疫学・統計セミナー:データ解析と研究目的との関連

38e2af7f8bdad4f2087ab3d42b627e33?s=47 Shuntaro Sato
December 04, 2019

 疫学・統計セミナー:データ解析と研究目的との関連

疫学・統計セミナー第1回目の動画です.

ハーバード 大学のMiguel教授の論文を参考に,データサイエンスでできることを「記述」,「予測」,「因果推論」の3つに分類し,解説しています.
(Miguel A. Hernán, John Hsu & Brian Healy (2019) A Second Chance to Get Causal Inference Right: A Classification of Data Science Tasks, CHANCE, 32:1, 42-49, DOI: 10.1080/09332480.2019.1579578)

おかしなところがございましたら,ご連絡ください.

Youtube:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgxQ3-S30vU&feature=youtu.be

38e2af7f8bdad4f2087ab3d42b627e33?s=128

Shuntaro Sato

December 04, 2019
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Transcript

  1. σʔλղੳͱݚڀ໨తͱͷؔ࿈ $IVOUBSP !4IVOUBSPPP 1 Ӹֶɾ౷ܭηϛφʔ

  2. 2 0WFSWJFX w σʔλαΠΤϯεͷλεΫͷ෼ྨ w هड़ʢ%FTDSJQUJPOʣ w ༧ଌʢ1SFEJDUJPOʣ w ҼՌਪ࿦ʢ$BVTBM*OGFSFODFʣ

    w ҙࢥܾఆ w Ξ΢τϓοτΛҙࣝͨ͠ݚڀσβΠϯ w ࠓޙͷྲྀΕ
  3. σʔλαΠΤϯε͸ݚڀʹ ͲͷΑ͏ʹؔΘΔ͔ 3

  4. σʔλαΠΤϯεͷֶ໰ͱͯ͠ͷ෼ྨ 4 σʔλαΠΤϯε ౷ܭֶ ਓ޻஌ೳ ػցֶश

  5. ࢀߟͱ͢Δจݙ 5 .JHVFM")FSOÂO +PIO)TV #SJBO)FBMZ   "4FDPOE$IBODFUP(FU$BVTBM *OGFSFODF3JHIU"$MBTTJpDBUJPOPG %BUB4DJFODF5BTLT

     $)"/$&   %0*  
  6. σʔλαΠΤϯεͷλεΫͷ෼ྨ 6 σʔλ هड़ʢ%FTDSJQUJPOʣ ༧ଌʢ1SFEJDUJPOʣ ҼՌਪ࿦ ʢ$BVTBM*OGFSFODFʣ .JHVFM")FSOÂO +PIO)TV#SJBO)FBMZ 

    "4FDPOE$IBODFUP(FU$BVTBM*OGFSFODF3JHIU"$MBTTJpDBUJPOPG%BUB 4DJFODF5BTLT $)"/$&   %0*
  7. هड़ %FTDSJQUJPO 7

  8. هड़ʢ%FTDSJQUJPOʣ 8  ཁ໿ʢ4VNNBSZʣ σʔλͷಛ௃Λ͋Γͷ··਺஋ʢ౷ܭྔʣͰࣔ͢  ՄࢹԽʢ7JTVBMJ[BUJPOʣ σʔλΛਤࣔ͢Δ  ڭࢣͳֶ͠शʢ6OTVQFSWJTFEMFBSOJOHBMHPSJUINTʣ

    ม਺ؒɼ͋Δ͍͸ɼ؍ଌ஋ؒʹαϒάϧʔϓΛݟ͚ͭΔ
  9. Պֶతٙ໰ʢ%FTDSJQUJPOʣ 9 ͋Δूஂͷ಺ɼ౶೘පΛױ͍ͬͯΔਓͷׂ߹͸ʁ ཁ໿  ͋ΔूஂΛ೥ؒ௥੻ௐࠪͨ͠ɽ೥ؒͰͷ౶೘පൃ঱ΛΞ΢τΧ Ϝͱ͢Δɽ౶೘පͷൃ঱ͱؔ࿈ͷ͋Δௐࠪ։࢝࣌ͷม਺͸Կ͔ʁ %FNPHSBQIJD -BCPSBUPSZ %JFU

    (FOPNF 'JUOFTT %JBCFUFT "TTPDJBUJPO
  10. ཁ໿ʢ4VNNBSZʣ 10 தԝ஋ʢ.FEJBOʣ ฏۉ஋ʢ.FBOʣ ࠷খ஋ʢ.JOʣ ࠷େ஋ʢ.BYʣ ఺ ʢ2ʣ ఺ ʢ2ʣ

    UJNF ✖ ✖ ൃ঱ׂ߹ ൃ঱཰ ༗ප཰ ౶೘ප͋Γ ౶೘පͳ͠ உੑ   ঁੑ  
  11. ՄࢹԽʢ7JTVBMJ[BUJPOʣ 11 ୯७ͳάϥϑ͸ ଞͷͲΜͳ΋ͷΑΓ΋ɼ σʔλΞφϦετͷ৺ʹڹ͘৘ใΛ ΑΓଟ͘΋ͨΒ͢ɽ +PIO5VLFZ w )JEB ,

    .VSBUB ) *DIJOPNJZB 5 *OPVF ) 4BUP 4 )BSB 5  &⒎FDUTPGQSPHSBNNFEJOUFSNJUUFOUUIPSBDJDQBSBWFSUFCSBMCPMVTPG MFWPCVQJWBDBJOFPOUIFTQSFBEPGTFOTPSZCMPDLBSBOEPNJ[FE DPOUSPMMFE EPVCMFCMJOETUVEZ
  12. ڭࢣͳֶ͠शʢ6OTVQFSWJTFEMFBSOJOHʣ 12 w /PWFNCSF + +PIOTPO 5 #SZD , ,VUBMJL

    ; #PZLP "3 "VUPO " 4UFQIFOT .  (FOFTNJSSPSHFPHSBQIZXJUIJO&VSPQF/BUVSF     w 4PNFPGUIFpHVSFTJOUIJTQSFTFOUBUJPOBSFUBLFOGSPN"O*OUSPEVDUJPOUP4UBUJTUJDBM-FBSOJOH XJUIBQQMJDBUJPOTJO3 4QSJOHFS  XJUIQFSNJTTJPO GSPNUIFBVUIPST(+BNFT %8JUUFO 5)BTUJFBOE35JCTIJSBOJ ओ੒෼෼ੳ BREAST BREAST CNS CNS RENAL BREAST NSCLC RENAL MELANOMA OVARIAN OVARIAN NSCLC OVARIAN COLON COLON OVARIAN PROSTATE NSCLC NSCLC NSCLC PROSTATE NSCLC MELANOMA RENAL RENAL RENAL OVARIAN UNKNOWN OVARIAN NSCLC CNS CNS CNS NSCLC RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL NSCLC MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA BREAST BREAST COLON COLON COLON COLON COLON BREAST MCF7A−repro BREAST MCF7D−repro LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA K562B−repro K562A−repro LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA 40 80 120 160 Complete Linkage LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA LEUKEMIA K562B−repro K562A−repro RENAL NSCLC BREAST NSCLC BREAST MCF7A−repro BREAST MCF7D−repro COLON COLON COLON RENAL MELANOMA MELANOMA BREAST BREAST MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA MELANOMA OVARIAN OVARIAN NSCLC OVARIAN UNKNOWN OVARIAN NSCLC MELANOMA CNS CNS CNS RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL PROSTATE NSCLC NSCLC NSCLC NSCLC OVARIAN PROSTATE NSCLC COLON COLON OVARIAN COLON COLON CNS CNS BREAST BREAST 40 60 80 100 120 Average Linkage LEUKEMIA RENAL BREAST EUKEMIA EUKEMIA CNS LEUKEMIA IA NSCLC LEUKEMIA OVARIAN NSCLC CNS BREAST NSCLC OVARIAN COLON BREAST MELANOMA RENAL MELANOMA MELANOMA ELANOMA LANOMA LANOMA LANOMA BREAST OVARIAN COLON WN IAN NSCLC NSCLC PROSTATE MELANOMA COLON OVARIAN NSCLC RENAL COLON ROSTATE COLON VARIAN COLON COLON NSCLC NSCLC RENAL NSCLC RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL RENAL CNS CNS CNS 60 80 100 Single Linkage ֊૚తΫϥελϦϯά
  13. ༧ଌ 1SFEJDUJPO 13

  14. Պֶతٙ໰ʢ1SFEJDUJPOʣ 14 w ೖӃ࣌ͷന݂ٿ਺ͷ஋Ͱɼिؒޙͷࢮ๢֬཰Λ༧ଌ͢Δ w ೖӃ࣌ʹه࿥ɾଌఆ͢Δݸͷม਺Ͱɼ िؒޙͷࢮ๢֬཰Λ༧ଌ͢Δ w ͋Δಛ௃Λ࣋ͭঁੑ͕ɼ೥ޙʹ೴ଔதΛൃ঱͢Δ֬཰Λ༧ଌ͢Δ w

    ͋Δಛ௃Λ࣋ͭஉੑͷ೥ޙͷମॏΛ༧ଌ͢Δ ݸਓ͝ͱͷ༧ଌ݁Ռ ͍Ζ͍Ζͳಛ௃ ʢม਺ʣ *OQVUʢೖྗʣ 0VUQVU ʢग़ྗʣ *OQVUͱ0VUQVUΛ ݸਓ͝ͱʹඥ͚ͮΔ िؒޙͷࢮ๢֬཰͸ ೥ޙͷ೴ଔதൃ঱֬཰͸ ೥ޙͷମॏ͸LH
  15. Ϟσϧͷॊೈ͞ͱղऍͷ͠΍͢͞ 15 ղऍͷ͠΍͢͞ ௿ ߴ ௿ ߴ Ϟσϧͷॊೈ͞ ϒϥοΫϘοΫε͞ ύϥϝτϦοΫϞσϧ

    ϊϯύϥϝτϦοΫϞσϧ ઢܗϞσϧ ҰൠԽઢܗϞσϧ ܾఆ໦ ϥϯμϜϑΥϨετ σΟʔϓϥʔχϯά εϓϥΠϯ αϙʔτϕΫλʔϚγʔϯ
  16. ύϥϝτϦοΫͱϊϯύϥϝτϦοΫ 16 Years of Education Seniority Income Years of Education

    Seniority Income ύϥϝτϦοΫ๏ ϊϯύϥϝτϦοΫ๏ εϓϥΠϯۂઢ 4PNFPGUIFpHVSFTJOUIJTQSFTFOUBUJPOBSFUBLFOGSPN"O*OUSPEVDUJPOUP4UBUJTUJDBM-FBSOJOH XJUIBQQMJDBUJPOTJO3 4QSJOHFS  XJUIQFSNJTTJPO GSPNUIFBVUIPST(+BNFT %8JUUFO 5)BTUJFBOE35JCTIJSBOJ
  17. ۩ମྫʢղऍ͠΍͍͢༧ଌʣ 17 1SFEJDUJPOPG*ODJEFOU%JBCFUFT.FMMJUVTJO.JEEMFBHFE"EVMUT 5IF'SBNJOHIBN0⒎TQSJOH4UVEZ த೥੒ਓʹ͓͚Δ౶೘පൃ঱ͷ༧ଌ 8JMTPO 18 .FJHT +# 4VMMJWBO

    - 'PY $4 /BUIBO %. %`"HPTUJOP 3#  1SFEJDUJPOPGJODJEFOUEJBCFUFTNFMMJUVTJONJEEMFBHFEBEVMUT UIF'SBNJOHIBN0⒎TQSJOH4UVEZ"SDIJWFTPGJOUFSOBMNFEJDJOF    ೥ྸ ੑผ ౶೘පͷՈ଒ྺ #.* ߴ݂ѹ )%-$ தੑࢷ๱ ۭෲ݂࣌౶ ෲғ ౶ෛՙݕࠪ ೥ޙͷ ౶೘පൃ঱ͷ༧ଌ ϞσϧΛ࡞੒
  18. ۩ମྫʢղऍ͠΍͍͢༧ଌʣ 18 ଟมྔϩδεςΟοΫճؼ෼ੳͰ ZS5%.΁ͷม਺ͷد༩ͱ༧ଌ 30$ΧʔϒͰ༧ଌੑೳΛධՁ 8JMTPO 18 .FJHT +# 4VMMJWBO

    - 'PY $4 /BUIBO %. %`"HPTUJOP 3#  1SFEJDUJPOPGJODJEFOUEJBCFUFTNFMMJUVTJONJEEMFBHFEBEVMUT UIF'SBNJOHIBN0⒎TQSJOH4UVEZ"SDIJWFTPGJOUFSOBMNFEJDJOF   
  19. ۩ମྫʢղऍ͠΍͍͢༧ଌʣ 19 Table3ͷϩδεςΟοΫճؼ෼ੳ݁Ռ w ༧ଌ֬཰Λܭࢉͮ͠Β͍ w ࢖͍ͮΒ͍ Z = 0.994FY

    + 1.65)JHI#1 + ⋯ είΞϦϯά w ܭࢉ͠΍͍͢ w ༧ଌੑೳ͸Լ͕Δ 8JMTPO 18 .FJHT +# 4VMMJWBO - 'PY $4 /BUIBO %. %`"HPTUJOP 3#  1SFEJDUJPOPGJODJEFOUEJBCFUFTNFMMJUVTJONJEEMFBHFEBEVMUT UIF'SBNJOHIBN0⒎TQSJOH4UVEZ"SDIJWFTPGJOUFSOBMNFEJDJOF   
  20. ۩ମྫʢϒϥοΫϘοΫεͷ༧ଌʣ 20 %JBHOPTUJD"TTFTTNFOUPG%FFQ-FBSOJOH"MHPSJUINTGPS%FUFDUJPO PG-ZNQI/PEF.FUBTUBTFTJO8PNFO8JUI#SFBTU$BODFS ೕ͕Μঁੑʹ͓͚ΔϦϯύઅసҠݕग़ͷͨΊͷ σΟʔϓϥʔχϯάΞϧΰϦζϜͷ਍அධՁ ػցֶश %FFQ-FBSOJOH 3BOEPN'PSFTU 47.

    సҠ͋Γ సҠͳ͠ ڭࢣσʔλ ೖྗ ֶश Ͳͬͪʁ ੑೳ ධՁ UFTUEBUB #FKOPSEJ #& 7FUB . 7BO%JFTU 1+ 7BO(JOOFLFO # ,BSTTFNFJKFS / -JUKFOT ( (FFTTJOL 0  %JBHOPTUJDBTTFTTNFOUPGEFFQMFBSOJOH BMHPSJUINTGPSEFUFDUJPOPGMZNQIOPEFNFUBTUBTFTJOXPNFOXJUICSFBTUDBODFS+BNB   
  21. ۩ମྫʢϒϥοΫϘοΫεͷ༧ଌʣ 21 w਍அʹ͔͚Δ࣌ؒΛ੍ݶ͠ͳ͍පཧҩͱಉ͡Α͏ͳ਍அੑೳ wσΟʔϓϥʔχϯάͷํ͕࣌ؒ͸͔͔Βͳ͍ wػցֶशͷதͰ΋ɼ ಛʹσΟʔϓϥʔχϯά͸ϒϥοΫϘοΫεͱͳΔ wੑೳ͸҆ఆ͢Δ͕ɼղऍΛ͍ͨ͠৔߹͸͙ͦΘͳ͍ *OQVU ݁Ռ ϒϥοΫϘοΫε

    Կ͕ͲͷΑ͏ʹ ؔ࿈͍ͯ͠Δͷ͔ Θ͔Βͳ͍ #FKOPSEJ #& 7FUB . 7BO%JFTU 1+ 7BO(JOOFLFO # ,BSTTFNFJKFS / -JUKFOT ( (FFTTJOL 0  %JBHOPTUJDBTTFTTNFOUPGEFFQMFBSOJOH BMHPSJUINTGPSEFUFDUJPOPGMZNQIOPEFNFUBTUBTFTJOXPNFOXJUICSFBTUDBODFS+BNB   
  22. ҼՌਪ࿦ $BVTBM*OGFSFODF 22

  23. ҼՌਪ࿦ʢ$BVTBM*OGFSFODFʣ 23 w େ௎͕ΜͷεΫϦʔχϯά͕ࢮ๢཰Λݮগͤ͞Δ͔ʁ w ελνϯΛ౤༩͢Δ͜ͱ͸ɼ ͋Δಛ௃Λ࣋ͭঁੑͷ೴ଔதͷϦεΫΛݮΒ͔͢ʁ ελνϯ ೴ଔத ަབྷ

    Ҽࢠ ม਺ؒͷؔ܎Λ੔ཧ͢Δ ໼ҹ͸ɼઐ໳Ոͷ஌ࣝʹΑΓ ߏங͢Δม਺ؒͷؔ܎ ڵຯ͋Δूஂ മ࿐ ඇമ࿐ ҼՌޮՌ WT ʢελνϯ౤༩ʣ ʢελνϯඇ౤༩ʣ ݪҼ ݁Ռ
  24. w ݂ѹ͕ߴ͚Ε͹ɼ೥ऩ্͕͕Δ w ମॏ͕ॏ͚Ε͹ɼ଍͕଎͍ w λόίΛٵ͑͹ɼ৺ے伷࠹ʹͳΔ֬཰͕ߴ͍ w େ௎͕ΜεΫϦʔχϯάΛड͚Ε͹ɼ େ௎͕ΜʹΑΔࢮ๢Λ཈੍Ͱ͖Δ 24

    ݪҼ ݁Ռ w ݂ѹ w ମॏ w ٤Ԏ w େ௎͕ΜεΫϦʔχϯά w ೥ऩ w ଍ͷ଎͞ w ৺ے伷࠹ w େ௎͕ΜʹΑΔࢮ๢ ໰͍͔͚
  25. ҼՌؔ܎ͱ૬ؔؔ܎ 25 ݪҼ ݁Ռ ҼՌؔ܎ ݪҼ ݁Ռ ૬ؔؔ܎ w ݪҼ͕ى͖͔ͨΒ

    ݁Ռ͕ੜͨ͡ w ݪҼΛม͑ͨΒ ݁Ռ͕มΘΔ w ؔ܎͸͋Δ w ݪҼͱ݁Ռͷؔ܎͔ ෼͔Βͳ͍
  26. ҼՌؔ܎Λ૬ؔؔ܎ͱ൑அ͢ΔͨΊͷϙΠϯτ 26 ͭͷม਺ͷؔ܎͕૬ؔؔ܎Ͱ͋Δ৔߹ɼ ͭͷ಺ͷ͍ͣΕ͔ʹ͋ͯ͸·Δ  ʮ·ͬͨ͘ͷۮવʯͰ͸ͳ͍͔  ʮୈࡾͷม਺ʯ͸ଘࡏ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍͔  ʮٯͷҼՌؔ܎ʯ͸ଘࡏ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍͔

    தࣨ຀ࢠɼ௡઒༑հ  ʮݪҼͱ݁Ռʯͷܦࡁֶσʔλ͔Βਅ࣮Λݟൈ͘ࢥߟ๏μΠϠϞϯυࣾ
  27. ʮ·ͬͨ͘ͷۮવʯͰ͸ͳ͍͔ 27 χίϥεɾέΠδͷ೥ؒөըग़ԋຊ਺ͱϓʔϧͷṆࢮऀ਺       

                                                                      ! " IUUQUZMFSWJHFODPNTQVSJPVTDPSSFMBUJPOT
  28. ʮୈࡾͷม਺ʯ͸ଘࡏ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍͔ 28 ݂ѹ څྉ ೥ྸ ݪҼ ݁Ռ ݟ͔͚ͤͷ૬ؔ ೥ྸ্͕͕Ε͹ څྉ΋্͕Δ

    ೥ྸ্͕͕Ε͹ ݂ѹ΋্͕Δ ަབྷҼࢠʢ$POGPVOEJOH'BDUPSʣ ݪҼʢ݂ѹʣͱ݁Ռʢڅྉʣʹ ӨڹΛ༩͑Δม਺ ୈࡾͷม਺
  29. ʮٯͷҼՌؔ܎ʯ͸ଘࡏ͍ͯ͠ͳ͍͔ 29 ܯ࡯׭ͷ ਺ ൜ࡑͷ ൃੜ݅਺ ݪҼ ݁Ռ ٯͷҼՌؔ܎ ൜ࡑͷൃੜ݅਺ʹӨڹΛ༩͑ΔཁҼͷௐࠪΛ͍ͯͯ͠

    ܯ࡯׭ͷ਺͕ଟ͍஍Ҭ͸ɼ൜ࡑ݅਺͕ଟ͍͜ͱ͕Θ͔ͬͨ ܯ࡯׭ͷ ਺ ൜ࡑͷ ൃੜ݅਺ ݪҼ ݁Ռ தࣨ຀ࢠɼ௡઒༑հ  ʮݪҼͱ݁Ռʯͷܦࡁֶσʔλ͔Βਅ࣮Λݟൈ͘ࢥߟ๏μΠϠϞϯυࣾ
  30. νϣίϨʔτফඅྔͱϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆ऀ਺ͱͷؔ܎ 30 w Ұਓ౰ͨΓͷνϣίϨʔτͷ೥ؒফඅྔ͕ଟ͍ࠃ΄Ͳɼ ϊʔϕϧ৆Λड৆͍ͯ͠Δਓͷ਺͕ଟ͍ͱ͍͏͜ͱ͕Θ͔ͬͨ .FTTFSMJ ') 4BSNBEJ # "NJOVEEJO

    ' )BNJE . 4BBSJ / "CEVM)BNJE " *TNBJM "  $IPDPMBUFBOE:PVS)FBMUI/&OHM+.FE     ͜Ε͸ҼՌؔ܎ͱ૬ؔؔ܎ͷ ͲͪΒͩΖ͏͔ʁ w ࠃຽ͕Ұਓ౰ͨΓ೥ؒH ଟ͘νϣίϨʔτΛઁऔ͢Δͱɼ ͦͷࠃͷϊʔϕϧ৆ड৆ऀͷ਺͕ ਓ૿͑Δ
  31. ޮՌͱؔ࿈ʢʣ 31 ݪҼ ݁Ռ ҼՌؔ܎ ݪҼ ݁Ռ ૬ؔؔ܎ w ࠶ͼݪҼ͕ىͬͨ͜ͳΒɼ

    ಉ݁͡Ռ͕ಘΒΕΔ w ҼՌؔ܎͕͋Δͱ͖ɼݪҼͱ݁Ռͷ ؔ܎ΛޮՌʢ&⒎FDUʣͱ͍͏ w ࠶ͼݪҼ͕ىͬͨ͜ͱͯ͠΋ɼ ಉ݁͡Ռ͕ಘΒΕΔͱ͸ߟ͑ʹ͍͘ w ҼՌؔ܎Λࣔͤͳ͍ͱ͖ɼݪҼͱ݁Ռͷ ؔ܎Λؔ࿈ʢ"TTPDJBUJPOʣͱ͍͏ &⒎FDUͱ"TTPDJBUJPO͸ݫ֨ʹ۠ผ͢Δ
  32. ޮՌͱؔ࿈ʢʣ 32 $BVTBM &⒎FDU "TTPDJBUJPO WT WT ݚڀର৅ूஂ εΫϦʔχϯά͋Γ εΫϦʔχϯάͳ͠

    w ୯७ͳܭࢉ͔ΒಘΒΕΔͷ͸ɼؔ࿈ʢ"TTPDJBUJPOʣ w ޮՌʢ$BVTBM&⒎FDUʣΛܭࢉ͢Δʹ͸ɼҼՌਪ࿦͕ඞཁ w ൓ࣄ࣮ͱ͍͏֓೦Λಋೖ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ w ࠓޙɼઆ໌͠·͢ )FSOÂO." 3PCJOT+.  $BVTBM*OGFSFODF#PDB3BUPO$IBQNBO)BMM$3$ GPSUIDPNJOH
  33. ൓ࣄ࣮ʢ$PVOUFSGBDUVBMʣ 33 ࣄ࣮ɹɿղ೤ࡎΛҿΜͩΒ೤͕Լ͕ͬͨ ൓ࣄ࣮ɿղ೤ࡎΛҿ·ͳ͔ͬͨΒɼ ɹɹɹɹ೤͸Ͳ͏ͳ͍ͬͯͨͩΖ͏ʁ ࣄ࣮ɹɿʓʓʹձ͔ͬͨΒɼҩྍऀΛ໨ࢦ͍ͯ͠Δ ൓ࣄ࣮ɿʓʓʹձΘͳ͔ͬͨΒɼԿʹͳ͍ͬͯͨͩΖ͏ʁ ҼՌؔ܎ͱ͸ ݪҼ͕ىͬͨ͜ͱ͍͏ʮࣄ࣮ʯʹ͓͚Δ݁Ռͱɼ ݪҼ͕ى͜Βͳ͔ͬͨͱ͍͏ʮ൓ࣄ࣮ʯʹ͓͚Δ݁ՌΛ

    ൺֱͯ͠Θ͔Δ
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  35. ۩ମྫʢ0CTFSWBUJPOBMTUVEZʣ 35 4FSVNCJMJSVCJOBOEUIFSJTLPGIZQFSUFOTJPO ݪҼ ݁Ռ #JMJSVCJO )ZQFSUFOTJPO &⒎FDU $POGPVOEFS w

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  36. ༧ଌʹΑΔҙຯͷͳ͍ఏҊ 36 ৺ෆશױऀͷσʔλΛར༻ͯ͠ ೥Ҏ಺ʹࢮ๢͢ΔױऀΛ༧ଌ͢ΔΞϧΰϦζϜ ೖӃྺ͕༧ޙ༧ଌʹ໾ཱͭม਺ͩͱ͢Δ ʢ೥Ҏ಺ʹࢮ๢͢Δ֬཰͕ߴ͘ͳΔʣ ෼ੳͷ݁Ռ ೥Ҏ಺ʹࢮ๢͢Δ֬཰͕ߴ͘ͳΔ͔Βɼ ࠓපؾͷױऀʹೖӃ͠ͳ͍Α͏ಇ͖͔͚Α͏ʂ ͋Εʁ

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  38. 38 ҼՌߏ଄Λ͔ͭΉ ҼՌਪ࿦͢ΔͨΊʹ͸ɼݪҼͱ݁ՌɼͦΕΒʹؔ࿈͢Δม਺Λ ઐ໳Ոͷ஌ࣝͰશͯॻ͖ग़͠ɼߏ଄Խ͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ %"( %JSFDUFE"DZDMJD(SBQI ໐: 䤶 䔽iۀ䢉ɾ ͳ

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  39. 39 ೛৷தͷ٤Ԏͱೕࣇͷࢮ๢཰ͱͷؔ܎ )FSOÂOEF[%ÍB[ 4 4DIJTUFSNBO &' )FSOÂO ."  5IFCJSUIXFJHIUlQBSBEPYzVODPWFSFE

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  40. 40 ೛৷தͷ٤Ԏ͕ೕࣇͷࢮ๢཰ΛԼ͛Δʁ )FSOÂOEF[%ÍB[ 4 4DIJTUFSNBO &' )FSOÂO ."  5IFCJSUIXFJHIUlQBSBEPYzVODPWFSFE

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  41. 41 ͳͥ#JSUI8FJHIU1BSBEPY͕ى͔ͬͨ͜ʁ ະଌఆཁҼ ࢮ๢ ٤Ԏͷ༗ແ ͭͷม਺ͷ߹ྲྀ఺Λ৚͚݅ͮΔͱؔ࿈͕Ώ͕Ή αϒάϧʔϓղੳΛͯ͠͸͍͚ͳ͔ͬͨ -#8 બ୒όΠΞεʢ4FMFDUJPO#JBTʣ ʢපؾ౳ʣ

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  43. 43 ࠓޙͷྲྀΕ ʢਫʣ Ӹֶͱ͸ʁ ࣬පͷൃੜͷଌఆ ҼՌύΠ ൃੜׂ߹ɼ཰ɼ༗ප཰ ϦεΫൺɼϦεΫࠩɼΦοζൺɼ཰ൺ ʢۚʣ Ӹֶݚڀͷ෼ྨ

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