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La sécurité dans l'IoT : difficultés, failles et contre-mesures @Meetup GDG Lyon

La sécurité dans l'IoT : difficultés, failles et contre-mesures @Meetup GDG Lyon

Avec la multiplication des objets connectés dans notre quotidien, la sécurité de ces appareils électroniques, qui a été souvent négligée par le passé, devient une réelle problématique. Leur faible coût de conception, la négligence des fabricants ou même la notre, nous développeurs, en font des proies faciles pour les hackers.
Ce phénomène se constate bien dans l'actualité, où l'on parle de plus en plus d'attaques à grande échelles visant des cameras ou frigos connectés, mais également les serrures Bluetooth.
Au cours de ce talk nous verrons en détails le principe des dernières attaques qui ont fait la une. Nous parlerons ensuite des failles touchant les IoTs les plus courantes (le top 10 OWASP IoT), les solutions et contre-mesures.
Nous parlerons notamment des attaques par canaux auxiliaires pour lesquelles peu de solutions existent et qui donnent toujours du fil à retordre aux chercheurs.
Enfin, nous terminerons par une petite démo d’attaque de type Man-in-the-midle (MiTM) sur un objet Bluetooth.

Alexis DUQUE

June 01, 2018
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  1. #DevoxxFR #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon La sécurité dans l'IoT :

    difficultés, failles et contre-mesures Alexis DUQUE @alexis0duque
  2. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon About Me ALEXIS DUQUE Embedded Software

    engineer & R&D leader at Rtone PhD Student at CITI Lab, INSA de Lyon @alexis0duque alexisduque [email protected] alexisduque.me https://goo.gl/oNUWu6
  3. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Roadmap • THE INTERNET OF THINGS

    • NEWS • VULNERABILITIES & OWASP TOP 10 • BLUETOOTH LE (UN)SECURITY • DEMO: BLUETOOTH LE (UN)SECURITY • SIDE CHANNELS ATTACKS • COUNTERMEASURES
  4. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Internet Of Things

  5. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon “20 billions interconnected devices by the

    year 2020” Gartner
  6. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Security ?

  7. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT Security ? • Uncontrolled Environment

    • Heterogeneity • Users and Manufacturers not aware of security risks • Surface of attacks: hardware + software • Scalability • Constrained Resources
  8. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT+Security Challenges • Objects are small

    and everywhere and connected • Prone to environmental influences • Weak calculation and memory (limited for crypto) • They are autonomous • Cyber attacks have real world consequences
  9. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Attack Surface Area Around 20 attack

    surface areas on the OWASP IoT Project E.g. web Interfaces, physical interfaces, firmware, network, cloud, mobile, API, etc Each attack surface has multiple potential vulnerabilities Firmware packages use old and/or unsupported versions of 3rd party components
  10. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT Security Happens On 4 Different

    Levels
  11. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Firmware Update • Need to be

    able to update firmware • Automatic updates? • Needs to be tested on all hardware variants • Download path needs to be secure • Update path needs to be secure
  12. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon The Hacker’s Paradise! An Attacket Drem

  13. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT Privacy Challenges • How to

    obtain informed consent? • How can people have control over data? • Who is responsible? • How data can be safeguarded? • How do you detect attacks or leaks?
  14. None
  15. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Who Are IoT Hackers ?

  16. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Many of the vulnerabilities discovered are

    10 years old!
  17. SOUS-TITRE Est ut paucos caritas autem.

  18. None
  19. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon The Mirai Botnet Over 200,000 devices

    in original botnet 623 Gbps attack on Krebs 1 Tbps attack on Dyn Source code released Default credentials Also Reaper (2016), Hajime, Okiru, ...
  20. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon

  21. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Hackable Cardiac Devices Vulnerability in the

    transmitter that reads the device’s data Hackers could control a device 465,000 Abbott pacemakers vulnerable to hacking Need a firmware fix
  22. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth Vulnerabilities BlueBorne https://www.armis.com/blueborne/ Android, Windows,

    iOS & Linux Amazon Echo and Google Home 8 vulnerabilities
  23. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth Vulnerabilities Heap-based Buffer Overflow Integer

    Underflow Memory Corruption + Privilege Escalation + Remote Code Execution Payload Injection + Remote Code Execution “Heartbleed Like” Data Leak Fake Ip Interface + Packets Interception
  24. OS Vulnerability CVE Id. Description Android Remote Code Execution CVE-2017-0781

    Furtive attack Android Remote Code Execution CVE-2017-0782 Furtive attack Android Data leak CVE-2017-0785 Heartbleed like Android "Man-In-The-Middle" (MiTM) CVE-2017-0783 Bluetooth "Pineapple" Linux Remote Code Execution CVE-2017- 1000251 - Linux Data leak CVE-2017- 1000250 Heartbleed like iOS Remote Code Execution CVE-2017- 14315 - Windows "Man-In-The-Middle" (MiTM) CVE-2017-8628 Bluetooth "Pineapple"
  25. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon

  26. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon OWASP IoT Top 10

  27. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon What Is OWASP? [owasp.org] “The Open

    Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is a worldwide not-for-profit charitable organization focused on improving the security of software” [owasp.org] “The OWASP Internet of Things Project is designed to help manufacturers, developers, and consumers better understand the security issues associated with the Internet of Things, and to enable users in any context to make better security decisions when building, deploying, or assessing IoT technologies”
  28. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 1. Insecure Web Interface “Attacker uses

    weak credentials, captures plain-text credentials or enumerates accounts to access the web interface.” • A1:2017 Injection • A7:2017 Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) • A13:2017 Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability EASY Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  29. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 2. Insufficient Authentication “Attacker uses weak

    passwords, insecure password recovery mechanisms, poorly protected credentials or lack of granular access control to access a particular interface.” A2:2017 Broken Authentication (Mirai) Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  30. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness

    Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence Detectability AVERAGE Impact MODERATE Application / Business Specific 3. Insecure Network Services “Attacker uses vulnerable network services to attack the device itself or bounce attacks off the device.” • Unnecessary open ports • Wifi access to network, e.g. iKettle
  31. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 4. Lack of Transport Encryption/Integrity Verification

    “Attacker uses the lack of transport encryption to view data being passed over the network.” • A5:2017 Broken Access Control • Devices not always connected to internet • Certificates expire Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  32. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 5. Privacy Concerns “Attacker uses multiple

    vectors such as insufficient authentication, lack of transport encryption or insecure network services to view personal data which is not being properly protected or is being collected unnecessarily.” • EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) - 25th May 2018 • Requirements for User Consent and Pseudonymisation. • Legal obligation to notify the Supervisory Authority of data breach without undue delay (72 hours?) Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  33. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 6. Insecure Cloud Interface “Attacker uses

    multiple vectors such as insufficient authentication, lack of transport encryption and account enumeration to access data or controls via the cloud website.” • A1:2017 Injection Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  34. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 7. Insecure Mobile Interface “Attacker uses

    multiple vectors such as insufficient authentication, lack of transport encryption and account enumeration to access data or controls via the mobile interface.” • No best practice? • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) “Guide to Bluetooth Security” Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  35. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 8. Insufficient Security Configurability “Attacker uses

    the lack of granular permissions to access data or controls on the device. The attacker could also us the lack of encryption options and lack of password options to perform other attacks which lead to compromise of the device and/or data.” Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact MODERATE Application / Business Specific
  36. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 9. Insecure Software/Firmware “Attacker uses multiple

    vectors such as capturing update files via unencrypted connections, the update file itself is not encrypted or they are able to perform their own malicious update via DNS hijacking.” Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability DIFFICULT Prevalence COMMON Detectability EASY Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  37. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon 10. Poor Physical Security “Attacker uses

    vectors such as USB ports or other storage means to access the Operating System and potentially any data stored on the device.” • JTAG • Serial bus spy: BUS PIRATE • Oscilloscope Threat Agents Attack Vectors Security Weakness Technical Impacts Business Impacts Application Specific Exploitability AVERAGE Prevalence COMMON Detectability AVERAGE Impact SEVERE Application / Business Specific
  38. None
  39. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth Low Energy

  40. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth LE Bluetooth Low Energy, BLE,

    Bluetooth 4/5, Bluetooth SMART One of most exploding recently IoT technologies Completely different than previous Bluetooth 2, 3 (BR/EDR) Designed for low energy usage, simplicity rather than throughput
  41. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth LE 3 devices roles: Peripheral

    / Central / Advertiser Read - Write - Notifications - Indication Bluetooth 4.0 has weak security mechanisms Bluetooth 4.2 adds strong encryption Bluetooth 5 increase throughput and range
  42. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon BLE Security & Pairing Uses AES-128

    with CCM (Counter with CBC-MAC) encryption Uses Diffie-Hellman Key Distribution to share various keys • Identity Resolving Key is used for privacy (IRK) • Signing Resolving Key provides fast authentication without encryption (SRK) • Long Term Key is used (LTK) Pairing encrypts the link using a Temporary Key (TK) • Derived from passkey & then distribute keys
  43. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon BLE Security & Pairing How to

    determine the temporary key (TK)? Just Works • Devices without display cannot implement other • It’s actually a key of zero 6-digit PIN : In case the device has a display Out of band (OOB) • Not common (understatement – haven’t seen one yet)
  44. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth Core Specification “None of the

    pairing methods provide protection against a passive eavesdropper”
  45. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth 4.2 Security 4.2 brings strong

    encryption with Elliptic Curves Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) with LE Secure Connection Numeric Comparison to determine the TK In practice, ~80% of tested devices do not implement BLE-layer encryption
  46. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth 4.2 Security Why? • Mobile

    apps cannot control the pairing (OS level) • Security is left behind (cost, time, etc.) • Multiple users/apps using the same devices • Hardware, software or even UX • Compatibilities/requirements
  47. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Hacking Bluetooth LE BLE USB dongle

    (CSR8510) Ubertooth nRF or TI Sniffer Wireshark
  48. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Bluetooth MiTM Attack Btlejuice https://github.com/DigitalSecurity/btlejuice 2

    CSR BLE Dongles
  49. Bluetooth MiTM Attack

  50. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Demo Time

  51. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon

  52. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Side Channel Attacks

  53. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon What is a “side channel”? •

    A source of information about secret information besides the actual communication channel • Side channels and side-channel analysis is very common – also in everyday life Personal identification system based on rotation of toilet paper rolls, Kurahashi et al. , IEEE PCC 2017
  54. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Side Channel Attacks Example: A PIN

    Code Check r = strcmp(secret_pwd, typed_pwd); if (r==0) { /* grant access */ s = access_secret_data(); } else { /* deny access */ incorrect_password(); } int strcmp(const char* s1, const char* s2) { while(*s1 && (*s1 == *s2)) { s1++; s2++; } return *(const unsigned char*)s1 - *(const unsigned char*)s2; } The execution time of strcmp() is directly proportional to the number of correct PIN digits at the beginning of the PIN!
  55. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Side Channel Attacks Differential Power Analysis

    (DPA) on AES
  56. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon EXAMPLE Meltdown & Spectre

  57. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Countermeasures and best practices

  58. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT Security Best Practises Security objectives

    must be considered during the product life cycle! • Security “by design” • Risks analysis • Technologies choices and their threat • Architecture requirements for security • Integration in the project workflow • Security review during the project
  59. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT Security Best Practises Cover the

    main risks! • Security Upgrade • Communications encryption and authentication • Use standard crypto • Don’t shared key between devices! • Code integrity, data confidentiality • Restrict and control local access (hardware, …)
  60. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT Security Best Practises Cover the

    main risks! • Security Upgrade • Communications encryption and authentication • Use standard crypto • Don’t shared key between devices! • Code integrity, data confidentiality • Restrict and control local access (hardware, …)
  61. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon What Is Coming? • Lightweight Crypto

    for the IoT (LWC) • Software Security • Code security and proof (standard, best practices, formal analysis) • Hardware Security • Side channel-attack and fault-injection • Secure boot and secure firmware update
  62. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon PACLIDO Protocoles et Algorithmes Cryptographiques Légers

    pour l’Internet des Objets Consortium: Airbus, Loria-CNRS, Rtone, Université de Limoge, Trusted Object, Sophia Conseil, CEA Goals: Develop new and IoT compliant crypto primitives and protocols for domotics (BLE), Smart- Cities @fui_paclido paclido.fr
  63. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Secure Elements • Tamper resistant hardware

    • Secure firmware • Secret keys storage, keys renewal • Crypto. algorithm • Data encryption & decryption
  64. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Conclusion

  65. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon IoT is going to get worse

    before it gets better! 84 billion devices out there. • Devices deployed need to be updated Developers need help! • Solutions already exist • Researchers are designing future IoT security standards
  66. None
  67. #GDG Cloud IoT Lyon Merci / Thanks you