Services for e-Research Systems 1 Ontology-Driven Linked Open (Meta-) Data Services for e-Research Systems Cleo Sgouropoulou1, Anastasios Koutoumanos1, Evangelia Triperina1, Mauro Dragoni2 1Technological Education Institute of Athens - www.teiath.gr 2FBK International Research Foundation - www.fbk.eu
Services for e-Research Systems 2 e-Research Systems Scientific publications, datasets and other types of research results – stored in institutional and consortial repositories – opportunities for discovering, sharing, and reuse of information across research communities Metadata figures prominently in the efforts towards the development of advanced, and interoperable systems and services Metadata figures prominently in the efforts towards the development of advanced, and interoperable systems and services
Services for e-Research Systems 3 “VOA3R” project Virtual Open Access Agriculture & Aquaculture Repository Sharing scientific and scholarly research related to agriculture, food and environment VOA3R aspires to improve the propagation of European agriculture and aquaculture research results by: – developing and providing services that integrate existing open access repositories and scholarly publication management systems into a single point of access to scholarly research, by means of a federation approach. – deploying an advanced, community-focused integrated platform for the retrieval of relevant open content and data that will facilitate researchers to formulate their information needs
Services for e-Research Systems 5 The AgRes Application Profile – Aims: • The re-use of mature metadata standards and the specification of domain-specific metadata profiles for integrating existing agriculture and aquaculture repositories • Devising and adopting a standardized, semantically rich and consistent metadata approach that will ensure interoperability among diverse data stores, and allow the implementation of seamless, transparent and user-friendly research information access services.
Services for e-Research Systems 6 From Element sets to Architectures • AP design – in its simplest form supports the process of selection of a set of metadata elements from an element vocabulary, possibly extending the base element vocabulary as defined in the specification using locally defined elements, and choosing a set of useful value vocabularies for use with these elements, however – building complete and sustainable APs, should entail a more advanced design and documentation process including the definition of requirements metadata will need to address as well as the modelling of the target domain.
Services for e-Research Systems 7 The AgRes Metadata Architecture • Definition of development process, metadata lifecycle • Requirements analysis and domain modelling – essential for sharing the common understanding of the important entities and relationships pertaining to the agricultural research domain. • Definition of compliance levels – The proposed model can be implemented to different data models, each representing different model views according to the stage and orientation of the envisaged services, and realized with different implementation approaches.
Services for e-Research Systems 8 The first steps… • Dublin Core (DC) – a point of departure • Content Providers’ metadata analysis <dc:title> multiple titles, what language? <dc:creator> normalised form? person or org? <dc:publisher> normalised form? person or org? <dc:identifier> full-text or metadata? is it a uri? <dc:date> of what? modification? publication? <dc:format> is this a MIME type? <dc:subject> local keyword or controlled scheme? <dc:contributor> what did they contribute? <dc:language> is this an RFC 3066 value? <dc:relation> what relationship? is this a uri? <dc:rights> what does this tell me? <dc:source> is this a citation? or something else?
Services for e-Research Systems 9 Issues with simple DC • There is more to the description of AgRes resources than simple DC will allow • Some repositories try to put more information or with other semantics into the Dublin Core fields • This varying use of metadata leads to difficulties for end- users to discover resources across multiple repositories • Technical barriers to successful aggregation of metadata from institutional repositories – issues with the quality of metadata – the consistency of metadata – the handling of complex objects – the lack of a common approach to linking to full-text
Services for e-Research Systems 10 Moving ahead • produce a sustainable and adaptable metadata architecture based on the resource-property-value model, moving from the resource-legacy approach representing an information package, to focusing on the component parts of a research resource description and related domain entities. • support flexible and extensible metadata that is compatible with the Semantic Web, metadata, which can capture added information, references, vocabulary details, etc.
Services for e-Research Systems 11 towards... • the creation of a Dublin Core Application Profile (DCAP) conforming to the Dublin Core Abstract Model (DCAM) • APs emerged from a need to expand Dublin Core to accommodate domain or community-specific semantics. An application profile combines elements from existing namespaces in order to accommodate a purpose that is not sufficiently met by one metadata schema. • Building on the abstract model, the VOA3R AP will articulate what is intended and can be expected from data, thus promoting the sharing and linking of data within and between research communities.
Services for e-Research Systems 12 What do APs offer? • A definition of entity classes described by the AP and an identification of the functions that the schema is intended to support. • A declaration of what elements are included in the schema and details about their semantics, rules for their usage, and allowable value data types. • Details about which controlled vocabularies would be used to restrict the allowable values for particular fields. • Human readable information about the schema and guidelines for use.
Services for e-Research Systems 13 ... that is ... • Helping content provider communities to harmonize metadata practices. • Assisting in the guiding of semantic mappings and format conversions. • Identifying domain-specific terminologies as candidates for formal standardization. • Development of common vocabularies and metadata frameworks as the basis for description, discovery, and integration of the services, together with the use of domain-specific knowledge for problem solving in order to compose services.
Services for e-Research Systems 14 The Singapore Framework (SF) • “A DCAM (Dublin Core Abstract Model) - conformant Application Profile (‘DC Application Profile’ - DCAP) is a packet of documentation that consists of: – Functional requirements, which describe the functions that an application profile is intended to support, plus functions that are not within the project's scope. (Mandatory) – Domain model, which defines the basic entities described by the application profile and their relationships and defines a basic scope. (Mandatory) – Description Set Profile (DSP), which defines a set of metadata records that are valid instances of an application profile. (Mandatory)
Services for e-Research Systems 15 The Singapore Framework (optional elements) – Usage guidelines, which describe how to apply the application profile. (Optional) – Encoding syntax guidelines, which describe any application profile-specific syntaxes and/or guidelines. (Optional)
Services for e-Research Systems 19 AgRes AP – Main entities • Agres Resource – core entity of the AgRes AP related to ... • AgRes Agent • AgRes Research (process) • AgRes Thema • AgRes meta-metadata as well as ... • Agres Resources
Services for e-Research Systems 23 The AgRes Metadata Terms • Detailed, implementation-oriented description of the AgRes core properties – Established and widely used controlled vocabularies – along with a well-defined new vocabulary (VOA3R AgRes)
Services for e-Research Systems 26 MoKi Tool • MoKi is an Enterprise Modelling Wiki – Collaborative tool – for Modelling ontological and procedural knowledge – being developed • at the FBK International Research Institute (IT), • and Knowledge Center (AT) • Functionalities include: – import / export of ontology in OWL format – IsA Browser visualisation • displays the relationships between the entities – Individuals Browser visualisation • shows the individuals of each entity
Services for e-Research Systems 28 Validation service • Validation against the AgRes AP Level 2 is based on the corresponding XSD specification, • Validation against the AgRes AP Level 4 is based on a twofold procedure, testing for – semantic validity based on Schematron rules – syntactic validity based on XSD
Services for e-Research Systems 30 The future • Open Access • Shift from traditional research publications • The Web as a tool for researchers – communities – information sharing New open access journal to publish entire research cycles, September 1, 2015 Say hello to Research Ideas & Outcomes - riojournal.com, a new open access journal, formally open for business today! The new journal represents a useful addition to traditional publishing, in that it will publish research from all stages of the research cycle, across a broad suite of disciplines, from humanities to science. PubAg is the USA’s National Agricultural Library's search system for agricultural information. agris.fao.org - by FAO AGRIS (International System for Agricultural Science and Technology) a global public database withinformation on agricultural science and technology, boasting almost 8M records!