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引用の記述説の擁護

 引用の記述説の擁護

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Yoriyuki Yamagata

June 07, 2020
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Transcript

  1. Ҿ༻ͷهड़આͷ༴ޢ ࢁܗ↳೭

  2. Agenda • Ҿ༻͸ͳͥ໰୊ʹͳΔͷ͔ • Ҿ༻ͷҙຯ࿦ʹ͍ͭͯͷॾઆ • Ҿ༻ͷҙຯ࿦ʹؔ͢Δओͳ࿦఺ • هड़આͷ༴ޢ

  3. Ҿ༻͸ͳͥ໰୊ʹͳΔͷ͔

  4. ݴޠ͕ݴޠʹ͍ͭͯޠΔσόΠεͰ͋Δ • ʮઇ͕ന͍ʯ͕ਅͰ͋Δͷ͸ઇ͕ന͍࣌ʹݶΔ • ʮA͔ͭBʯ͕ਅͳΒ͹AͱB͸ਅͰ͋Δ • AͱB͕จͳΒ͹ʮA͔ͭBʯ͸จͰ͋Δ

  5. ෆಁաจ຺ͷॏཁͳྫͰ͋Δ • ΨϦϨΦ͸ʮͦΕͰ΋஍ٿ͸ಈ͘ʯͱݴͬͨ • ΨϦϨΦ͸ʮͦΕͰ΋ଠཅܥୈ3࿭੕͸ಈ͘ʯͱݴͬ ͨ • ಉ஋Ͱ͸ͳ͍

  6. ه߸ͦͷ΋ͷ΁ͷݴٴΛߦ͏ • ྫɿʮゴシック体ʯ͸ڧௐʹ࢖ΘΕΔ • ʮゴシック体ʯ͸ࣈମʹݴٴ͍ͯ͠Δ • ه߸ɾදݱɾҙຯͷ۠ผʹ͍ͭͯߟ͑Δඞཁ͕͋Δ

  7. Ҿ༻ͷҙຯ࿦ʹ͍ͭͯͷॾઆ

  8. Ҿ༻ͷҙຯ࿦ʹ͍ͭͯͷॾઆ • ୯শ໊ࣙઆ • هड़આ • ௚ࣔઆ • Ҿ༻ղআઆ •

    ಉҰઆ/࢖༻આ
  9. ୯শ໊ࣙઆ • Ҿ༻Ͱ͘͘ΒΕͨ෦෼͸୯শ໊ࣙͰ͋Δ • Her name is “Alice” • “Alice”͸୯শ໊ࣙʢ࿦ཧఆ߲ʣ

  10. هड़આ • Ҿ༻͸ʢ֬ఆʣهड़Ͱ͋Δ • ୯ޠྻʢGeechʣɺจࣈྻʢTarskiʣ • ྫɿLewis Carroll wrote ”Alice

    swooned”. • = Lewis Carroll wrote the sentence consisting “Alice” + “swooned”
  11. ௚ࣔઆ • Ҿ༻ූ͸ׅΒΕͨจ΁ͷ௚ࣔͰ͋Δ • Galileo said “Still Earth moves” =

    Still Earth moves. Galileo said that.
  12. Ҿ༻ղআઆ • DQR: ɹ””A””͸”A”Λࢦࣔ͢Δ • DQRΛҙຯنଇͩͱࢥ͏ • ʰΫϫΠϯ͸ʮҾ༻͸حົͳ΋ͷͩʯͱݴͬͨʱ͕ਅ Ͱ͋Δɹ •

    㽅ݴͬͨ㽆(㽅ΫϫΠϯ㽆, 㽅ʰʮҾ༻͸حົͳ΋ͷ ͩʯʱ㽆) • 㽅ݴͬͨ㽆(㽅ΫϫΠϯ㽆, ʮҾ༻͸حົͳ΋ͷͩʯ)
  13. ಉҰઆ/࢖༻આ • දݱʹ͸௨ৗͷ࢖༻ͱʮҾ༻తʯͳ࢖༻͕͋Δ • Ҿ༻తͳ࢖༻Ͱ͸දݱ͸දݱࣗମΛࢦࣔ͢Δ • Ҿ༻ූ͸Ҿ༻తͳ࢖༻Λࣔࠦ͢Δ • My name

    is Donald • Donald͸ࣗ෼ࣗ਎Λࢦࣔ͢Δ
  14. Ҿ༻ΛΊ͙Δ࿦఺

  15. ෆಁաจ຺ • Ҿ༻ූͷதʹ͸ྔԽ͸ٴ͹ͳ͍ • 1: “Bachelor”͸8จࣈͰ͋Δ • 2: ∃x. “x”͸8จࣈͰ͋Δ

    • 1→2͸ଥ౰ͳਪ࿦Ͱ͸ͳ͍ • ྔԽ͕ٴͿέʔε΋͋Δ • A, B͕จͰ͋Δͱ͖”A and B”΋จ
  16. Ҿ༻͞ΕΔදݱͷແݶੑ • ͋ΒΏΔՄೳͳදݱ͕Ҿ༻͞Ε͏Δ • ݴޠͷҙຯ͸༗ݶݸͷݴޠཁૉͷҙຯنଇ͔Β߹੒తʹઆ ໌͞Εͳ͚Ε͹ͳΒͳ͍ • Ҿ༻ͷҙຯ͸༗ݶݸͷݴޠཁૉͰઆ໌͞Εͳͯ͘͸ͳΒͳ ͍ʢDavidsonʣ •

    ୯শ໊ࣙઆ͸͜ͷ৚݅Λຬͨ͞ͳ͍ʢDavidsonʣ • cf. ݻ༗໊
  17. ະ஌ͷه߸ͷҾ༻ • Ҿ༻͸ະ஌ͷදݱ͚ͩͰͳ͘৽͍͠ه߸΋Ҿ༻Ͱ͖Δ • “”͸ਓΛද͢Τδϓτਆ੟จࣈͰ͋Δ • ҙຯͷΘ͔Βͳ͍ه߸ΛҾ༻͢Δͱɺͦͷಛ௃ͷ͏ͪԿ͕ ه߸ͷҙຯΛߏ੒͢Δ͔Θ͔ΒͣʹҾ༻͍ͯ͠Δ(Benett) • ͦΕ͕·͞ʹҾ༻ͷಛ௃(Cappelen

    & Lepore) • Ҿ༻දݱͷಉҰੑ͕໰୊ʹͳΔ
  18. ࠞ߹Ҿ༻ The objects of “can be viewed from two different

    perspectives” • Ҿ༻͸໊ࢺ͚ͩͰ͸ͳ͍ Mr. Greenspan said he agreed with Labor Secretary R. B. Reich `on quite a lot of things'. Their accord on this issue, he said, has proved ‘quite a surprise to both of us.’ • ͜͜Ͱͷ’us’͸GreenspanΛࢦ͍ࣔͯ͠Δ(reporterͰ͸ ͳ͍ʣ K(Fn PV)
  19. ࠞ߹Ҿ༻ଓ͖ Gli uomini italiani mi sembrano molto carini. ͱ͍͏ൃݴΛঁੑ໊ࢺͰ͋ΔpersoneͰࠞ߹Ҿ༻͢Δͱ Ha

    detto che le persone italiane ‘mi sembrano molto carine’ ͱҾ༻಺͕֨มԽ͢Δ Ҿ༻಺ͷදݱ͕ൃ࿩͞ΕͨΘ͚Ͱ͸ͳ͍
  20. จ຺ґଘੑ • QCSɿಉ͡Ҿ༻͕จ຺ʹΑͬͯҟͳͬͨҙຯΛ࣋ͭ • දݱɿ”Quine”͸ਓ໊Ͱ͋Δ • දݱͷτʔΫϯɿ”Quine”ͷॻମ͸Helvetica NeueͰ ͋Δ •

    ͋Δͱ͖ʹ͸“Madrid” = “Madrid”Ͱ͋Δͱ͖ʹ͸ “Madrid” ≠ “Madrid”
  21. จ຺ґଘੑ΁ͷ൷൑ʢCappelen&Lepore) • ൷൑1ɿDQRʢ””e”” ͸ “e”Λࢦࣔ͢Δʣ͸ৗʹ੒Γཱͭ • ΋͠””e””ͱ”e”ͷҙຯ͕จ຺ґଘͳΒ͜Ε͸આ໌Ͱ͖ ͳ͍ • ൷൑2ɿҾ༻ͱҾ༻͞ΕΔ΋ͷͷؒͷྨࣅੑ͕׬શʹ࿩

    ऀͷዞҙʹ·͔͞ΕΔ • ൷൑3ɿ’a’ ≠ ‘a’͕੒ΓཱͪಘΔ
  22. Indirect Reporting Test • දݱe͕ݱΕΔจSΛؒ઀࿩๏ʹΑΓใࠂ͢Δͱ͖ɺද ݱeΛվม͢Δඞཁ͕͋Δ͔Ͳ͏͔ • ඞཁ͕͋Ε͹จ຺ґଘɺͳ͚Ε͹จ຺ʹґଘ͠ͳ͍ • Ҿ༻͸վม͢Δඞཁ͕ͳ͍ͷͰจ຺ʹґଘ͠ͳ͍

    ʢCappelenˍLaporeʣ
  23. Collectivity Test • දݱe͕จ຺ґଘͩͱ͢Δͱɺ࣍ͷਪ࿦͸ଥ౰Ͱͳ͍ • e͸PͰ͋Δɺ͔ͭɺe͸QͰ͋ΔɺͳΒ͹ɺe͸P͔ͭQͰ͋Δ • ’Gone’͸4จࣈ͔ΒͳΔɺ͔ͭɺ’Gone’͸ྑ͍ڹ͖͕͢ΔɺͳΒ ͹’Gone’͸4จࣈ͔Βͳͬͯྑ͍ڹ͖͕͢Δ •

    ଥ౰ͳਪ࿦ʢʁʣ • ΑͬͯҾ༻ͷҙຯ͸จ຺ґଘͰͳ͍ (Cappelen&Lapore)
  24. هड़આͷ༴ޢ

  25. ఩ֶతҙຯ࿦ͱ͸ͳʹ͔ I am a dogʢද૚ߏ଄ʣ Speaker ∈ Dogʢϝλݴޠʹ͓͚Δ࿦ཧܗࣜʣ ମܥతͳύϥϑϨʔζ

  26. ͜͜Ͱߟ͑Δهड़આ • Ҿ༻ͷ࿦ཧܗࣜ͸Ҿ༻͞Ε͍ͯΔදݱͷهड़Ͱ͋Δ • ඇݴޠతͳهड़΋૝ఆ͢Δ • Ҿ༻Λهड़ʹύϥϑϨʔζ͢Δʮ͋ΔʯγεςϚ ςΟοΫͳ΍Γํ͕͋Δ • ֬ఆهड़ͱ͸ݶΒͳ͍͕ɺ؆୯ͷͨΊ֬ఆهड़ͱ૝ఆ

    ͠Ҿ༻”S”ʹରԠ͢Δهड़Λ«”S”»ͱॻ͘ɻ
  27. هड़ͱ͸ • ͳΜͰ΋هड़ͱݴ͑Δ • Ҿ༻ࣗମ΋هड़ͱݴ͑Δ • ʮΫϫΠϯʯͱಉ͡දݱͰ͋Δ • ͜͜Ͱ͸ʮҾ༻Λ࢖Θͳ͍֬ఆهड़ʯͱߟ͓͑ͯ͘ •

    ݻ༗໊ʢจࣈͷ໊લʣͳͲ͸ݱΕͯྑ͍
  28. Ҿ༻͢Δ΋ͷͱ͞ΕΔ΋ͷͷ”Proximity” • Ҿ༻ͷதʹ͸Ҿ༻͞ΕΔදݱ͕ʮͦͷ··ʯೖΔɻه ड़͸Ҿ༻͞ΕΔදݱͱ͸શ͘ҟͳͬͨ΋ͷͰ͋ΓಘΔ • Ԡ౴ • ࿦ཧܗࣜʹProximity͸ཁٻ͞Εͳ͍ • ද૚ߏ଄ʹProximityΛ΋ͭҾ༻Λ࢖͏͜ͱͰෳࡶͳ

    ࿦ཧܗࣜΛ؆ܿʹදݱ͢Δ
  29. ৽͍͠ݴޠه߸ͷಋೖ • Ҿ༻ΛจࣈྻͱΈͳ͢هड़આ͸৽͍͠ه߸Λಋೖ͢Δ༻๏Λઆ໌ Ͱ͖ͳ͍ • “”͸ΫψϜਆΛද͢ΤδϓτจࣈͰ͋Δɻ • Ԡ౴ • զʑͷهड़આʹ͓͍ͯهड़͸จࣈྻͱ͸ݶΒͳ͍

    • ʹ͸ࢹ֮తͳهड़͕͋Δ • ໌֬ͳهड़ͷͳ͍දݱ͸Ҿ༻Ͱ͖ͳ͍ʢເͷݴޠʣ
  30. Ҿ༻ղআϧʔϧͷઆ໌ • දݱeʹҾ༻ූΛ͚ͭͨදݱΛ༩͑Δؔ਺Λquote(e)ͱ ॻ͘͜ͱʹ͢Δɻྫɿquote(«“A”») = «“”A””» • ҙຯ஋㽅ɾ㽆͸㽅quote(e)㽆=eͱ͍͏ੑ࣭Λຬͨ͢ • 㽅””A””㽆=㽅«””A””»㽆=㽅quote(«”A”»)㽆=

    «”A”» • ಛʹҾ༻͕هड़Ͱ͋Δඞཁ͸ͳ͍ʢҾ༻͞Ε͍ͯΔද ݱΛࢦࣔ͢ΔදݱͰ͋Ε͹Α͍ʣ
  31. CappelenͱLeporeͷҾ༻ղআΛ࢖ͬͨهड़આ΁ͷ൷൑ • “Quine”Λ”Quine”ͱ͍͏୯ޠྻͱͯ͠هड़͢Δ͜ͱΛ ૝ఆ͢Δ • “Quine”Λ”John”ͱ͍͏୯ޠྻΛهड़ͱ͠ͳ͍ཧ༝͕ ͳ͍ • ““Quine””͸”John”Λࢦࣔ͢Δ͜ͱʹͳΔ •

    Ҿ༻ղআͷࣗ໌ੑΛઆ໌Ͱ͖ͳ͍
  32. CappelenͱLeporeͷҾ༻ղআΛ࢖ͬͨهड़આ΁ͷ൷൑ • Ԡ౴ • هड़«”S”»͸දݱ”S”ΛҰҙʹఆΊΔΑ͏ͳهड़Ͱ͋Δ • هड़આ͕Ҿ༻Λ୯ޠྻͱͯ͠ޠΔͱ͖ɺ࿦ཧܗࣜͷ ଆʹ୯ޠͷݻ༗໊ʹ͍ͭͯͷద੾ͳϝΧχζϜ͕͋ Δ͜ͱΛલఏʹ͓ͯ͠Γɺ«”Quine”»͸”John”Λهड़ ͠ͳ͍

    • Ҿ༻ղআͷࣗ໌ੑ͸㽅quote(e)㽆 = eͷࣗ໌ੑʹΑΔ
  33. Mixed Quotation • Quine said that quotations are “anomalous feature”.

    • هड़͸໊ࢺ۟Ͱ͋Γɺܗ༰ࢺʹͳΓಘͳ͍ • Ԡ౴ • ࣍ͷΑ͏ʹύϥϑϨʔζ͢Δ • Quine said that quotations are 㽅«”anomalous feature”» 㽆and he said «”anomalous feature”».
  34. Ҿ༻಺΁ͷݴٴ • Jones said “Smith rules the moon”, and he

    does. • X = «”Smith rules the moon”» ∧ Jones said 㽅 X 㽆 ∧ Jones said X ∧ Smith rules the moon • “Smith rules the moon”ͷҙຯ஋͕༩͑ΒΕ͍ͯΔͨ Ίɺ”he”͸SmithʹݴٴͰ͖Δ
  35. Ҿ༻಺ͷIndexical • Mr. Greenspan said he agreed with Labor Secretary

    R. B. Reich `on quite a lot of things'. Their accord on this issue, he said, has proved `quite a surprise to both of us.' • CapelenͱLepore ͷΞϓϩʔν͸Ҿ༻಺Λղऍ͠ͳ͍ʢ11.4અʣ • ཧ༝ɿҾ༻ූͷཧղʹ͸Ҿ༻಺ͷindexicalͷཧղ͸ෆཁ • ໰୊ɿ౷Ұతͳҙຯ࿦ͷߏங͕Ͱ͖ͳ͍ • Semantic value operator 㽅ɾ㽆͸࿩ऀ΍ൃ࿩࣌఺ʹ૬ରԽͰ͖Δ
  36. จ຺ґଘੑ • ”Madrid”ʹ”Madrid” or ”Madrid”≠”Madrid”? • هड़ʹ͓͍ͯԿʹண໨͢Δ͔ʹΑΔʢจ຺ґଘʣ • ͜͜Ͱͷจ຺͸ద੾ͳղऍͷબ୒Ͱ͋Δ •

    ࿩ऀͷҙਤͰࣗ༝ʹม͑ΒΕΔ΋ͷͰ͸ͳ͍ • ൃ࿩৔໘Ͱܾఆ͞ΕΔΘ͚Ͱ΋ͳ͍
  37. Indirect reporting testͷෆద੾ੑ • 9൪໨ͷ࿭੕͸·ͩൃݟ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ • ൴͸9൪໨ͷ࿭੕͸·ͩൃݟ͞Ε͍ͯͳ͍ͱݴͬͨ • ʮ9൪໨ͷ࿭੕ʯͷҙຯ͸จ຺ґଘ

  38. Collectivityͷෆద੾ੑ 1. ਓؒ͸໿70ԯਓ͍Δ 2. ਓؒ͸ೋຊ଍ͩ 3. ਓؒ͸ೋຊ଍Ͱ໿70ԯਓ͍Δ • 1.ͷʮਓؒʯ͸ྨΛࢦࣔ͢Δ •

    2.ͷʮਓؒʯ͸ʢෆಛఆͷʣݸମΛࢦࣔ͢Δ • 1, 2͔Β3Λಋग़͢Δ͜ͱ͸ʢͦΕͳΓʹʣՄೳʹࢥΘΕΔ
  39. Ҿ༻಺΁ͷྔԽ • Davidsonͷهड़આ΁ͷ൷൑ 1. ‘Bachelor’ has eight letters. 2. ‘B’-‘a’-‘c’-‘h’-‘e’-‘l’-‘o’-‘r’

    has eight letters 3. ∃x. ’B’-x-‘c’-‘h’-‘e’-‘l’-‘o’-‘r’ has eight letters • ͜Ε͸ม(Davidson) • ͜Ε͸·͞ʹquasi-quotation
  40. Ҿ༻಺΁ͷྔԽ͕ߦΘΕΔྫ • AͱBΛจͱͨ͠ͱ͖”A and B”͸จͰ͋Δ • ϑΝΠϧ໊͸Ұܻͷ਺ࣈXͰ”test-X.txt”ͱͳΔ • ςΫχΧϧͳ࢖༻ʹࢥΘΕΔ͔΋͠Εͳ͍͕ɺॏཁͳ ྫ

    • ྫ͑͹ɺ࠷ॳͷྫ͸ݴޠཧ࿦ʹͱͬͯඞਢͰ͋Δ • هड़આҎ֎Ͱ͸આ໌͕ࠔ೉
  41. ࠷ޙͷ൷൑ɿ͋·Γʹ΋ڧྗ͗͢ΔͷͰ͸ʁ • ͜͜Ͱߟ࡯ͨ͠هड़આ͸ϝλݴޠͷ͋ΒΏΔػߏΛར ༻Ͱ͖Δ • ͔͠͠هड़Մೳͳදݱ͕͢΂ͯҾ༻ՄೳͳΘ͚Ͱ͸ͳ ͍ • ߳Γ͸͋Δఔ౓هड़ՄೳͰ͋Δ •

    ͔߳͠͠ΓΛҾ༻͢Δ͜ͱ͸ɺԻ੠ݴޠ΍ॻ͖ݴ༿ Ͱ͸ෆՄೳͰ͋Δ
  42. Ҿ༻ͷಛ࣭ • ࢖༻͍ͯ͠Δഔମʹ͓͍ͯಉҰͳදݱΛ༻͍ͯ͋Δද ݱΛهड़͢Δ͜ͱ • ը૾ഔମͰ఻ୡͨ͠৔߹ɺ“”͸ͱ͍͏ਤ৅ͷهड़Λ ༻͍ͯͱ͍͏දݱΛهड़͢Δ • Ϣχίʔυྻͱͯ͠͸“”͸ͷ಺෦දݱU+1305CΛ༻ ͍ͯந৅తͳϢχίʔυจࣈΛهड़͢Δ

  43. ·ͱΊ • هड़આͷద੾ͳఆࣜԽͱ͸Կ͔Λߟ࡯ͨ͠ • هड़આʹର͢Δز͔ͭͷ൷൑ʹ൓࿦ͨ͠ • ྨࣅੑɾ৽͍͠ه߸ͷಋೖɾҾ༻ղআϧʔϧɾࠞ߹Ҿ ༻ɾจ຺ґଘੑ • ࢦඪදݱ΍Quasi-quotationͷѻ͍Ͱଞͷཧ࿦ΑΓ΋ద੾

    Ͱ͋Δ͜ͱΛ࿦ͨ͡ • Ҿ༻͕༩͑Δهड़ͷ಺࣮Λ࿦ͨ͡
  44. ࢀߟจݙ • Cappelen, Lepore, and McKeever. "Quotation", The Stanford Encyclopedia

    of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition) • Cappelen and Lepore. Language Turned on Itself: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Metalinguistic Discourse , Oxford University Press (2007)