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ビットコイン・ブロックチェーン概論

Shu Kobuchi
October 29, 2022

 ビットコイン・ブロックチェーン概論

Open Source Conference 2022 Online Fallの発表に使用した資料です。
↓セミナー情報
https://event.ospn.jp/osc2022-online-fall/session/685055
↓日本暗号通貨ユーザ会のページ
https://cryptocurrency.connpass.com/

Shu Kobuchi

October 29, 2022
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  1. ϏοτίΠϯɾϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ֓࿦ ೥݄೔ ౔ !04$0OMJOF'BMM ೔ຊ҉߸௨՟Ϣʔβձɹখᔹप 4IV,PCVDIJ

  2. খᔹपɹ4IV,PCVDIJɹ[email protected]TIVLPCVDIJ γεςϜ։ൃΛ͖ͯͨ͠தͰɺ 
 ೥࢓ࣄͰ#JUDPJO8FC8BMMFUϓϩτλΠϓͷ։ൃʹैࣄ ʙԾ૝௨՟औҾॴ޲͚΢ΥϨοτͷ։ൃɾӡ༻ ʙ҉߸ࢿ࢈ަ׵ۀऀͷϒϩοΫνΣʔϯΤϯδχΞ ೔ຊ҉߸௨՟Ϣʔβձ͸೥͔ΒࢀՃ͠ɺӡӦΛ຿ΊΔ झຯɿα΢φɺమಓɺञɺΧϥΦέ ࠷ۙϋϚ͍ͬͯΔ΋ͷɿδϜͷελδΦϨοεϯɺח૔఼ͷਓ ࣗݾ঺հ

    2
  3. ίϛϡχςΟ঺հ ೔ຊ҉߸௨՟ϢʔβձɹIUUQTDSZQUPDVSSFODZDPOOQBTTDPN ʮϏοτίΠϯͱ͔ษڧձʯʢ݄̍ճɿฏ೔໷ʣ w ࣍ճ݄ௐ੔த ʮ҉߸௨՟ಡॻձʯʢ݄̍ճɿฏ೔໷ʣ w ෆఆظ։࠵ ొஃऀืूத w

    ԠืϑΥʔϜ͸ͪ͜Β͔Β㱺IUUQTUDP3$G:,MN5Q :PV5VCFͰΞʔΧΠϒࢹௌՄೳIUUQCJUMZZPVUVCFDDTUVEZ w νϟϯωϧొ࿥͓ئ͍͠·͢ 3
  4. ϏοτίΠϯ͸Φʔϓϯιʔε ϏοτίΠϯ #JUDPJO ͸Φʔϓϯιʔε ୭Ͱ΋։ൃʹࢀՃՄೳʂ 
 IUUQTHJUIVCDPNCJUDPJOCJUDPJO ϏοτίΠϯΛ͸͡Ίɺ҉߸௨՟ɾϒϩοΫνΣʔϯͷଟ͘͸044 ٕज़తʹ΋໘ന͍ʂʂ ϥΠτίΠϯ

    -JUFDPJO ͸#JUDPJOͷιʔείʔυ͔ΒϑΥʔΫ 
 IUUQTHJUIVCDPNMJUFDPJOQSPKFDUMJUFDPJO ϞφίΠϯ .POBDPJO ͸-JUFDPJOͷιʔείʔυ͕ϕʔε 
 IUUQTHJUIVCDPNNPOBDPJOQSPKFDUNPOBDPJO ΠʔαϦΞϜ &UIFSFVN ΋Φʔϓϯιʔε 
 IUUQTHJUIVCDPNFUIFSFVNHPFUIFSFVN 4
  5. ϏοτίΠϯͱ͸ தԝ؅ཧऀΛ࣋ͨͳ͍11ిࢠϚωʔγεςϜʢඇதԝूݖతͳ҉߸௨՟ʣ தԝ؅ཧऀΛ࣋ͭۚ༥γεςϜͱ͸ۜߦͳͲ ϏοτίΠϯ͕ੜ·ΕΔલ͔Β11ిࢠϚωʔͷݚڀ͸ߦΘΕ͍ͯͨ w ࣮༻ԽϨϕϧͰॳΊͯ੒ޭͨ͠ͷ͕ϏοτίΠϯ w ҎޙɺϏοτίΠϯͷٕज़Λجʹ༷ʑͳ҉߸௨՟͕ొ৔ w ϏοτίΠϯͷج൫ٕज़ʮϒϩοΫνΣʔϯʯΛ௨՟Ҏ֎΁ͷԠ༻΋

    ೥݄೔4BUPTIJ/BLBNPUP φΧϞτατγ ͕࿦จΛ044ίϛϡχςΟͷϝʔϦϯάϦετʹ౤ߘ w IUUQTCJUDPJOPSHCJUDPJOQEG ೥݄೔ʹϏοτίΠϯ͕Քಇ࢝͠Ίͨ ୭ʹ΋ૹۚΛअຐͰ͖ͳ͍ 5
  6. φΧϞτ࿦จʹ͍ͭͯ IUUQTCJUDPJOPSHCJUDPJOQEG ೥݄೔65$4BUPTIJ/BLBNPUPΛ໊৐Δਓ෺͕ʮ#JUDPJO"1FFSUP1FFS&MFDUSPOJD$BTI4ZTUFNʯ 
 ͱ͍͏λΠτϧͷ8IJUF1BQFSΛϝʔϦϯάϦετʹ౤ߘ ϏοτίΠϯͷػೳʹ͍ͭͯ͸ॻ͍͓ͯΒͣɺCMPDLDIBJOͱ͍͏୯ޠ΋ొ৔͠ͳ͍ ʮ෼ࢄωοτϫʔΫͰೋॏࢧ෷͍Λ๷͙࢓૊ΈʯͷఏҊ 6

  7. ϋογϡؔ਺ Մม௕ͷೖྗ஋ʹର͠ɺݻఆ௕ͷग़ྗ஋Λฦ͢ ཚ਺Ͱ͸ͳ͍ͷͰɺಉ͡ೖྗ஋͔Β͸ৗʹಉ͡ग़ྗ஋ΛಘΔ ग़ྗ஋͔Βೖྗ஋Λਪଌ͢Δͷ͸΄΅ෆՄೳ IUUQTXXXNPWBCMFUZQFDPVLTDSJQUTTIBIUNM 
 IUUQTHPPHM1PHF# 7 ೖྗ͸Մม௕ PQFOTPVSDF

    ग़ྗ͸ݻఆ௕ PQFOTPVSDJ CFBCCGCEBDFFD DCFBCBCCDDFCGDG CBEBEFBGCEC DBFDBEGDGFFB 4)" ϋογϡؔ਺ 4)" ϋογϡؔ਺ Ұจࣈ ม͑Δ શ͘ҟͳΔ ஋ʹ
  8. ެ։伴҉߸ ެ։伴͸ʮ伴ʯͱ͍͏໊લ͕ͩɺʮৣʯΛΠϝʔδ͢ΔͱΘ͔Γ΍͍͢ ΞϦε͸Ϙϒͷެ։伴Λ༻͍ͯɺฏจΛ҉߸Խ͢Δ Ͱ͖ͨ҉߸จ͸Ϙϒͷൿີ伴Ͱ͔͠෮߸ԽͰ͖ͳ͍ ҉߸Խ͢Δ伴ʢެ։伴ʣͱ෮߸Խ͢Δ伴ʢൿີ伴ʣ͕ผʑ ΞϦε͸Ϙϒͷൿີ伴͕ͳͯ͘΋Ϙϒʹ͔͠෮߸ԽͰ͖ͳ͍҉߸จΛ࡞੒Մ 8 φΧϞτατγͷ ਖ਼ମ͸ʓʓʓ DECGEGE

    FCDBECC EDCCFDD Ϙϒͷެ։伴 φΧϞτατγͷ ਖ਼ମ͸ʓʓʓ ҉߸จ ฏจ ฏจ Ϙϒͷൿີ伴 ҉߸Խ ෮߸Խ ΞϦε Ϙϒ
  9. ϏοτίΠϯͷެ։伴҉߸ʢུ֓ʣ ΞϦε͸Ϙϒʹ#5$ૹΓ͍ͨ ΞϦε͸Ωϟϩϧ͔Βड͚औͬͨ#5$͕͋Δͱ͢Δ ΞϦεͷެ։伴͕͔͔ͬͨ#5$͕͋Δ ΞϦεͷൿີ伴ͰϩοΫΛղআͯ͠࢖͑ΔΑ͏ʹͳΔ ΞϦε͕Ϙϒͷެ։伴Λ͔͚Δ͜ͱͰϘϒʹϏοτίΠϯΛૹΔ #5$ Ϙϒͷެ։伴 ΞϦεͷൿີ伴 Ωϟϩϧ

    #5$ ΞϦεͷެ։伴 ϩοΫղআ Ωϟϩϧ͔Β ΞϦεʹૹۚ ΞϦε͔Β Ϙϒʹૹۚ
  10. 5SBOTBDUJPOT τϥϯβΫγϣϯͷ࿮಺Ͱ͸ӈ͔Β࡞ΔʢલͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷѼઌ͕ࣗ෼ѼͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͕લఏʣ ̍ʣѼઌͷެ։伴Ληοτ ̎ʣલͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯϋογϡͱѼઌͷެ։伴ͷϋογϡΛϋογϡ ̏ʣ̎ʣͷϋογϡʹॺ໊ʢॺ໊ʹ͸ൿີ伴͸ؚ·Εͳ͍ʣ 10 0XOFS ΞϦεͷॺ໊ 59ͷ )BTI

    0XOFS Ϙϒͷެ։伴 0XOFS Ϙϒͷॺ໊ 59ͷ )BTI 0XOFS Ωϟϩϧ ͷެ։伴 0XOFS Ωϟϩϧ ͷॺ໊ 59ͷ )BTI 0XOFS σϏοτͷ ެ։伴 ݕ ূ ݕ ূ ॺ໊ ॺ໊ ૹۚ ૹۚ ૹۚ τϥϯβΫγϣϯ τϥϯβΫγϣϯ τϥϯβΫγϣϯ ൿີ伴 ൿີ伴
  11. ΞϦε͕Ϙϒʹ#5$ΛૹΔ Ҏલड͚औֹ͍ͬͯͨΛ߹ࢉͯ͠ɺ૬खʹૹΓɺ͓௼Γ͸ࣗ෼΁ 59தʹهࡌͷͳֹ͍ ͜͜Ͱ͸#5$ ͸ޙʹϚΠφʔ΁ τϥϯβΫγϣϯ5SBOTBDUJPO59ߏ଄ 11 ΞϦε Ϙϒ 5SBOTBDUJPO

    59 */165 065165 ΞϦε Ωϟϩϧ ΞϦεˠϘϒ #5$ ΩϟϩϧˠΞϦε #5$ ΞϦεˠΞϦε ͓௼Γ  #5$ #5$ σϏοτˠΞϦε #5$ #5$ σϏοτ ܭ#5$ ܭ#5$ ϚΠφʔ ωοτϫʔΫख਺ྉ #5$ ˞59ʹهࡌ͸ͳ͍ ൿີ伴Λࠩ͠ࠐΜͰ ϩοΫղআɿిࢠॺ໊ ΞϦεͷ ൿີ伴 ΞϦεͷ ൿີ伴 ΞϦεͷ ެ։伴 Ϙϒͷ ެ։伴 ΞϦεͷ ެ։伴 ΞϦεͷ ެ։伴
  12. τϥϯβΫγϣϯΛ೔ຊԁͷࢧ෷͍Ͱྫ͑Δ ΞϦε͕Ϙϒͷఆ৯԰ͰԁͷϥϯνΛ৯΂·ͨ͠ɻ ΞϦε͸ԁࡳΛຕɺԁࡳΛຕɺԁۄΛຕ͍࣋ͬͯ·͢ɻ ΞϦε͸ࢧ෷͍ʹɺԁࡳຕɺԁۄຕΛ࢖͍·ͨ͠ɻ ԁΛ౉͢ͱɺ͓௼Γ͸ԁͰ͢ɻ τϥϯβΫγϣϯ͸*/165෦ʢऩೖʣͱ065165෦ʢࢧग़ʣͷऩࢧ͕߹͏ෳࣜ฽هͰ͢ɻ 12 ΞϦε Ϙϒ ΞϦε

    τϥϯβΫγϣϯ 1000ԁࡳ 500ԁۄ INPUT OUTPUT ࢧ෷ 1200ԁ ߹ܭ1500ԁ ͓௼Γ 300ԁ ߹ܭ1500ԁ
  13. τϥϯβΫγϣϯνΣʔϯͱ6590ߏ଄ τϥϯβΫγϣϯ 59 ͸લͷ59ͷ৘ใΛ͍࣋ͬͯΔʢϋογϡϙΠϯλʣ ݩΛḷΕ͹ɺඞͣ$PJOCBTF59ʹͨͲΓண͘ ϚΠφʔ͸ࣗ෼ͷΞυϨεʹରͯ͠ϚΠχϯάใुΛૹΔ59ΛϒϩοΫʹؚ·ͤΔ */165෦͸ۭ 65906OTQFOU5SBOTBDUJPO0VUQVUϏοτίΠϯ͸ʮ6590ߏ଄ʯ 13 TX

    Coinbase TX ۭ TX TX TX TX TX TX 13 ࢀর ࢀর ࣍ͷ59ͷ*/165ʹ࢖༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ ະ࢖༻6590ͷ͔͖ूΊ͕࢒ߴ
  14. ΢ΥϨοτʹ͓͕ۚೖ͍ͬͯΔͱ͍͏ΑΓ͸ɺൿີ伴͕ೖ͍ͬͯΔ ൿີ伴͸σδλϧσʔλ จࣈྻ ͳͷͰ౪ΈݟΒΕΔͱଞਓ΋࢖͑Δ ෺ཧతͳ伴΋߹伴͕࡞ΕΔʢෳ੡Ͱ͖ΔʣΑ͏ʹ ϊʔυͷ෼ࢄ୆ா͸શऔҾΛ͓࣋ͬͯΓɺΈΜͳಉ͡σʔλ ൿີ伴ͰੈքதͷͲͷϏοτίΠϯϊʔυ͔ΒͰ΋ࣗ෼ѼͰ 
 ະ࢖༻ͳ 6OTQFOU

    5SBOTBDUJPO0VUQVU 6590 
 Λૢ࡞͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ ϏοτίΠϯͷ΢ΥϨοτ 14 TX TX ࣗ෼ͷ 6590 ଞਓͷ 6590 ࣗ෼ͷ 4QFOU ࣗ෼ͷ 6590
  15. ΞυϨεੜ੒ ൿີ伴͸ཚ਺Λ࢖ͬͯಘΔ Ϗοτͷ੔਺ͳͷͰɺճίΠϯΛ౤͛ͯੜ੒΋Մೳ ެ։伴͸&$%4" ପԁۂઢ҉߸ Λ༻͍ͯൿີ伴ͷεΧϥʔഒࢉʢෆՄٯʣ ΞυϨε͸ެ։伴ͷϋογϡʢෆՄٯʣ ެ։伴ِ଄໰୊Λ๷͙ͨΊɺϏοτίΠϯͰ͸ެ։伴ͱҰରҰͰରԠ͢ΔΞυϨεΛ࢖༻ʢதԝ؅ཧऀ͕͍ͳ͍ͨΊɺೝ ূہ͸࢖Θͳ͍ʣ ൿີ伴Λ஌ΒΕΔͱɺ#5$͕౪·ΕΔͷͰ؅ཧ͸ݫॏʹʂ

    15 L ൿີ伴 1SJWBUF,FZ , ެ։伴 1VCMJD,FZ " ΞυϨε "EESFTT ପԁۂઢ্ͷ εΧϥʔഒࢉ Ұํ޲ ϋογϡؔ਺ Ұํ޲ ਪଌෆՄ ෆՄٯ ਪଌෆՄ ෆՄٯ
  16. ൿີ伴ɾެ։伴ɾΞυϨεͷ࣮ྫ ൿີ伴͕Θ͔Ε͹ɺੜ੒نଇ͔ΒҰҙʹܾ·ΔΞυϨεʹඥͮ͘ίΠϯΛૹۚͰ͖Δ ઈରʹଞਓʹݟΒΕͯ͸͍͚ͳ͍ 16 L ൿີ伴 1SJWBUF,FZ , ެ։伴 1VCMJD,FZ

    " ΞυϨε "EESFTT DEFCDBCEEFFDECGBED CECCFDCDFGEEECE EBDEEFBCGGFCGD DEFCDBCEEFFD ECGBEDCECCFD DYQP.#$::8$H'485EDNYJQO(6T1X
  17. ΞυϨεͷ؅ཧͱಗ໊ੑ ΞυϨε͸ҰਓͰ͍ͭ͘΋࣋ͯΔ ͓௼ΓΞυϨεΛૹ৴ݩΞυϨεͱ͸ผʹͯ͠ɺಗ໊తʹར༻ͨ͠ํ͕͍͍ ୭͕͍͘Β͍࣋ͬͯΔ͔Λ஌ΒΕͳ͍ͨΊ ΞυϨεٴͼͦͷதʹ͋ΔϏοτίΠϯ͕୭ͷ࣋ͪ෺͔͸ϏοτίΠϯωοτϫʔΫͰ͸Θ͔Βͳ͍ ΞυϨεͷੜ੒ݩͱͳͬͨൿີ伴Λૢ࡞Ͱ͖Δਓ͕࣋ͪओ w ൿີ伴Λ౪·Εͯ΋ϏοτίΠϯωοτϫʔΫͰ͸ؔ༩͠ͳ͍ 17

  18. 11ωοτϫʔΫͰͷసૹ ࡞੒ͨ͠τϥϯβΫγϣϯΛϏοτίΠϯ11ωοτϫʔΫʹϒϩʔυΩϟετ ൃใ ͢Δ ϊʔυ͸59ͷܗࣜΛνΣοΫ͠ɺϏοτίΠϯͷܗࣜͱͯ͠ਖ਼͚͠Ε͹ɺྡͷϊʔυʹసૹ͍ͯ͘͠ શͯͷϊʔυ͕ಉ͡59Λ࣋ͭ 
 ʢશੈքͷϊʔυʹߦ͖౉Δʣ 18 ΞϦε

    Ϙϒ 59 ൃใ 59 59 59 సૹ సૹ 59 59 59 సૹ సૹ సૹ సૹ స ૹ
  19. ೋॏࢧ෷͍໰୊ ΞϦε͸Ωϟϩϧ͔Β΋Βͬͨ#5$ΛϘϒʹ΋ૹΓɺΤϨϯʹ΋ૹͬͨͱ͢Δʢೋॏࢧ෷͍Λͨ͠ʣ ͲͪΒͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯΛਖ਼౰ͱݟͳ͔͢ ؅ཧऀ͕͍Ε͹؅ཧऀͷϊʔυʹಧ͍ͨઌணॱͰܾΊΕ͹ྑ͍ ͔͠͠ɺ؅ཧऀͷ͍ͳ͍෼ࢄωοτϫʔΫͰ͜ͷରࡦΛ͠ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ 11ωοτϫʔΫ্Ͱઌணॱͷ൑ఆ͸ෆՄೳ 19 ΞϦε Ϙϒ 59

    5PϘϒ 59 5PΤϨϯ Ωϟϩϧ ΤϨϯ #5$ #5$ #5$ ೋॏࢧ෷͍ Ϙϒ ΤϨϯ
  20. ೋॏࢧ෷͍ΛແޮԽ͢Δʹ͸ʁ ೋॏࢧ෷͍ΛແޮԽ͢ΔͨΊʹɺ6590͕࢖༻ࡁΈͰ͋Δ͔ͷ൑ఆ͕ඞཁ ࢖༻ࡁΈͰ͋Δ͜ͱ͸ɺܝࣔ൘ʹ·ͱΊͯ஌ΒͤΔ ϒϩοΫ͸ެ༻ܝࣔ൘ 20 ࢖༻ࡁΈ6590Ұཡ ΞϦεˠϘϒ#5$ ΤϨϯˠΩϟϩϧ#5$ ΩϟϩϧˠσϏοτ#5$ ΩϟϩϧˠΞϦε#5$

    ϘϒˠΤϨϯ#5$
  21. ୭͕ϒϩοΫʢܝࣔ൘ʣΛ࡞੒͢Δͷ͔ʁ ۃΊͯ௿͍֬཰ͷλʔήοτΛݟ͚ͭͨਓʹϒϩοΫʢܝࣔ൘ʣ࡞੒ͷݖར ྫ͑ΔͳΒɺ࢛ͭ༿ͷΫϩʔόʔΛ୳͢େձ ௿͍֬཰ͷλʔήοτ͕ݟ͔ͭͬͨ ͦΕ͚ͩେมͳ࡞ۀΛͨ͠ͱ͍͏͜ͱ ӡΑ͙͘͢ʹݟ͔ͭΔ͜ͱ΋͋Δ͕ɺ੒ޭΛଓ͚Δʹ͸࿑ྗΛׂ͖ଓ͚Δ͔͠ͳ͍ ϏοτίΠϯͷ৔߹͸ɺޮ཰తͳΞϧΰϦζϜ͕ଘࡏ͠ͳ͍ͱ͞ΕΔ୯७ͳܭࢉΛͻͨ͢Β΍Γଓ͚Δ ΍Δͷ͸ϚΠχϯάϚγϯͰɺిؾ୅͕ͱͯ΋͔͔Δ େมͳ࡞ۀΛͨ͠ਓ͸ෆਖ਼ͷͨΊΑΓ΋ϒϩοΫใुͱ͍͏ΠϯηϯςΟϒͷͨΊʹਖ਼͍͠ߦಈΛ͢Δͱ͍͏લఏ 1SPPGPG8PSLʢ࡞ۀূ໌ʣͱ͍͏

    21
  22. ϚʔΫϧϧʔτ ϒϩοΫͷߏ଄ ϒϩοΫʹؚΊΔτϥϯβΫγϣϯΛ·ͱΊͨϚʔΫϧϧʔτΛܭࢉ 59͕ͲͷϒϩοΫʹೖ͍ͬͯΔ͔͕Θ͔Δ ϒϩοΫϔομͱτϥϯβΫγϣϯ͕ϒϩοΫʹؚ·ΕΔ ʮφϯεʯͱ͍͏ԿͰ΋ྑ͍ύϥϝʔλΛೖΕͯϒϩοΫͷϋογϡΛܭࢉ ͦͷ಄/ܻ͕શͯʹͳΔ·Ͱʢਐ਺ͳͷͰɺ֬཰͸ͷ/৐ʣ ͘͢͝௿͍֬཰ʢྫ͑ΔͳΒܻ͋ΔμΠϠϧϩοΫΛຖճ਺ࣈม͑ͯղৣͰ͖Δ͔ࢼ͢ʣ 22 લͷϒϩοΫͷϋο

    γϡ લͷϒϩοΫ ͷϔομ λΠϜελϯϓ φϯε ϒϩοΫͷϋογϡ GFCGEFGEGEECCDEF CFC ͻͨ͢Βม͑ͯ ϒϩοΫϋογϡΛܭࢉ 59 59 59 59 59 59
  23. ϒϩοΫ͸લͷϒϩοΫΛϋογϡϙΠϯλͰࢀরͯ͠ (FOFTJT#MPDL ͔Β࠷৽ͷϒϩοΫ·Ͱܨ͕͍ͬͯΔ ్தͷϒϩοΫʹऔΓࠐ·Ε͍ͯΔτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷத਎Λมߋ͢Δʹ͸ɺϒϩοΫͷ࡞Γ௚͠ͱޙଓͷϒϩοΫΛ࡞ Γ௚͞ͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ w ϏοτͰ΋ม͑Δͱɺϋογϡ஋͕શ͘ҟͳΔͷͱɺϒϩοΫΛ࡞Γ௚͢ϚΠχϯά΋ඞཁͰɺվ͟Μ͸ࠔ೉ ϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ 23 ࢀর

    ࢀর ࢀর ࢀর ࢀর ࢀর 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 ᶃվ͟Μ͍ͨ͠ ᶄϒϩοΫ࡞Γ௚͠ ͜Ε͚ͩͰ΋େม ᶅޙଓͷϒϩοΫ࡞Γ௚͠ ͘͢͝େม ௕͍ϒϩοΫΛ ਖ਼౰ͱΈͳ͢ ᶆݱࡏͷϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ ΑΓ΋௕͘͢Δ
  24. ೉қ౓ௐ੔ͱใु ϒϩοΫͷϋογϡ಄/ܻ͕Ͱ͋Δ͔ʢ೉қ౓ʣ͸ϒϩοΫ͔͔ͬͨ࣌ؒΛ ෼ ೔िؒ ͱൺֱܾͯ͠Ί Δ ̍ϒϩοΫ࡞Δͷʹฏۉ෼ ೉қ౓Λ্͛Δʹ͸಄ͷͷܻ਺Λ૿΍͢ɺ೉қ౓ΛԼ͛ΔͳΒݮΒ͢ ੒ޭ֬཰͸?/ʢ/ɿܻ਺ɺϋογϡ͸ਐ਺ʣ ϒϩοΫใु͸

    (FOFTJT#MPDL ͕#5$ɺ Ͱ#5$ɺ Ͱ#5$ͱ͍͏Α͏ʹ ϒϩο Ϋ͝ͱʹใु൒ݮ ໿̐೥ʹ̍ճՆقޒྠͷ೥ͷՆࠒʹ൒ݮ͢Δ ϏοτίΠϯΛ৽نൃߦ͍ͯ͠Δ ೥ʹ৽نൃߦ͕ऴΘΓɺ૯ֹສ#5$ͱͳΔ ݶΓ͋Δۚ ΰʔϧυ ͷ࠾۷ ϚΠχϯά ʹͳͧΒ͑ͯϒϩοΫੜ੒࡞ۀͷΛϚΠχϯάͱݺͿ σϑϨܕ௨՟ͳͷͰɺର๏ఆ௨՟Ͱ#5$Ձ֨͸্͕͍ͬͯ͘܏޲ʹ͋Δ 24
  25. ωοτϫʔΫख਺ྉͷҙຯ ϚΠφʔ͕ঝೝͰ͖Δσʔλྔʹ͸ݶΓ͕͋ΔʢϒϩοΫ.#ʣ ωοτϫʔΫख਺ྉΛ՝͢͜ͱʹΑͬͯɺωοτϫʔΫ্ͷσʔλྔΛ཈੍͢Δ͜ͱ͕Ͱ͖Δ ख਺ྉ͸σʔλαΠζʹൺྫ τϥϯβΫγϣϯͷ*/165਺ɺ065165਺͕ଟ͚Ε͹σʔλαΠζ͸େ͖͘ͳΔ ख਺ྉ͸ωοτϫʔΫͷࠞࡶ౓߹͍ʹӨڹ͞ΕΔ ର๏ఆ௨՟ͷՁ֨ͱ͸௚઀ؔ܎ͳ͍͕ɺՁ্͕͕֨ΔͱऔҾ਺͕૿͑ΔͨΊख਺ྉ͸্ঢ͠ɺՁ͕֨҆ఆ͍ͯ͠Δ࣌͸ख ਺ྉ͕͍҆ ࢢ৔ͷݪཧʹΑͬͯ໨͕҆Θ͔Δ ͲͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯΛϒϩοΫʹऔΓࠐΉ͔͸ϚΠφʔ͕ࣗ༝ʹܾΊΒΕΔ

    ϚΠχϯά΋ϏδωεͳͷͰɺख਺ྉͷߴ͍59͕༏ઌͯ͠औΓࠐ·ΕΔ ૹۚऀ͕෷͏ ిࢠܾࡁͷΑ͏ʹళฮଆ डऔଆෛ୲ ͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍ 25
  26. ใुͷҙຯ ΠϯηϯςΟϒ͕͋Δ͜ͱͰɺϚΠχϯάͱ͍͏ӡ༻΁ͷࢀՃΛଅ͢ ϚΠφʔ͕૿͑ɺϋογϡύϫʔ͕େ͖͘ͳΔͱɺϏοτίΠϯωοτϫʔΫͷηΩϡϦςΟ͕૿͢ w ੈքதͷεʔύʔίϯϐϡʔλ͕ଋʹͳͬͯ΋ϏοτίΠϯωοτϒϩοΫνΣʔϯΛվ͟ΜͰ͖ͳ͍ ϒϩοΫʹؚ·ΕΔτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷख਺ྉ΋ϚΠφʔ͕΋Β͑Δ ϒϩοΫใु৽نൃߦ ݱࡏ#5$  Є

    ϒϩοΫதͷ59ख਺ྉ 26 ϒϩοΫ 59 59 59 59 59 59 5SBOTBDUJPO 59 */165 065165 ΞϦεˠϘϒ #5$ ΩϟϩϧˠΞϦε #5$ ΞϦεˠΞϦε ͓௼Γ  #5$ σϏοτˠΞϦε #5$ ܭ#5$ ܭ#5$ ϚΠφʔ ωοτϫʔΫख਺ྉ #5$ ˞59ʹهࡌ͸ͳ͍ $PJOCBTF59 ใुΛࣗ෼΁
  27. ϚΠχϯάͷϏδωεԽ ϚΠχϯάʹ͸େن໛ͳࢿຊ͕౤Լ͞ΕɺҰେϏδωεʹʂ ੲ͸ݸਓͰϚΠχϯάͰ͖͕ͨɺ͍·Ͱ͸ݸਓͰ͸ଠ౛ଧͪͰ͖ͳ͍Ϩϕϧʹͳ͍ͬͯΔ ϚΠχϯάϚγϯΛฒ΂ͨࢪઃ͸ϚΠχϯάϑΝʔϜͱΘΕɺ޻৔ͷΑ͏ͳ ϚΠχϯάใु֫ಘͷͨΊʹɺܹ͍͠ϚΠχϯάڝ૪ 27 ੈք࠷େखͷϚΠχϯάϑΝʔϜ#JUNBJO

  28. ϊʔυɾ΢ΥϨοτͷछྨ ϑϧϊʔυ͸11ωοτϫʔΫʹྲྀΕΔτϥϯβΫγϣϯͱϒϩοΫΛݕূ͠ɺਖ਼͍͠ܗࣜͷ΋ͷ͸ࣗϊʔυऔΓࠐΉ աڈ͔ΒશͯͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯʢऔҾཤྺʣͱϒϩοΫΛ࣋ͭ શͯͷσʔλΛ࣋ͭʹ͸ॏ͗͢ΔͷͰɺϒϩοΫϔομͱࣗ෼ͷ΢ΥϨοτʹؔ܎͢ΔऔҾͷΈΛ࣋ͭܰྔ΢ΥϨοτ ʮ417ϊʔυʗ΢ΥϨοτʯ͕͋Δ औҾͷݕূ͸ਖ਼֬ʹͰ͖ͳ͍ ࣗ෼ͷϊʔυΛ࣋ͨͣʹΞυϨεੜ੒΍ૹۚͷͰ͖Δ8FC΢ΥϨοτ΋͋Δ͕ɺηΩϡϦςΟతʹ஫ҙ͕ඞཁ ෺ཧతͳૢ࡞ΛߦΘͳ͍ͱૹ͕ۚͰ͖ͳ͍ηΩϡϦςΟ͕ߴ͍ϋʔυ΢ΣΞ΢ΥϨοτ΋͋Δ ϞόΠϧ΢ΥϨοτ͸ɺϞόΠϧΞϓϦʹൿີ伴͕ೖ͍ͬͯͯૹ͕ۚͰ͖Δ େۚ͸ஔ͘΂͖Ͱ͸ͳ͍

    28
  29. 4JNQMJ fi FE1BZNFOU7FSJ fi DBUJPO 417ϊʔυ ΢ΥϨοτʹؔ܎͋ΔτϥϯβΫγϣϯͱϒϩοΫϔομͷΈऔಘ શͯͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯ͸֨ೲ͠ͳ͍ #JUDPJO$PSF CJUDPJOE

    Λ΢ΥϨοτػೳ༗ޮͰՔಇͤ͞Δͱ417Ϟʔυ ىಈΦϓγϣϯʹUYJOEFYΛ෇͚ΔͱશͯͷτϥϯβΫγϣϯ΋֨ೲ͢ΔϑϧϊʔυϞʔυ ϑϧϊʔυʹൺ΂ͯɺαʔόʔͷσΟεΫ࢖༻ྔΛ࡟ݮͰ͖Δ -JHIUOJOH/FUXPSLͷϞόΠϧΞϓϦͰ࢖༻͞ΕΔ͜ͱ΋ଟ͍ 29
  30. ϒϩοΫνΣʔϯΤΫεϓϩʔϥ ࣗ෼ͰϊʔυΛ࣋ͨͳͯ͘΋શͯͷऔҾͱϒϩοΫΛՄࢹԽͰ͖ΔϒϩοΫνΣʔϯΤΫεϓϩʔϥ͕͋Δ IUUQTCMPDLTUSFBNJOGP ༷ʑͳ։ൃݩ͔ΒϒϩοΫνΣʔϯΤΫεϓϩʔϥ͕ఏڙ͞Ε͍ͯΔ 30

  31. ςετωοτ ϝΠϯωοτ ςετωοτ ಠཱ ຊ෺ͷϏοτίΠϯ͕ྲྀ௨͢ΔωοτϫʔΫ͕ϝΠϯωοτ NBJOOFU ɺ։ൃ࣌ͳͲʹຊ෺ͷϏοτίΠϯΛ࢖༻͠ͳͯ͘ ΋͍͍Α͏ʹɺςετωοτ UFTUOFU ͕༻ҙ͞Ε͍ͯ·͢ɻςετωοτ΋ύϒϦοΫͳωοτϫʔΫͰɺϝΠϯωοτͱ

    ͸ಠཱͨ͠ωοτϫʔΫͰ͢ɻ 31
  32. φΧϞτ࿦จൃදޙͷ#JUDPJOՔಇ ೥݄೔ 65$ ʹ#JUDPJOՔಇ (FOFTJT#MPDL%BZ  IUUQTCMPDLTUSFBNJOGPCMPDL EDBFF ff BFBBDCGCBDFG

    ϑϧϊʔυͷϒϩοΫ໨ΛݟΔͱVOJYUJNF͸Ͱ͔֬ʹ65$ 5IFHFOFTJTCMPDLDPJOCBTFJTOPUDPOTJEFSFEBOPSEJOBSZUSBOTBDUJPOBOEDBOOPUCFSFUSJFWFE w HFOFTJTCMPDLͷ$PJOCBTF5SBOTBDUJPOͷத਎͸औಘͰ͖ͳ͍ w IUUQTCMPDLTUSFBNJOGPUY BFFCBBCGBBDCDGGFDDBCCBGEFEBC 32
  33. ϒϩοΫͷঝೝ਺ ঝೝ਺͕ଟ͚Ε͹ଟ͍΄Ͳ෴Γʹ͍͘ʢ֬཰తϑΝΠφϦςΟʣ 33 TX Memory Pool(mempool) TX ࠷৽ϒϩοΫ ະঝೝʢ̌ঝೝɿ0 Confirmation)

    TX Memory Pool(mempool) TX ࠷৽ϒϩοΫ 1ঝೝɿ1 Confirmation ࣗ෼ͷૹۚTX TX ࣗ෼ͷૹۚTX TX Memory Pool(mempool) TX ࠷৽ϒϩοΫ 6ঝೝɿ6 Confirmationʢ঎औҾͰΑ͘࢖ΘΕΔঝೝ਺ʣ TX ࣗ෼ͷૹۚTX ະঝೝTX(τϥϯβΫγϣϯ) ؚ͕·ΕΔ ϚΠφʔใु͸ঝೝ͞ΕΔ·ͰϩοΫ͞Ε͍ͯͯɺͦΕ·Ͱ࢖༻Ͱ͖ͳ͍
  34. ϏοτίΠϯͷख਺ྉ ϒϩοΫੜ੒ͰಘΒΕΔϏοτίΠϯใुͱख਺ྉͷྫ ͷ৔߹͸ɺϒϩοΫใु ख਺ྉ߹ܭ#5$ IUUQTCMPDLDIBJOJOGPCMPDLDBEEGDDBBGCFFGDBDEB 34 ࢀߟʣࠞࡶ࣌

  35. ϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ ೋॏࢧ෷͍ΛແޮԽ͢Δखஈ ೋॏࢧ෷͍͸Ͱ͖Δ͕ɺϒϩοΫʹࡌΒͳ͚Ε͹ແޮ ϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ͸ࣄޙঝೝͷζϧ͍γεςϜ ͔ͩΒɺγεςϜμ΢ϯ͠ͳ͍ τϥϯβΫγϣϯΛେྔʹྲྀͯ͠ωοτϫʔΫͷෛՙΛ্͛ͯ΋ɺ஗Ԇ͕ى͜Δ͚ͩͰམͪͳ͍ தԝ؅ཧ͞ΕͨγεςϜͩͱɺ%#Ͱॱ൪ʹॲཧ͢ΔͨΊɺॲཧ͕٧·ΔͱམͪΔ 35

  36. ϏοτίΠϯͷϢʔεέʔε ϏοτίΠϯ͸Ծ૝௨՟ͷதͰ͸ɺ࠷΋ϙϐϡϥʔͳࢧ෷͍खஈ 36 ϏοΫΧϝϥ͸CJU'MZFSͱఏܞ͓ͯ͠Γɺ ϏοτίΠϯࢧ෷͍Մೳ 
 ʢCJU'MZFSͷΞΧ΢ϯτ͸ෆཁʣ ϏοτίΠϯͰߪೖͨ͠ SHARP੡υϥΠϠʔ

  37. ϏοτίΠϯͷϢʔεέʔε ҿ৯ళͰ΋౦ژΛத৺ʹԾ૝௨՟ܾࡁՄೳͳళ͕͋Δ ࿡ຊ໦ͷόʔʮ5XP%PHT5BQSPPNʯͰ͸ΫϥϑτϏʔϧ΍ੴ༼Ͱম͔Εͨຊ֨ 1J[[BΛָ͠ΊΔ 37

  38. #JUDPJO4DSJQUʙτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷ༗ޮੑΛݕূʙ

  39. #JUDPJO4DSJQU -*'0 -BTU*O'JSTU0VU ͷ୯७ͳεΫϦϓτ 'PSUIͷΑ͏ͳٯϙʔϥϯυه๏ #JUDPJO5SBOTBDUJPOʹ͸ඞؚͣ·ΕΔ #JUDPJO$PSF CJUDPJOE ΍ϥΠϒϥϦΛ࢖͏ͱɺ#JUDPJO4DSJQUΛҙࣝ͠ͳͯ͘΋ɺϓϩάϥϜ͸ॻ͚Δ 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQUͱ-PDLJOH4DSJQUΛಉ࣌ʹ࣮ߦ

    ਖ਼࣮͘͠ߦͰ͖Ε͹6OMPDLJOH4DSJQUͰ-PDLJOH4DSJQUΛղআͯ͠ɺτϥϯβΫγϣϯͷ༗ޮੑΛࣔͤΔ 39 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQU -PDLJOH4DSJQU ॺ໊ͳͲ
  40. ୯७ͳྫ 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQUɺ-PDLJOH4DSJQUͷॱͰ࣮ߦ͢Δ ελοΫʹσʔλͱ01ίʔυΛೖΕ͍ͯ͘ 01ίʔυΛελοΫʹೖΕͨͱ͖͸໋ྩʹԠͯ͡Լͷσʔλͭ·ͨ͸ෳ਺ʹରͯ͠ԋࢉ͢Δ 40 -PDLJOH4DSJQU 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQU  [email protected]"%%[email protected]&26"-Λ࣮ߦ 

       [email protected]"%%  Ճࢉ        ༗ޮ [email protected]&26"-  [email protected]"%%[email protected]&26"- ಉ஋͔ ౳͍͠
  41. 11, 1BZUP1VCMJD,FZ ެ։伴Λͦͷ··࢖͍ɺݱࡏ͸΄΅࢖༻͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ϨΨγʔ TJH͸ൿີ伴Λ༻͍ͯੜ੒͞ΕΔॺ໊ɺ1VC,͸ެ։伴 41 -PDLJOH4DSJQU 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQU TJH1VC,[email protected]$)&$,4*(Λ࣮ߦ TJH 1VC,

    TJH 1VC, 536& ༗ޮ $)&$,4*( TJH 1VC,[email protected]$)&$,4*( ॺ໊Λݕূ
  42. 11,) 1BZUP1VCMJD,FZ)BTIʢ11,ͷൃల൛ʣ ެ։伴ϋογϡΛ༻͍Δ͜ͱͰΞυϨεΛ୹͘දݱͰ͖Δ TDSJQU͸ʢʣ಺Ͱͷݺͼํ΋͋Δ 42 -PDLJOH4DSJQU TDSJQU1VC,FZ 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQU TDSJQU4JH TJH

    TJH1VC,[email protected]%61[email protected])"4)1VC,)BTI[email protected]&26"-7&3*':[email protected]$)&$,4*(Λ࣮ߦ TJH 536& 1VC, TJH 1VC, TJH 1VC, 1VC, 1VC, 1VC,)BTI TJH 1VC, 1VC,)BTI 1VC,)BTI TJH 1VC, 1VC,)BTI 1VC,)BTI TJH 1VC, [email protected]%61 )"4) ෳ੡ [email protected]&26"- ౳͍͠ TJH1VC, [email protected]%61[email protected])"4)1VC,)BTI [email protected]&26"-7&3*':[email protected]$)&$,4*( ಉ஋͔ 4)"ͷޙ 3*1&.% ෳ੡
  43. 11,)ʢଓ͖ʣ ࢒Γ͸11,ͱಉ͡ 43 -PDLJOH4DSJQU 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQU TJH 1VC, TJH 1VC, 

    536& $)&$,4*( TJH1VC, [email protected]%61[email protected])"4)1VC,)BTI [email protected]&26"-7&3*':[email protected]$)&$,4*( ॺ໊Λݕূ
  44. ঝೝऀ਺ γϯάϧγά ҰਓͷखͰࢿۚΛૹۚͰ͖Δ Ϛϧνγά ๏ਓͷࢿ࢈Λෳ਺ਓͰ؅ཧ͢Δ৔߹ͳͲ PG͕Ұൠత w ଞʹPGͳͲ PGͷΑ͏ͳ৔߹ͩͱɺ伴͕̍ຊͰ΋ฆࣦ͢ΔͱࢿۚΛಈ͔ͤͳ͘ͳΔ 44

    ॺ໊ऀ" ॺ໊ऀ# ॺ໊ऀ$ ൿີ伴# ൿີ伴" ൿີ伴$ ๏ਓͷ ࣗݾࢿ࢈ ๏ਓͷ ސ٬ࢿ࢈ PG Ϛϧνγά PG Ϛϧνγά
  45. Ϛϧνγάͷॺ໊ͰϒϩʔυΩϟετ PGͷ৔߹  ະॺ໊59࡞੒  ॺ໊ऀ"͕ͭ໨ͷॺ໊  ॺ໊ऀ#͕ͭ໨ͷॺ໊  ॺ໊ࡁ59Λ

    
 ϒϩʔυΩϟετ 45 ະॺ໊59 PG ॺ໊ࡁ59 ΋͏Ұਓ͸ॺ໊ෆཁ ॺ໊ऀ$ ॺ໊ऀ" ॺ໊ऀ# ॺ໊ऀ#ͷ ॺ໊ࡁ59 ॺ໊ ॺ໊ ॺ໊ऀ"ͷ ॺ໊ࡁ59 ൿີ伴" ൿີ伴$ ผਓ͕ ૢ࡞ ॺ໊͕ ἧ͏ ϒϩʔυ Ωϟετ ൿີ伴#
  46. Ϛϧνγά NPGOʢOਓதNਓͷॺ໊ͰϩοΫղআͰ͖ΔʣϚϧνγά Α͋͘ΔPGͷྫ 46 -PDLJOH4DSJQU TDSJQU1VC,FZ 6OMPDLJOH4DSJQU TDSJQU4JH [email protected]TJH"4JH#1VC,"1VC,#1VC,$[email protected]$)&$,.6-5*4*( )"4)

    [email protected]TJH"TJH# 1VC,"1VC,#1VC,$ [email protected]$)&$,.6-5*4*( 536&  TJHOBUVSF#  1VCMJD,FZ$  $)&$,.6-5*4*( TJHOBUVSF" 1VCMJD,FZ# 1VCMJD,FZ" 
  47. ษڧ͢Δ্Ͱ͓͢͢Ίͷ:PV5VCFνϟϯωϧ #JUDPJO&EHFʢ೔ຊޠͷಈը΋͋Γʣ IUUQTXXXZPVUVCFDPNDIBOOFM6$ZX4[(J88D6(H5Q:E162 4DBMJOH#JUDPJOʢશͯӳޠʣ IUUQTXXXZPVUVCFDPNDIBOOFM6$NXB%VMN2U9)'0425,R.H ϏοτίΠφʔ൓লձʢ೔ຊޠʣ IUUQTXXXZPVUVCFDPNDIBOOFM6$31*KH-*7J#.4&[BX ೔ຊ҉߸௨՟Ϣʔβձ $$4UVEZ ʲ౰ษڧձʳʢ೔ຊޠʣ

    IUUQTXXXZPVUVCFDPNDIBOOFM6$ZFX;.DZ-R2;J&#WO;RX 47
  48. ࢀߟจݙ #JUDPJO"1FFSUP1FFS&MFDUSPOJD$BTI4ZTUFN IUUQTCJUDPJOPSHCJUDPJOQEG #JUDPJO"1FFSUP1FFS&MFDUSPOJD$BTI4ZTUFN೔ຊޠ༁ IUUQTCJUDPJOPSH fi MFTCJUDPJOQBQFS[email protected]QEG ϏοτίΠϯ࿦จ͔Β͙͞ΔϒϩοΫνΣʔϯͷώϯτ IUUQTXXXPHJTSJDPKQPUDIJSPCBUFDIOJDBMCJUDPJOQBQFS ΞϯυϨΞεɾ.ɾΞϯτϊϓϩεஶࠓҪਸ໵

    ോ֋३Ұ࿠༁ 
 ʮϏοτίΠϯͱϒϩοΫνΣʔϯ҉߸௨՟Λࢧ͑Δٕज़ʯ/55ग़൛ ࢁ࡚ॏҰ࿠ ҆౔ໜږ ాதढ़ଠ࿠ஶ 
 ʰϒϩοΫνΣʔϯɾϓϩάϥϛϯάԾ૝௨՟ೖ໳ʱߨஊࣾ ࢁ࡚ॏҰ࿠ ҆౔ໜږ ۚࢠ༤հ ௕ాൟ޾ஶ 
 ʰϒϩοΫνΣʔϯٕज़֓࿦ཧ࿦ͱ࣮ફʱߨஊࣾ ϏοτόϯΫגࣜձࣾʰϒϩοΫνΣʔϯͷিܸʱฤूҕһձஶ 
 അᔹ๜ඒ؂मʰϒϩοΫνΣʔϯͷিܸʱ೔ܦ#1ࣾ 48