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Service mesh with Istio and Kiali Open Conf Athens 2019

Service mesh with Istio and Kiali Open Conf Athens 2019

Introduction to service mesh with Istio and Kiali on top of Kubernetes/Openshift

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Alissa Bonas

March 29, 2019
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Transcript

  1. Introduction to service mesh with Ιστίο (Istio) and Κιάλι (Kiali)

    Alissa Bonas mikeyteva
  2. Who am I? • Engineering manager in Kiali project at

    Red Hat • B.Sc in Computer Science and Communication • Developer and tech lead - Java, Ruby on Rails and more… • Also worked at HP Software and Mercury Interactive • Open source involvement
  3. Evolution of application architecture How did we get to service

    mesh?
  4. Monolith application Single unit of executable = Application = Single

    process
  5. Application modules Application Handle HTTP requests Data processing UI Alerts

  6. Multiple processes Application UI Data processing Alerts Handle HTTP requests

  7. Microservices Language agnostic Scaled separately Upgraded separately

  8. A shift in Application Packaging and Runtime

  9. Containerizing an app

  10. Run multiple containers

  11. • Run many containers on multiple hosts • Scale -

    manage several instances (replicas) of the same container • Manage a container based environment Orchestrate containers
  12. Container orchestration platforms Kubernetes Κυβερνήτης OKD (Openshift)

  13. Kubernetes building blocks (some…) • Pod - a group of

    one or more containers, with shared storage/network • Deployment - manages pod definition and defines replicas of pods • Service - an abstraction, an access point to a set of Pods ◦ Sometimes called a microservice
  14. Microservices - the Kubernetes way Service A Service B Instance

    2 Pod Pod Instance 1 Access point = microservice Code Container Container
  15. High Complexity

  16. Multiple points of failure !!! ? ?

  17. Challenges • How requests are routed between services? • How

    do I detect failures and downtime? • How to upgrade and test new versions of a service? • Securing the communication
  18. Service mesh to the rescue

  19. What is a service mesh • Infrastructure/framework that handles communication

    between services • Often implemented as network proxies deployed alongside the microservices
  20. Istio - Ιστίο Open source service mesh

  21. Istio features • Load balancing (HTTP, gRPC, TCP...) • Traffic

    control (routing rules, retries, timeouts, fault injection, mirroring) • Secure service-to-service communication • Access controls (authorization) • Metrics and traces for traffic
  22. Important Terminology • Workload - anything owning/controlling pods (like a

    Deployment) or the pods themselves • Service - a microservice • Application - label “app” on a pod/service • Version - label “version” on a pod/service
  23. Before Istio POD A Container Routing code Circuit breaker code

    Business logic code POD B Container2 Routing code2 Circuit breaker code2 Business logic code2
  24. Istio POD A Container Routing code Circuit breaker code Business

    logic code POD B Container2 Routing code2 Circuit breaker code2 Business logic code2
  25. Sidecar Proxy • A proxy which is deployed next to

    each instance of your service (inside a pod) • Envoy open source proxy is the current sidecar • Proxy is transparent to application code • Can be automatically injected to pod on creation
  26. Sidecar Proxy in Istio and Kubernetes POD Container Business logic

    code POD Container Business logic code Sidecar container Before Istio, no sidecar With sidecar Routing code Circuit breaker code
  27. With Istio - sidecar intercepts all traffic Envoy sidecar container

    POD A Sidecar container Container Business logic code HTTP, TCP, TLS... HTTP, TCP, TLS... Envoy sidecar container POD C Sidecar container Container Business logic code Sidecar container Container Business logic code Envoy sidecar container POD B Sidecar container Container Business logic code Configuration is transparent to the services and not part of the code
  28. Different routing scenarios • A/B testing • Traffic shifting •

    Canary deployment (an example of traffic shifting) • Mirroring traffic
  29. Weighted Routing with Istio - A/B Service A Service B

    Instance 2 Pod Version 2 Pod Pod Version 1 Instance 1 50% traffic 50% traffic Proportion of traffic routed to a version is independent of number of instances of that version
  30. Weighted Routing - Canary Service A Service B Instance 2

    Pod Pod Version 2 Pod Version 1 Instance 1 90% traffic 10% traffic Proportion of traffic routed to a version is independent of number of instances of that version
  31. Matching Routing with Istio Service A Service B Pod Version

    1 Pod Pod Version 2 User Alissa All other users
  32. Mirroring traffic Service A Service B Pod Version 1 Pod

    Pod Version 2 Copy of traffic Response disregarded Real traffic
  33. "Anything that can go wrong will go wrong" (Murphy’s law)

  34. Chaos engineering anyone?

  35. Chaos engineering with Istio • Inject delays ◦ Simulate network

    latency ◦ Simulate an overloaded service • Define aborts ◦ Simulate failure in a service (return a predefined HTTP Error) ◦ A good alternative for a manual shutdown
  36. Inject delay Service A Service B Instance 2 Pod Pod

    Version 2 Pod Version 1 Instance 1 Add 7 seconds delay
  37. Inject Error Service A Service B Instance 2 Pod Pod

    Version 2 Pod Version 1 Instance 1 Return Error 500 for user Alissa Work as usual for all the users
  38. Circuit breaker • Set a connection pool to limit connections

    and requests • Example: “Set a connection pool of 100 connections with no more than 10 req/connection to service A”
  39. Outlier detection • Classify instances as healthy/unhealthy • Eject unhealthy

    instances for a defined timeframe which can be increased over time • Example: “Scan all pods every 5 mins, any instance that fails 7 consecutive times with 5XX error code will be ejected for 15 minutes.”
  40. Security and RBAC • In/out traffic of the mesh is

    disabled ◦ Defining a Gateway ingress/egress to enable • mTLS can be defined on multiple levels ◦ All mesh, specific service, etc. • Authorization and authentication
  41. Configuration objects • VirtualService != Kubernetes service • Rules for

    how requests to a service are routed within service mesh • Routing logic, load weighting, chaos injection • DestinationRule • Configures policies to be applied to a request after VirtualService routing has occurred • Load balancer, circuit breaker • MeshPolicy, Gateway, ServiceEntry and more...
  42. Configuration Yaml example All Istio objects are CRD (CustomResource Definition)

  43. New set of challenges • How do I see what’s

    in the system? • Is there any traffic now? • Is routing configured for service A? • Is my configuration even valid? • Is security on? • Is the app healthy?
  44. Kiali - Κιάλι Open source Istio service mesh observability

  45. Kiali Features • Visualize mesh connections and traffic • Service

    and application health • Configure routing via UI • Validate Istio configurations • View metrics and traces • Visualize security configuration
  46. Demo based on Bookinfo example

  47. Bookinfo example

  48. Kiali Features

  49. Overview page

  50. Mesh Topology Graph

  51. List and details page

  52. Routing

  53. Runtime metric dashboards

  54. Configuration validations

  55. Visualizing security

  56. Tracing (integration with Jaeger)

  57. Connect with the community Kiali.io Istio.io KialiProject IstioMesh github.com/kiali github.com/istio

  58. Icon credits • Twitter by Lubos Volkov, the Noun Project

    • Light Bulb by artworkbean, the Noun Project • Magnifying Glass by Musket from the Noun Project • Questions by Rediffusion from the Noun Project • Mug by Alex Getty from the Noun Project • Diamond by MarkieAnn Packer from the Noun Project • Box by Cornelius Danger from the Noun Project
  59. Thank you! mikeyteva