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Interior Methods of Water Control

Interior Methods of Water Control

Positive versus Negative Side Waterproofing

Negative Side Techniques*:

Interior Coatings / Overlays
Surface Sealing & Crack Routing
Crack / Joint Grouting
Water Management / Drainage
Electro-Osmotic Pulse (EOP)

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Structural Group

August 14, 2014
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Transcript

  1. A Structural Group Company Interior Methods of Water Control Brent

    Anderson, PE November 5, 2010 Los Angeles, Ca.
  2. A Structural Group Company Agenda  Positive versus Negative Side

    Waterproofing  Negative Side Techniques*:  Interior Coatings / Overlays  Surface Sealing & Crack Routing  Crack / Joint Grouting  Water Management / Drainage  Electro-Osmotic Pulse (EOP)
  3. A Structural Group Company Does Water Leakage Cause you Pain?

     Joint Leakage  Soil Particle Flow  Water Treatment Required  Mold & Musty Smells  Corrosion  Slip Hazards  Ice Buildup
  4. A Structural Group Company Mold—Gives off VOC’s Indoor Air Quality

    Trapped Water + Heat = Mold Growth Mold Growth
  5. A Structural Group Company 15% Water Creates Micro-voids  Aggregate

    (75%) + Cement (10%) + Water(15%)  Microscopic cracks and voids exist everywhere in concrete.  Concrete is a “HARD SPONGE”  Aggregates and hydrated cement is net negative---Voids are net positive
  6. A Structural Group Company AGGREGATE 70% MIX 1 LEAN RICH

    MIX 4 MIX 3 LEAN 15% 18% 8% 28% 31% 70% 30% BY VOLUME BY VOLUME PASTE AGGREGATE 70% 30% 20% 30% 40% 40% ROCK) ARE 70% OF THE MIX. BAR 4 NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE CEMENT WATER AIR SAND COARSE AGG. AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE PASTE AGGREGATE BAR 3 PROPORTIONS OF CONCRETE 10 + 20 + 30 + 40 = 100% RANGE IN PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS USED IN CONCRETE, BY ABSOLUTE VOLUME. BARS 1 AND 3 REPRESENT RICH MIXES WITH SMALL SIZE AGGREGATES. BARS 2 AND 4 REPRESENTS LEAN MIXES WITH LARGE AGGREGATES. CONCRETE IS BROADLY DESCRIBED AS AIR OR NON-AIR ENTRAINED. AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE USUALLY REQUIRES SLIGHTLY LESS WATER FOR A SIMILAR SLUMP, AS COMPARED TO NON-AIR ENTRAINED. CONCRETE IS BASICALLY PROPORTIONED (10-20-30-40 = 100 %). THE CEMENT PASTE IS ABOUT 30% OF THE MIX, (10% CEMENT, 15% WATER AND 5% AIR), AGGREGATES (30% SAND, 10% 20% 30% 40% CEMENT WATER AIR SAND COARSE AGG. RICH MIX 2 BAR 1 BAR 2 10% 15% 5% ~ 30% 40% ~ 7% 14% 4% 24% 51% 40% ROCK 10% CEMENT 30% SAND 15% WATER 5% AIR 15% 21% 8% 30% 31% 7% 16% 1% 25% 51% 10% 18% 2% 30% 40% ~ ~ 40% ROCK 10% CEMENT 30% SAND 18% WATER 2% AIR
  7. A Structural Group Company AIR BUBBLE AVERAGE 10 µm TO

    OVER 1,000µm ENTRAPPED AIR ENTRAINED AIR - 10 TO 1000 µm 100 µm ROCK GRAVEL COARSE SAND FINE SAND, ENTRAINED AIR BUBBLE, MACRO VOIDS SILT, CEMENT, AIR BUBBLE OF ENTRAINED AIR µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm µm 1" SIEVE 3/8" SIEVE #4 SIEVE, #100 SIEVE, #200 SIEVE, #325 SIEVE, 25,000 9,500 4,750 150 75 45 25 20 15 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.00025 SLAG, SILT, CEMENT 1 mil CRACK, CEMENT, SILT, LARGE PORE CAPILLARY .02 mm SILT, CEMENT, FLYASH, ENTRAINED AIR BUBBLE FLY ASH, MICROFINE CEMENT, MACRO VOIDS SILICA, CALCITED CLAY, MACRO VOIDS MICRO SILICA, BLEED WATER TRACKS MICRO SILICA, MICRO VOIDS, CAPILLARIES MICRO-VOID, MICRO PORE WATER, CATION, ANION RELATIVE PARTICLES SIZE
  8. A Structural Group Company SG = 2.32 SG = 2.25

    OTHER THAN AIR (ENTRAINED AND/OR ENTRAPPED), WATER IS THE LIGHTEST MATERIAL IN CONCRETE. CEMENT IS THE HEAVIEST. THIS IS WHY BLEED WATER RISES AND COARSE AGGREGATE TENDS TO SETTLE IN FRESH CONCRETE. FIGURE 4: SHOWS AREA OF TWO DIFFERENT CEMENT PASTE MATRIX UNITS. THE w/c = 0.4, IS CONSIDERABLY MORE DENSE THAN w/c = 0.7. HIGHER DENSITY CONCRETE MEANS LESS INTERCONNECTING VOIDS. c c = = FINE FINE SAND CEMENT PARTICLES & WATER 145 pcf - + 140 pcf - + PARTICLES SAND PARTICLES FINE SAND PARTICLES w/c = 0.7 w/c = 0.7 w/c = 0.4 DENSITY DENSITY DENSITY OF CONCRETE w/c = 0.4 FIGURE 4 WHEN w < 0.4, WET CURING MAY BE NEEDED TO HYDRATE ALL CEMENT WHEN w > 0.4, EXCESS WATER IS LEFT BEHIND IN THE PORES IN THEORY - ONLY ABOUT 22% TO 27% BY WEIGHT OF WATER IS NEEDED TO HYDRATE CEMENT
  9. A Structural Group Company ENTRAINED AIR BUBBLE CEMENT ENTRAINED AIR

    BUBBLE CEMENT PARTICLE CEMENT ABSORBING WATER AND VOLUME INCREASE HYDRATING CEMENT PARTICLE AS CEMENT PARTICLE ABSORBS WATER IT SLIGHTLY EXPANDS. THE VOLUME LEFT BY WATER IS TAKEN UP BY EXPANDING CEMENT PARTICLES CEMENT + WATER => CEMENT HYDRATION CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CAPILLARY SAND PARTICLE GEL PORES PORE SPACE FIGURE 5B SAND PARTICLE TOWELED SURFACE INLET / EXIT POINT OF CAPILLARY
  10. A Structural Group Company ENTRAINED AIR BUBBLE SAND PARTICLE CEMENT

    CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CEMENT CAPILLARY GEL PORES PORE SPACE FIGURE 5B SAND PARTICLE TOWELED SURFACE INLET EXIT POINT OF CAPILLARY
  11. A Structural Group Company Concrete @ 3500 psi is Watertight

     Except at:  Joints  Cracks, and  Honeycombs
  12. A Structural Group Company Water Leakage Paths FORMED OBJECTS POUROUS

    AVENUES SINGLE OR MULTIPLE CRACKS Form Ties Joints M / E / P Single Cracks Multiple Cracks Rock Pockets Shadowing
  13. A Structural Group Company Outrigger Reef Hotel Parking Garage Built

    in 1953, 50 yrs of leakage  Joint leakage  Crack leakage  Slab at Mean Sea Level  Black and Green Algae Growth
  14. A Structural Group Company 7'-6" HIGH TIDE MEAN SEA LEVEL

    LOW TIDE ELEVATION OF FLOOR
  15. A Structural Group Company 1” Concrete = 2.3” Water 

    Top of floor is at mean sea level  High tide is +/- 2 ft above floor slab  Low tide is +/- 2 ft below floor slab  Slab is 6” thick, #4@ 12” o.c., w/ inverted beams at column lines
  16. A Structural Group Company Positive / Negative Side + Positive

    Side - Negative Side
  17. A Structural Group Company First Hawaiian Bank  Excavation is

    52 ft. deep, 42 ft. below Sea Level  11 Dewatering Wells, 8 ft. Thick Structural Slab  Soil Mixed Wall Retention System
  18. A Structural Group Company Tracked Man-lift

  19. A Structural Group Company Grids and Secondary Grouting

  20. A Structural Group Company Drilling Holes Thru the Concrete ?

  21. A Structural Group Company Negative Side Systems Coatings Water Management

    Electro Osmosis Injection
  22. A Structural Group Company The Three (3) Common And Basic

    Types of Grouting Surface Interception Backside
  23. A Structural Group Company Side Walls of Cracks Expansion &

    Contraction Due to Temperature and Shrinkage Contamination on side walls of crack pH of liquid in crack (3.5 – 13) Shadows at steel interface Corrosion at steel interface
  24. A Structural Group Company Injection Ports Surface Mounted Injection 

    Low Pressure  10 PSI to 50 PSI  Epoxy  Urethanes  (Foams or Gels)
  25. A Structural Group Company Surface Mounted Porting Gel epoxy for

    sealing surface
  26. A Structural Group Company Epoxy Injection  Epoxy resin @

    1-to-1 or 2-to-1 ratio  Use moisture insensitive resin  Tight cracks require low viscosity resin
  27. A Structural Group Company Waste Water Treatment Sludge Tank 

    Existing Coating Wore loose  Surface Mounted Urethane Injection  Cracks Filled with Decomposed Sludge  Difficult to Seal Contaminated Cracks
  28. A Structural Group Company Interception Grouting  Pressure from 100

    PSI to 3000 PSI  Urethanes  Micro Fine Cement  Acrylamides Injection into center third of leakage plane
  29. A Structural Group Company Crack / Joint Grouting  Epoxy

    (High mod, low mod, viscosity)  Urethane (One part, two part, viscosity)  Hydrophobic  Hydrophilic  Bentonite (Water or plasticizer activated)  Polymeric Gel (Rubber polymers, viscosity)  Acrylamide or Acrylic (Powder or liquid pre-polymer)
  30. A Structural Group Company Excessive Porting, and Injection Pressures

  31. A Structural Group Company Soil Boring Data After Pool Settlement

  32. A Structural Group Company Existing Excavation Adjacent to Pool Structure

     Soil Anchors relaxed and ground settled  Adjacent Foundation Settlement  Pool Structure Cracks  Water Drains from Pool  Water comes thru Wood lagging activates bentonite  Crack Repair on Pool Cracks
  33. A Structural Group Company General Porting Procedure  Drill holes

    at 45*  Hole spacing ½ the wall thickness  Alternate each side of crack  Core or hammer drill  Blow out dust and debris from cracks  Flush cracks with water
  34. A Structural Group Company Packer inserted into hole @ 45*

  35. A Structural Group Company Interception Grouting  Drill holes in

    mortar joints  Use 3/8” ports  Hole pattern about 6” o.c.  Crack in concrete substrate may not match crack in tile
  36. A Structural Group Company Needle Injection Thru Caulk joints

  37. A Structural Group Company Backside Grouting thru a Shotcrete Tank

    Wall at an Aquarium Acrylic Panel
  38. A Structural Group Company Be Careful Where You Drill

  39. A Structural Group Company The Void You Hit May Be

    A Pipe
  40. A Structural Group Company Backside Grouting  Thru-Structural Element Grouting

     Polymeric Gel  Bentonite  Acrylamides  Urethane Gels  Sodium Silicate
  41. A Structural Group Company Three Steps to Grouting  Stage

    1 grouting, drill through floor, fill 1” void between concrete and sand  Stage 2 grouting, drill and intercept cracks and joints  Stage 3 grouting, inject into sand and solidify it for future excavation
  42. A Structural Group Company Stage 3 Grouting  Drill through

    floor and deep into soil  Alternate drill hole pattern  Create grouted soil columns
  43. A Structural Group Company 3'-0" 13'-0" 7'-6" 18'-0" GROUT TUBES

    MANSHEETS DRIVE GROUT TUBES INTO SOIL
  44. A Structural Group Company 3'-0" 13'-0" 7'-6" 18'-0" SOLIDIFY A

    SPECIFIED ZONE
  45. A Structural Group Company 3'-0" 7'-6" 18'-0" 13'-0" EXCAVATE LOOSE

    SOIL
  46. A Structural Group Company Grouted soil columns  Excavate un-grouted

    material between soil columns  Needle inject soil if leakage occurs
  47. A Structural Group Company Lowering the Pipe Sections into Place

  48. A Structural Group Company Two Story Food Production Facility 

    Wet Processing on Upper Floor  Storage on Lower Floors  No Real Waterproofing Between Floors
  49. A Structural Group Company Food Packaging Area

  50. A Structural Group Company SECTION THROUGH ACID BRICK FLOOR 5'-0"

    FUREN JOINT ACID BRICK SLOPED CONCRETE 10 MIL POLY 2" EXTRUDED INSULATION 2" EXTRUDED INSULATION 10 MIL POLY CONCRETE STEEL PAN DECKING
  51. A Structural Group Company Grouting & Ratio Checks

  52. A Structural Group Company Two-Part Acrylic Grout

  53. A Structural Group Company Grout Comes Up Thru Floor Where

    Water Was Previously Leaking
  54. A Structural Group Company Interior Coatings / Overlays  Polyurea

    Based  Urethane Based  Methyl Meth- acrylic  Epoxy Based  Polyester Based  Portland Cement with additives:  Silica Sand  Fibers or Mesh  Latex Additives  Metal Oxide  Chemical Reactants  Sodium Silicate Interior Coating Water Close to Interior
  55. A Structural Group Company Cementitious Mortar Coating Most Mortars are

    Latex Based
  56. A Structural Group Company Interior Coating & Penetrants  1”

    x 1-1/2” Slot Cut-Out in Concrete  Dry-pack Crack or Joint  Hydraulic Cement Plugs  Crystalline Growth Mortar Plugs Chip Out & Dry Pack Interior Coating
  57. A Structural Group Company Crystalline Growth, Penetrating Agent Sodium Silicate

    Based
  58. A Structural Group Company Dry-Packing of Routed Out Cracks Cracks

    are routed out 1.5” x 1.5” and dry-packed with crystalline mortar
  59. A Structural Group Company Dry Packing Techniques BEST GOOD ADEQUATE

    MARGINAL POOR 1” - 1½” 1” - 1½” 1” - 1½” ¾” - ¾” Surface
  60. A Structural Group Company Integral Waterproofing

  61. A Structural Group Company Water Management / Drainage  Interior

    Drain Tile Methods  Dimpled Sheet Membrane  Double Wall Construction
  62. A Structural Group Company Water Management / Drainage  Let

    Water Leak In  Manage it to Collection Point
  63. A Structural Group Company Cored Slot in an Expansion Joint

    Sump Pump Provides Temporary Dewatering
  64. A Structural Group Company Issues with Water Management  Iron

    Oaker in Soil  Bacteria consumes iron in soil when it contacts oxygen  Forms a “jelly-like” substance  Will plug up drainage systems  It is not harmful to the touch
  65. A Structural Group Company Perched Water On Top Of Bedrock

  66. A Structural Group Company Grouting Leaking Joints In Rock

  67. A Structural Group Company Placing Concrete on Dimpled Sheet Membrane

  68. A Structural Group Company Common Use Of EOP- Leaking Construction

    Joints & Static Cracks Static Cracks in Floor/Wall Leaking CJ’s
  69. A Structural Group Company EOP as a Negative Side Technique

     Electro Osmosis is created by an electric field  Creates a “virtual” positive side membrane  EOP dries the concrete around areas of repair  Provides Cathodic Protection to reinforcing steel
  70. A Structural Group Company 15% Water Creates Micro-voids Aggregate (75%)

    + Cement (10%) + Water(15%)
  71. A Structural Group Company Electro Osmotic Pulse (EOP) Inject cracks

    and treat penetrations to create monolithic concrete Install EOP System Components • Anodes (+) • Construction joints • Significant cracks • Cathodes (-) • Rebar connections (-) to provide cathodic protection • Power supply and monitoring Cathode (-) Rebar Connection (-) Anode (+) Power Supply + -
  72. A Structural Group Company Electro Osmotic Pulse (EOP)  Voltage

    => 20 to 28 Volts  Very Little Energy Usage  Pulsating Current  Anodes at Point of Leakage  Cathodes About Every 50'
  73. A Structural Group Company Alkali Metals Ca, Mg, Na, K

  74. A Structural Group Company Cat-ion / An-ion Atoms Connect &

    Disconnect Continuously  Sodium atom gives up electron “-”, becomes net “+”  Chlorine atom takes electron “-”, becomes net “-”  Sodium atom contracts, “+” core pulls electrons in  Chlorine atom expands, “-” electron cloud expands
  75. A Structural Group Company Water is a Polar Molecule

  76. A Structural Group Company Water Forms Weak Bonds to Other

    Water Molecules
  77. A Structural Group Company Water Forms Stronger Bonds to Cations

  78. A Structural Group Company Water Molecules Form Hydration Shells Around

    Cations (solvation)
  79. A Structural Group Company 15% Water Creates Micro-voids Aggregate (75%)

    + Cement (10%) + Water(15%)
  80. A Structural Group Company Osmotic Pressure Builds Where Cations are

    Concentrated
  81. A Structural Group Company Crack Repairs are Protected by the

    Concrete Drying Process
  82. A Structural Group Company Essence – Restoration Economics Moisture &

    Vapor Control - Waterproofing Difficulty Of Solution Investment Required Interior Coatings Crack Filling “Injection Drainage (sump pumps; etc.) “EOP” “electrical barrier” Exterior Membranes Only solutions when high water table! low low
  83. A Structural Group Company Case Studies  Military Storage Bunkers

     Hydraulic Structures- Locks and Dams  Governmental/Institutional Buildings  Tunnels, Roadways, Transportation  Private Buildings
  84. A Structural Group Company Ammunition Storage Bunker Wet Concrete Causes

    Corrosion of Material and Equipment
  85. A Structural Group Company High RH—Leads to Corrosion

  86. A Structural Group Company Locate Reinforcing Steel

  87. A Structural Group Company Cut Anode Slots

  88. A Structural Group Company Install Anodes

  89. A Structural Group Company Install Cathodes

  90. A Structural Group Company EOP Installed in Joints and Cracks

  91. A Structural Group Company Install / Connect Power  28

    volt, DC power supply, with a pulsating square wave
  92. A Structural Group Company Case Study: Lock & Dam 

    Lock & Dam No. 27  Alton, Illinois
  93. A Structural Group Company Case Study: Lock & Dam Before

    After
  94. A Structural Group Company Case Study: US Treasury  U.S.

    Treasury Building  Washington D.C.  Moisture migrating up through floor  Water leakage through deck planter  Stackybotris mold under VCT flooring
  95. A Structural Group Company Case Study: US Treasury Before After

  96. A Structural Group Company Case Study: Elevator Pits Marsh’s Edge,

    St. Simons Island, Georgia
  97. A Structural Group Company Case Study: Elevator Pits Before After

  98. A Structural Group Company Highway 101 and Castillo Street Santa

    Barbara, CA US Highway 101 US Highway 101 Castillo St. Castillo St. Exit Ramp Exit Ramp On Ramp On Ramp US Highway 101 US Highway 101 Castillo St. Castillo St. Exit Ramp Exit Ramp On Ramp On Ramp Roadways
  99. A Structural Group Company Underpass Before EOP Highway 101/Castillo St.

     Pavers Placed Over Concrete to Improve Skid Resistance.
  100. A Structural Group Company Expansion Joint Before EOP Highway 101/Castillo

    St.  Water Leakage at Joints
  101. A Structural Group Company Off-Ramp Before EOP Highway 101/Castillo St.

     Water Leakage at Cracks
  102. A Structural Group Company Underpass Before EOP Highway 101/Castillo St.

     Hydrostatic Conditions
  103. A Structural Group Company Highway 101/Castillo St.  EOP Applied

    in Strips @ 2’ oc
  104. A Structural Group Company Highway 101/Castillo St.  New Pavement

    Installed After EOP
  105. A Structural Group Company Thank You! Questions?  Other Presentation

    Topics  Building Envelope Technology (1 Hour)  High-Rise Repair Strategies (1 Hour)  Introduction to Concrete Repair and Maintenance  Structural Strengthening of Concrete Structures  Post-Tensioning Systems  Concrete Repair Materials, Part 1 & 2  www.structural.net  For more information on Electro-Osmosis: www.eopsystem.com