. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 16 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Graph Modeling Important STD1
  17. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 17 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  18. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 18 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Types of Costs ™ Need to consider 3 types of costs ƒ Cost#1 : In terms of equations (analytical approach) o Number of multiplications and/or additions; generic cost; (both HW, SW) ƒ Cost#2 : FPGA/ASIC implementation o In terms of gates/LUT/Slice/hardware synthesis (HW) ƒ Cost#3 : DSP(SW)/HW implementation o In terms of number of cycles/Time of execution ™ Almost as many costs as investigated implementations ™ How to use these costs?
  19. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 19 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Types of Costs ™ In order to solve the optimization problem that finds balance between economy and computing efficiency we consider two parameters in our cost/objective function: ƒ The cost of the module/block capable of computing a function, called building cost (BC) and it is paid once during the useful life of a radio. ƒ The computing time required to perform a particular function, called computational cost (CC) and it is paid every time a component is brought into play.
  20. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 20 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Cost Function denotes the building cost of ith component in the system. indicates if the ith node is present in the system or not. is the total building cost of all the components that are present in the SDR system. } { N n ,..., 2 , 1 = indicates that there may be n standards present in an SDR where i.e. if we choose N=3 then it means that there are three 3 2 1 , , , S and S S standards present namely in an SDR system. denotes the computational cost of kth component in the system. n S } { N n ,..., 2 , 1 = is the total computational cost of any of , where .
  21. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 21 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Cost Function n S } { N n ,..., 2 , 1 = is the total computational cost of all of , where . ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ + = ∑∑ ∑ ∈ ∈ n k N n n k n i i i S bool SDR S CC w N BC w C N n n ) ) (( . . min _ ) ) ((
  22. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 22 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  23. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 23 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Optimization ™ Exhaustive Search ƒ All exact methods known for determining an optimal solution require a computing effort that increases exponentially with number of nodes, so that in practice exact solutions can be attempted only on problems involving fewer nodes (say 10 nodes). ™ Simulated Annealing ƒ To obtain a near-optimal solution we use the method of simulated annealing (SA). SA is a random-search technique which exploits the analogy between the way in which metal cools and freezes into a minimum energy crystalline structure and search for a minimum in a more general system.
  24. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 24 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  25. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 25 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES GUI Tool
  26. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 26 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES GUI Tool
  27. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 27 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES GUI/Optimization Tool
  28. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 28 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Developing Environment ™ Development of the software (in GUI style) for drawing graphs GUI in Java Parser in C++ Optimizer graph.txt main.cpp Radio graph Selected Operators ™ Development of parser for converting the output of GUI to be used in Optimizer ™ Making optimizer run for generating results
  29. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 29 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Summary 1. Use graph to list each possible design. 2. For each design, calculate its total: cost, and time to perform each top PE. 3. Use Algorithms e.g. exhaustive search, simulated annealing, etc. to optimize design. 4. Choose least expensive design that satisfies the “deadline” of each top PE.
  30. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 30 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  31. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 31 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Sub-design examples ™ Goal: validate our approach Means: integrating other PhD students results Î Also permits to mature our approach ™ DMFFT: In collaboration with ALI AL GHOUWAYEL ™ LFSR: In collaboration with Laurent ALAUS ™ Channelizer: In collaboration with MAHESH
  32. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 32 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT
  33. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 33 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT
  34. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 34 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #1: DMFFT Butterfly Reconfigurable Adder FFT-N Reconfigurable Multiplier (N/2)log2 N 4 6 514 ALUTs/ 5.18 ns 26 ALUTs/ 2.369 ns 104 ALUTs/ 5.18 ns N=256; 6819 ALUTs/ 5.5 ns Building Cost /Execution Cost
  35. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 35 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #2: LFSR A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is a shift register whose input bit is a linear function of its previous state. There are two implementation styles of LSFRs: Fibonacci RF-LFSR and Galois RG-LFSR. The study of common operators has lead us to build the architectures called R-LFSR and ER- LFSR respectively.
  36. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 36 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #2: LFSR x-LFSR
  37. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 37 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #2: LFSR
  38. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 38 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #3: Channelizers
  39. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 39 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #3: Channelizers Costs of the channelizers in terms of million of multiplications per second
  40. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 40 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Example #3: Channelizers OFDM Modulation/ Demodulation Butterfly
  41. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 41 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  42. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 42 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Conclusion ™ Contribution to the design of future multi-standard phones. ™ Exploiting commonalities between standards we may have 10 or even more standards in phones simultaneously because using commonalities do not require duplication. ™ Using commonalities/common operators, switching from one standard to another standard is achieved simply by change of parameters. ™ In a nutshell, we have to identify new common operators and use them to design systems.
  43. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 43 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Presentation outline ™ Multi-standard Design Issue ƒ Design Trends o Velcro to Multi-granularity Exploration ™ Overview of Our Methodology ƒ Common Operators Approach ƒ Graph Approach for Architectural Exploration ƒ Cost Parameters o Types of costs o Cost Function ƒ Optimization o Exhaustive Search o Simulated Annealing ƒ GUI Tool ™ Design Examples ƒ DMFFT ƒ LFSR ƒ Channelizers ™ Conclusion ™ Publications
  44. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 44 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Publications Journal Publications Journal Publications ™ Sufi Tabassum GUL, Ali Al GHOUWYEL, Christophe MOY, Yves LOU¨ET, “A Novel Design of Reconfigurable Fourier Transform Operator Over C and GF(F t ) for Future Multi-standards SDR Equipments,” Submitted in Elseiver, Computer and Electrical Engineering Special Issue on Emerging Wireless Networks, July, 2008. Conference Proceedings Conference Proceedings ™ Sufi Tabassum GUL, Christophe MOY, Jacques PALICOT “Two Scenarios of Flexible Multi- Standard Architecture Designs Using a Multi-Granularity Exploration,” The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07), September 2007, Athens, Greece. ™ Sufi Tabassum GUL, Raveendranatha P. MAHESH, Christophe MOY, Prasad VINOD, Jacques PALICOT “A Graphical Approach for the Optimization of SDR Channelizers,” URSI 08, The XXIX General Assembly of the International Union of Radio Science, Chicago (USA), August 2008. ™ Sufi Tabassum GUL, Christophe MOY, Jacques PALICOT, “Graphical Modeling and Optimization of Air Interface Standards for Software Defined Radios,” 12th IEEE International Multitopic Conference (IEEE INMIC), Karachi , Pakistan , December 2008.
  45. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 45 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Thanks for your attention Questions?
  46. Sufi Tabassum GUL- SUPELEC – 13th Nov. 2008 46 IETR

    - INSTITUT D’ÉLECTRONIQUE ET DE TÉLÉCOMMUNICATIONS DE RENNES Relative Weights of BC & CC