The Ecological Impact of Compute

502828deee7e3b38ca1e527dded8a1a9?s=47 Seth Vargo
August 19, 2016

The Ecological Impact of Compute

As compute becomes cheaper and more readily available, the costs to our environment cannot go unnoticed. We are increasing energy use at exponential rates by over-provisioning requirements, under-utliizing resources, and clicking buttons in UIs. As a business owner, you want to save costs, but what are the environmental impacts services like AWS and GCE are having on our planet? Tools like Nomad, Kubernetes, and Mesos allow organizations to maximize resource utilization, but can schedulers also be used to help save our planet?

502828deee7e3b38ca1e527dded8a1a9?s=128

Seth Vargo

August 19, 2016
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  1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Wikimedia_Foundation_Servers-8055_24.jpg Ecological Compute IMPACT OF THE

  2. @SETHVARGO   

  3. None
  4. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5b/Italian_legal_hardback_books_open.jpg DISCLAIMERS BUT FIRST A FEW

  5. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4a/March_Against_Monsanto_Vancouver.jpg I AM NOT AN ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVIST

  6. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Lincoln_mkc_front.jpg 19 MPG

  7. OOPS https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/87/Nest_Learning_Thermostat_(cropped).JPG

  8. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Old_book_-_Basking_Ridge_Historical_Society.jpg BACKGROUND AND NOW SOME

  9. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c3/Internet_map_4096.png

  10. EVERY 60 SECONDS 15,000 MUSIC DOWNLOADS  350,000 TWITTER TWEETS

     5 MILLION GOOGLE SEARCHES  204 MILLION EMAIL MESSAGES  1.8 MILLION FACEBOOK LIKES  $272,000 AMAZON PURCHASES 
  11. EVERY 60 SECONDS 204 MILLION 5 MILLION 1.8 MILLION 350,000

    $272,000 15,000 EMAIL MESSAGES GOOGLE SEARCHES FACEBOOK LIKES TWITTER TWEETS AMAZON PURCHASES MUSIC DOWNLOADS      
  12. 91 BILLION KILOWATT-HOURS https://static.pexels.com/photos/7000/fre-sonneveld-powerlines.jpg

  13. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Coal_power_plant_Datteln_2_Crop1.png 500-MEGAWATT POWER PLANTS

  14. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Coal_power_plant_Datteln_2_Crop1.png 500-MEGAWATT POWER PLANTS 34 TIMES

  15. Russia Japan India Germ any Canada France Brazil S. Korea

    UK Italy Spain Taiwan S. Africa Australia M exico Suppresses China and USA
  16. Russia Japan India Germ any Canada France Brazil S. Korea

    UK Italy Spain Taiwan S. Africa Australia M exico Suppresses China and USA 
  17. 100 MILLION TONS OF CARBON POLLUTION https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Automobile_exhaust_gas.jpg

  18. 100 MILLION TONS OF CARBON POLLUTION https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Automobile_exhaust_gas.jpg 26.5 MILLION AUTOMOBILES

  19. 100 MILLION TONS OF CARBON POLLUTION https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cb/Automobile_exhaust_gas.jpg 26.5 MILLION AUTOMOBILES

    470 MILLION TREES
  20. https://i.vimeocdn.com/video/526825393_1280x960.jpg SOLUTIONS NOT SO OBVIOUS

  21. INCREASE IN PUBLIC CLOUD USE INCREASE IN CARBON FOOTPRINT

  22. CORRELATION CAUSATION INCREASE IN PUBLIC CLOUD USE INCREASE IN CARBON

    FOOTPRINT
  23. http://www.thegraphicrecorder.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/CorrelationCausationFinal1.jpg

  24. 4 TYPES OF DATA CENTERS https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/67/Inside_Suite.jpg

  25. WHOLESALE CO-LO CUSTOMER

  26. WHOLESALE CO-LO RETAIL CO-LO CUSTOMER CUSTOMER 2 CUST 1 C3

  27. WHOLESALE CO-LO RETAIL CO-LO MANAGED HOSTING CUSTOMER CUSTOMER 2 CUST

    1 C3 CUSTOMER 2 CUST 1 C3
  28. WHOLESALE CO-LO RETAIL CO-LO MANAGED HOSTING CLOUD PROVIDER CUSTOMER CUSTOMER

    2 CUST 1 C3 CUSTOMER 2 CUST 1 C3 CUSTOMERS
  29. WHOLESALE CO-LO RETAIL CO-LO MANAGED HOSTING CLOUD PROVIDER 49% 27%

    19% 5%
  30. Cloud Provider 5% Managed Hosting 19% Retail Co-lo 27% Wholesale

    Co-lo 49%
  31. CAUSES OF INEFFICIENCY http://www.trbimg.com/img-57322fc1/turbine/ct-tsa-airport-security-lines-20160510

  32. OVER-PROVISIONING OF IT RESOURCES https://static.pexels.com/photos/7000/fre-sonneveld-powerlines.jpg #1

  33. PEAK PROVISIONING https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Peak_of_the_Matterhorn,_seen_from_Zermatt,_Switzerland.jpg

  34. 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12

    7 6 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 22 23 24 25 26 21 20 29 30 28 27 BLACK FRIDAY NEW SERVERS These numbers are fictitious and are not based on statistical evidence; shown for demonstrative purposes only
  35. 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12

    7 6 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 22 23 24 25 26 21 20 29 30 28 27 BLACK FRIDAY NEW SERVERS  These numbers are fictitious and are not based on statistical evidence; shown for demonstrative purposes only
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12

    7 6 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 22 23 24 25 26 21 20 29 30 28 27 BLACK FRIDAY NEW SERVERS  – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 These numbers are fictitious and are not based on statistical evidence; shown for demonstrative purposes only
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12

    7 6 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 22 23 24 25 26 21 20 29 30 28 27 BLACK FRIDAY NEW SERVERS  – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 + $10,000 These numbers are fictitious and are not based on statistical evidence; shown for demonstrative purposes only
  38. 1 2 3 4 5 8 9 10 11 12

    7 6 15 16 17 18 19 14 13 22 23 24 25 26 21 20 29 30 28 27 BLACK FRIDAY NEW SERVERS  – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 + $10,000 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 – $500 These numbers are fictitious and are not based on statistical evidence; shown for demonstrative purposes only
  39. INVALID IT PROCUREMENT FOCUS #2

  40. HOW IT PROCUREMENT DECISIONS SHOULD BE ANALYZED http://www.policonomics.com/wp-content/uploads/Cost-analysis-long-term.jpg

  41. HOW IT PROCUREMENT DECISIONS ARE ACTUALLY MADE http://acclinet.com/images/stories/sun-dell-ad.jpg

  42. HOW IT PROCUREMENT DECISIONS ARE ACTUALLY MADE https://i.ytimg.com/vi/J2WNUXTRNes/maxresdefault.jpg

  43. HOW IT PROCUREMENT DECISIONS ARE ACTUALLY MADE http://ad-design.966v.com/static_images/20160724/cd767d958d873b6ab96082b93951e53865607b3ea4ca315e0aeff539.jpg

  44. UNUSED "ZOMBIE" SERVERS https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/17/2007-04-07_-_London_-_Flashmob_-_Fleshmob_-_Zombie_Walk_-_Zombies_(4889850244).jpg #3

  45. An estimated 20-30% of servers in [wholesale] data centers today

    are idle, obsolete, or unused but are still plugged in and consuming energy doing nothing.
  46. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95y0tPseZRE

  47. IT managers cannot identify owners for 15-30% of the servers,

    but are reluctant to decommission equipment, fearing potential impacts on business or application functions.
  48. https://journal.uptimeinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/server-roundup-cover-image.jpg

  49. https://journal.uptimeinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/server-roundup-cover-image.jpg DECOMMISSIONED MORE THAN 9,500 SERVERS $5M IN ANNUAL ENERGY

    SAVINGS 5 MEGAWATTS IN IT LOAD 4 MEGAWATTS OF ASSOCIATED COOLING
  50. https://journal.uptimeinstitute.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/server-roundup-cover-image.jpg MISALIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES ELECTRIC COSTS PAID BY A DIFFERENT

    DEPARTMENT NO INCENTIVE FOR DATA CENTER TEAMS TO REDUCE LOAD
  51. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Port_Authority_bus_Pittsburgh_3216.jpg LACK OF STANDARD UTILIZATION METRIC #4

  52. 80% CPU 

  53. 80% CPU 60% MEM  

  54. 80% CPU 60% MEM 1500 IOPS   

  55. 80% CPU 60% MEM 1500 IOPS ?   

    × ÷ ≈
  56. http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1821469/images/o-LANGUAGES-facebook.jpg

  57. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Okinawan_High_Schools_compete_in_race_at_MCAS_Futenma_141001-M-PU373-021.jpg COMPETING PRIORITIES FOR EFFICIENCY #5

  58. Efficiency 4% Deployments 24% Security 24% Reliability 24% Availability 24%

  59. Deployments 25% Security 25% Reliability 25% Availability 25%

  60. http://gssolutions.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/cloudit.jpg CLOUD TO THE

  61. None
  62. WE DON'T GET THE SAME PERFORMANCE ON THE CLOUD MANY

    ORGANIZATIONS DO NOT UNDERSTAND THEIR APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS MYTH FACT
  63. THE CLOUD IS INSECURE – WE HAVE TO BE HIPPA/PCI

    COMPLIANT CLOUD PROVIDERS PAY MILLIONS OF DOLLARS AND HIRE THE MOST EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS ON THESE TOPICS. ARE YOU BETTER IF COMPLIANCE IS SOMEONE'S PART-TIME JOB? MYTH FACT
  64. THE CLOUD IS TOO EXPENSIVE FOR MOST USE CASES, IT'S

    PROBABLY CHEAPER AND MORE FLEXIBLE MYTH FACT
  65. WE RUN ON OUR OWN BARE METAL AND ACHIEVE 80%

    UTILIZATION USING A SCHEDULER AND ROUTINELY AUDIT SERVER USAGE USING AN INVENTORY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. THIS TALK IS NOT FOR YOU, BUT MYTH FACT
  66. I AM ENERGY AND RESOURCE EFFICIENT BECAUSE I AM USING

    A CLOUD PROVIDER YOU ARE IMPOSING LESS OF AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, BUT YOU MAY NOT BE USING YOUR POOL OF RESOURCES AT BEST CAPACITY MYTH FACT
  67. http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1821469/images/o-LANGUAGES-facebook.jpg LIVE DEMO

  68. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/82/Cloture_grande_faune_A73A.jpg UTILIZATION MAXIMIZING RESOURCE

  69. HUMANS MAXIMIZE TIME WITH THESE https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/February_calendar.jpg

  70. sched·ul·er (human) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/February_calendar.jpg a person or machine that organizes or

    maintains schedules
  71. sched·ul·er (computer) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/01/February_calendar.jpg a program that arranges computer operations into

    an appropriate sequence
  72. https://cdn.shopify.com/s/files/1/0167/3936/files/04-MS-Excel-4-0-Office-4-0_large.gif

  73.   Operator Datacenter

  74.   Operator Datacenter Skywalker Vader Leia Solo

  75.   Operator Datacenter PYTHON PYTHON GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG Skywalker

    Vader Leia Solo
  76.   Operator Datacenter RUBY PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON GOLANG GOLANG

    GOLANG GOLANG NODE Skywalker Vader Leia Solo
  77.   Operator Datacenter RUBY PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON GOLANG GOLANG

    GOLANG GOLANG NODE Skywalker Vader Leia Solo RUBY VADER LEIA SOLO 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.7 192.168.1.253 88:45:13:B6:87:C4 94:CE:4F:C8:54:C3 CA:9A:3D:7F:8B:CB 72:30:9C:0D:1E:74 Randomly kills applications
  78.   Operator Datacenter RUBY PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON GOLANG GOLANG

    GOLANG GOLANG NODE Skywalker Leia Solo RUBY VADER LEIA SOLO 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.7 192.168.1.253 88:45:13:B6:87:C4 94:CE:4F:C8:54:C3 CA:9A:3D:7F:8B:CB 72:30:9C:0D:1E:74 Randomly kills applications F F Vader
  79.   Operator Datacenter RUBY PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON GOLANG GOLANG

    GOLANG GOLANG NODE Skywalker Leia Solo RUBY VADER LEIA SOLO 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.7 192.168.1.253 88:45:13:B6:87:C4 94:CE:4F:C8:54:C3 CA:9A:3D:7F:8B:CB 72:30:9C:0D:1E:74 Randomly kills applications F F Vader PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON
  80.   Operator Datacenter RUBY GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG NODE

    Skywalker Leia Solo RUBY VADER LEIA SOLO 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.5 192.168.1.7 192.168.1.253 88:45:13:B6:87:C4 94:CE:4F:C8:54:C3 CA:9A:3D:7F:8B:CB 72:30:9C:0D:1E:74 Randomly kills applications Vader PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON
  81.   Operator Datacenter RUBY GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG NODE

    Skywalker Leia Solo RUBY VADER LEIA SOLO 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.7 192.168.1.253 88:45:13:B6:87:C4 94:CE:4F:C8:54:C3 CA:9A:3D:7F:8B:CB 72:30:9C:0D:1E:74 Rebuilt on 04/20/2016 Vader PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON
  82.   Operator Datacenter RUBY GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG GOLANG NODE

    Skywalker Leia Solo RUBY VADER LEIA SOLO 192.168.1.4 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.7 192.168.1.253 88:45:13:B6:87:C4 94:CE:4F:C8:54:C3 CA:9A:3D:7F:8B:CB 72:30:9C:0D:1E:74 Rebuilt on 04/20/2016 Vader PYTHON PYTHON PYTHON
  83. THIS DOES NOT SCALE http://www.public-domain-image.com/free-images/objects/spring-scale-used-to-determine-ones-weight-in-pounds.jpg

  84. Type Work Resources CPU Scheduler Threads Physical Cores EC2 /

    Nova Virtual Machines Hypervisors Hadoop YARN MapReduce Jobs Client Nodes Cluster Scheduler Applications Machines https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Cedar_Mtn_Wilderness.jpg
  85. None
  86. http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1821469/images/o-LANGUAGES-facebook.jpg ANOTHER LIVE DEMO

  87. Higher Resource Utilization Decouple Work from Resources Better Quality of

    Service ADVANTAGES https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/GiantEagleStowOhio.jpg
  88. Higher Resource Utilization ADVANTAGES https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/GiantEagleStowOhio.jpg Bin Packing Over-Subscription Job Queueing

  89. Decouple Work from Resources ADVANTAGES https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/GiantEagleStowOhio.jpg Abstraction API Contracts Standardization

  90. Better Quality of Service ADVANTAGES https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/GiantEagleStowOhio.jpg Priorities Resource Isolation Pre-emption

  91. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Trail_Ridge_Road_and_Longs_Peak_by_RO.jpg SCALABILITY BONUS

  92. Nomad Million Container Challenge 1,000 Jobs 1,000 Tasks per Job

    5,000 Hosts on GCE 1,000,000 Containers
  93. None
  94. http://i.huffpost.com/gen/1821469/images/o-LANGUAGES-facebook.jpg No one will ever need to schedule a million

    containers.
  95. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Bill_Gates,_WEF_2009_Davos.jpg/1280px-Bill_Gates,_WEF_2009_Davos.jpg 640K ought to be enough for anybody

  96. None
  97. None
  98. None
  99. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Wikimedia_Foundation_Servers-8055_24.jpg 1. USE A CLOUD PROVIDER 2. USE A SCHEDULER

    3. MEASURE EVERYTHING
  100. @SETHVARGO    QUESTIONS?