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microfluidics vs. self-assembly

andreas manz
October 11, 2013

microfluidics vs. self-assembly

... talk given at the Institut Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, Paris (October 11, 2013)

andreas manz

October 11, 2013
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  1. microfluidics vs self assembly
    microfluidics vs. self-assembly
    Andreas Manz
    KIST Europe, Saarbrücken, Germany
    KIST Seoul South Korea
    KIST Seoul, South Korea
    Mechatronics, Saarland University, Germany

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  2. … questions like: “how is a butterfly
    wing manufactured?”
    wing manufactured?
    • microstructure, nanostructure, colour
    t bl t i l ( hiti ) t li
    • stable material (chitin), not alive
    • reproducibility
    • ease of manufacturing
    • low cost
    • … and what is the blueprint for it?

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  3. … questions like: “how is a butterfly
    wing manufactured?”
    wing manufactured?
    d h t i th bl i t f it?
    •… and what is the blueprint for it?
    • … how to get from molecular biology to structure?
    • … how to get discrete size, structure
    • … how to engineer by self assembly?
    g y y

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  4. … questions like: “how is a butterfly
    wing manufactured?”
    wing manufactured?
    d h t i th bl i t f it?
    •… and what is the blueprint for it?
    • … how to get from molecular biology to structure?
    • … how to get discrete size, structure
    • all 3 have identical genome
    g

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  5. … questions like: “how is a butterfly
    wing manufactured?”
    wing manufactured?
    Morphidae, 170mm
    smallest feature 100nm

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  6. … questions like: “how is a butterfly
    wing manufactured?”
    wing manufactured?
    Morphidae, 170mm
    smallest feature 100nm

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  7. … questions like: “how is a butterfly
    wing manufactured?”
    wing manufactured?
    Morphidae, 170mm
    100nm

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  8. … note: I am not yet speaking of
    engineering a microsystem like this
    engineering a microsystem like this….
    Syrphidae 7mm
    Syrphidae, 7mm

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  9. what is “lab on chip” technology?
    • device made from a substrate
    dev ce de o subs e
    • using clean room technology
    • target: chemistry biology medical use
    • target: chemistry, biology, medical use
    • containing channels, reactors etc
    t i d t t h t t
    • may contain detectors, heaters, etc.

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  10. why is it difficult?
    l t h l i i
    • clean room technology is expensive
    • labour intensive
    • mistakes in layout difficult to correct
    • (take my example…)
    ( y p )

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  11. ciba-geigy, basel switzerland
    (now novartis solvias)
    (now novartis, solvias)
    1988-1996

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  12. ciba-geigy, basel switzerland
    (now novartis solvias)
    (now novartis, solvias)
    1988-1996

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  13. imperial college london
    1996 2006
    1996-2006

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  14. imperial college london
    1996 2006
    1996-2006

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  15. imperial college london
    1996 2006
    1996-2006

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  16. isas, dortmund germany
    2003 2008
    2003-2008

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  17. glass‐glass
    substrate materials
    pmma‐pmma
    glass glass
    pdms‐pdms
    pdms‐glass
    glass silicon
    glass‐glass
    silicon‐silicon
    glass‐silicon
    silicon‐silicon
    pmma‐pmma
    glass gold glass
    glass‐silicon glass‐gold‐glass
    glass‐laminate‐glass
    glass‐silicon‐glass
    d l l i l
    d d
    pdms‐glass ordyl multi‐layer
    glass
    pdms‐copper
    pdms‐silicon
    pdms‐pdms pdms‐silicon‐pdms
    quartz‐quartz
    • substrate materials used

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  18. integrated features
    heaters
    porous membrane
    nothing
    t l l t d
    heaters g
    metal electrodes
    heaters
    porous membrane
    slit array outside
    metal electrodes slit array outside
    liquid membrane
    planar waveguides
    x‐ray source
    nothing
    t sensor
    phase quides
    • integrated featurs, like metal electrodes, heaters, membranes etc

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  19. topology of channels
    binary branching structure
    non‐binary branching well
    tree, spider
    single channel
    central bed, ch around
    single channel
    1 loop
    central ch array, tree
    central bed, ch around
    tree, spider
    central ch array, tree
    binary branching structure
    non‐binary branching
    well
    central chamber, frit, tree
    single channel
    1 loop network
    central chamber, single ch
    • topology
    • spider, tree, loop, network, etc
    p p

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  20. interfacing type
    flat plastic plates
    large holes, thick pdms cover
    large holes,
    thick glass
    cover
    eppendorf pipets open
    eppendorf pipets, open
    flat metal plates
    eppendorf pipets, open
    fused silica tubing
    don't know, not used
    plastic tubing ‐ glue
    fused silica tubing
    plastic tubing ‐ glue
    flat metal plates
    large holes, thick glass cover
    flat plastic plates
    large holes thick pdms cover
    don't know, not used
    large holes, thick pdms cover
    • interfacing type
    • (“chip to world interface”)
    p

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  21. application area
    pumping
    sample
    prep
    basics
    application
    p p g
    separation
    d t ti
    separation
    biology
    detection
    reaction
    biology
    reaction
    basics
    application
    pumping
    pumping
    sample prep
    detection
    • what is the chip used for?

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  22. commercializations
    commercial
    commercial
    attempt
    no attempt
    attempt
    no attempt
    • How many chips were in direct line to commercialization?

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  23. take the best example
    ill l t h i
    • capillary electrophoresis
    • scaling: 100x smaller (length)
    • time to result: < 10,000x faster
    • targets RNA or DNA analysis
    g y

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  24. • capillary electrophoresis, flow injection, electrochemical detection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1989, fab 1989 mettler imt switzerland
    g g p g
    • manz, fettinger, lüdi, widmer, svs bulletin 5, 4-10, 1990

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  25. • capillary electrophoresis, injection, electrochemical detection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1989, fab 1989 mettler imt switzerland
    g g p g
    • manz, harrison, fettinger, verpoorte, lüdi, widmer, proc. transducers
    1991 san francisco, 939-941, 1991

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  26. • capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1992, fab 1992 mettler imt switzerland
    g g p g
    • effenhauser, manz, widmer, anal.chem. 65, 2637-2642, 1993

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  27. • synchronised cyclic capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1992, fab 1992 mettler imt switzerland
    g g p g
    • burggraf, manz, effenhauser, verpoorte, de rooij, widmer, j.high
    resolut.chromatogr. 16, 594-596, 1993

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  28. • 2d capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • quartz – quartz chip, design 1996, fab 1997 imm mainz germany
    q q p g g y
    • becker, lowack, manz, j.micromech.microeng. 8, 24-28, 1998

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  29. • capillary electrophoresis, parallel processing, injection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1996, fab 1996 caliper ltd. california usa
    g g p g p
    • manz, becker, proc. transducers 1997 chicago, 915-918, 1997

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  30. • capillary electrophoresis, parallel processing, injection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1996, fab 1996 caliper ltd. california usa
    g g p g p
    • manz, becker, proc. transducers 1997 chicago, 915-918, 1997

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  31. • 2d capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • glass – glass chip, design 1996, fab 1996 caliper ltd. california usa
    g g p g p
    • manz, bousse, unpublished (patent filing 2002)

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  32. … and some results
    • proof of principle
    p oo o p c p e
    • high speed separation
    • commercial product
    • commercial product
    • market needs just 2x faster electrophoresis
    ( h di i ti !)
    • (…. how disappointing!)

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  33. capillary electrophoresis results
    capillary electrophoresis results
    flow injection results
    electrochemical results
    missing
    • capillary electrophoresis, flow injection, electrochemical detection
    • manz, fettinger, lüdi, widmer, svs bulletin 5, 4-10, 1990
    g

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  34. • capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • manz, harrison, fettinger, verpoorte, lüdi, widmer, proc. transducers
    g p p
    1991 san francisco, 939-941, 1991

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  35. • capillary electrophoresis, small molecules, fluorescence
    • manz, harrison, verpoorte, fettinger, paulus, lüdi, widmer,
    p g p
    j.chromatogr. 593, 253-258, 1992
    • harrison, manz, fan, lüdi, widmer, anal.chem. 64, 1926-1932, 1992

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  36. • capillary electrophoresis, amino acids
    • effenhauser, manz, widmer, anal.chem. 65, 2637-2642, 1993

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  37. • capillary electrophoresis, phosphorothioate oligomers
    • effenhauser, paulus, manz, widmer, anal.chem. 66, 2949-2953, 1994
    p

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  38. • capillary electrophoresis, fractionation, phosphorothioate oligomers
    • effenhauser, manz, widmer, anal.chem. 67, 2284-2287, 1995

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  39. • synchronised cyclic capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • burggraf, manz, effenhauser, verpoorte, de rooij, widmer, j.high
    resolut.chromatogr. 16, 594-596, 1993
    • burggraf, manz, verpoorte, effenhauser , widmer, de rooij,
    sens actuators b20 103-110 1994

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  40. • synchronised cyclic MEKC or capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • von heeren, verpoorte, manz, thormann, anal.chem. 68, 2044-2053,
    1996

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  41. • synchronised cyclic MEKC or CE, theophylline immunoassay
    • von heeren, verpoorte, manz, thormann, anal.chem. 68, 2044-2053,
    1996

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  42. • synchronised cyclic MEKC, human urine, derivatized with FITC
    • von heeren, verpoorte, manz, thormann, anal.chem. 68, 2044-2053,
    1996

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  43. • synchronised cyclic gel electrophoresis, amino acids
    • von heeren, verpoorte, manz, thormann, j.microcolumn separations
    8, 373-381, 1996

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  44. • synchronised cyclic gel electrophoresis, phosphorothioate
    oligonucleotides T2
    -T10
    • von heeren, verpoorte, manz, thormann, j.microcolumn separations
    8, 373-381, 1996

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  45. • label-free carbohydrate detection, holographic optical element
    • burggraf, krattiger, de mello, de rooij, manz, the analyst 123, 1443-
    1447, 1998

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  46. capillary electrophoresis results
    missing
    • 2d capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • becker, lowack, manz, j.micromech.microeng. 8, 24-28, 1998
    j g

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  47. • capillary electrophoresis, parallel processing, injection
    • manz, becker, proc. transducers 1997 chicago, 915-918, 1997
    p g

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  48. • capillary electrophoresis, parallel processing, injection
    • manz, becker, proc. transducers 1997 chicago, 915-918, 1997
    p g

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  49. • capillary electrophoresis, parallel processing, injection
    • manz, becker, proc. transducers 1997 chicago, 915-918, 1997
    p g

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  50. • capillary electrophoresis, parallel processing, injection
    • manz, becker, proc. transducers 1997 chicago, 915-918, 1997
    p g

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  51. • capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • manz, bousse, unpublished
    p
    • presented first at ISPPA, tomakomai, japan 1998

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  52. • capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • manz, bousse, unpublished
    p
    • presented first at ISPPA, tomakomai, japan 1998

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  53. • capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • manz, bousse, unpublished
    p
    • presented first at ISPPA, tomakomai, japan 1998

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  54. • capillary electrophoresis, injection
    • manz, bousse, unpublished
    p
    • presented first at ISPPA, tomakomai, japan 1998

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  55. … everything quite an effort …
    • seeking alternatives
    see g e ves
    • particulary for manufacturing
    • looking at examples in nature
    • looking at examples in nature
    • structured approach
    lf bl
    • self assembly

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  56. starting very simple
    • 3 phase system
    • “self assembly” energy driven
    • self assembly , energy driven
    • a droplet (just that)

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  57. Virtual Reaction Chamber
    Key properties
    – Water-based sample
    encapsulated by oil
    – (RT) PCR conducted on a PCR
    Oi
    glass cover slip
    – Micromachined heater/sensor
    Sample
    Oi
    l
    B
    are separated from the sample
    – Cover slip is disposable
    – Small sample volume makes
    system very fast
    Mirror
    reflection

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  58. VRC details
    LENGTH
    HEATER
    SENSOR
    Key properties
    – VRC with glass placed on a
    LENGTH
    LINK
    SENSOR
    micromachined silicon
    – Heater integrated with
    LINK
    temperature sensor
    – Heating rate: thermal mass,
    available power with PID
    control
    – Cooling rate:  (thermal time
    constant)
    H
    T
    G
    P
    G
    H


     ;

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  59. Ultrafast VRC, 650 K/s!!!
    180 700
    From room temperature to 150 oC in 0.2 s!!
    140
    160
    600
    V)
    100
    120
    ature (oC)
    cence (mV
    60
    80
    Tempera
    500
    Fluoresc
    20
    40 400
    0 5 10 15 20
    Time (s)

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  60. Avian Influenza Virus Detection by RT-PCR
    Key properties
    • SYBR-Green Real-Time RT-
    PCR
    0
    .6
    2
    ature (V)
    • Melting Curve Analysis
    • 8 minutes for RNA detection 0
    1
    Tempera
    8 utes o N detect o
    0
    .3
    -2
    -1
    e (V)
    V
    irusD
    etected
    H
    ot S
    tart
    P
    C
    R
    100
    150
    10-2
    cence (mV)
    uorescence (V/cycle)
    -3
    uorescence
    V
    irus D
    etected
    R
    T
    0
    50
    10-3
    Fluoresc
    Differential Flu
    Critical Threshold 22.3
    0 2 4 6 8 1
    0 12
    0
    .0 -5
    -4
    Flu
    0 10 20 30 40
    10-4
    Cycle Number
    T
    im
    e (m
    in)

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  61. Palm-sized PCR

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  62. sample preparation
    1) disruption of spores by superheating for
    fast DNA extraction
    fast DNA extraction
    2) protein and peptide decomposition by
    2) protein and peptide decomposition by
    superheating
    63

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  63. superheating
    solvent is at a temperature higher than boiling point
    without boiling! PCR
    Oi
    without boiling!
    Sample
    Oi
    l
    B
    experiment
    mirror
    reflection
    no boiling of aqueous solutions at
    240 °C for more than 30 min!!!
    limited by thermal decomposition of surrounding oil
    y p g
    temperature x exposure time =
    applied energy
    64

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  64. Bacillus spore disruption by superheating
    spores of bacteria are highly
    resistance against:
    - dryness
    y
    - toxic substances
    - other aggressive
    substances
    substances
    - aging
    - heat: dry: 150 °C ca. 1 h
    boiling: ca 5 h
    boiling: ca. 5 h
    electron microscope cross section of a spore of Bacillus
    electron microscope cross-section of a spore of Bacillus
    subtilis, showing the cortex and coat layers surrounding the
    core (dark central area). spore is 1.2 µm across. (Picture: S.
    Pankratz, Berkeley University of California)
    65

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  65. B. subtilis purified spores
    microscope image of Bacillus subtilis spores after
    contrast staining (spores: blue)
    contrast staining (spores: blue)
    Z i A i 2 1500 ifi i
    66
    Zeiss Axiotron 2, 1500 magnification

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  66. B. subtilis purified spores after
    SUPERHEATING
    microscope image of Bacillus subtilis spores after
    contrast staining (spores: blue)
    contrast staining (spores: blue)
    Z i A i 2 1500 ifi i
    67
    Zeiss Axiotron 2, 1500 magnification

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  67. spore disruption
    destruction of spores by superheating
    1 0 1
    p o s itiv e c o n tro l
    n e g a tiv e c o n tro l
    1 0 0
    1 0
    tensity
    s p o re s o lu tio n
    s p o re s a fte r p re tre a tm e n t
    s p o re s a fte r s u p e rh e a tin g
    1 0 -1
    1 0
    scence int
    1 0 -2
    1 0
    Fluore
    0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 3 5 4 0
    1 0
    C yc le N u m b e r
    68

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  68. protein and peptide
    protein- and peptide-
    decomposition by superheating
    p y p g
    for peptide mass fingerprinting
    69

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  69. start with “easy” samples: ACTH
    • adrenocorticotropic hormone (fragment 1-24)
    • molecular weight 2933.44 Da
    • ACTH is a biomarker for cellular stress, infections,
    cancer (metastases!), activates G proteins…
    70

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  70. peptide decomposition by superheating
    2628.2
    60
    70
    80
    90
    100
    Intensity
    2932.645
    No heating
    49.0 640.8 1232.6 1824.4 2416.2 3008.0
    Mass (m/z)
    10
    20
    30
    40
    50
    %
    1467.313
    g
    Mass (m/z)
    5354.2
    60
    70
    80
    90
    100
    tensity
    2932.6687
    Superheating to 130 °C for
    49 0 640 8 1232 6 1824 4 2416 2 3008 0
    10
    20
    30
    40
    50
    60
    % In
    2
    1467.3292
    360.343
    2724.5750
    1475.3208
    978.5501
    213.122
    2885.6414
    1635.0529
    10 s
    49.0 640.8 1232.6 1824.4 2416.2 3008.0
    Mass (m/z)
    2.0E+4
    60
    70
    80
    90
    100
    ensity
    2932.6814
    Superheating to 130 °C for
    49 0 640 8 1232 6 1824 4 2416 2 3008 0
    10
    20
    30
    40
    50
    60
    % Inte
    2
    1467.3354
    2915.7068
    2724.5742
    1635.0637
    379.0871
    71.3642
    2835.6299
    978.8941
    2884.6804
    2682.5625
    1363.2769
    1539.3729
    1498.2889
    1691.1270
    p g
    20 s
    71
    49.0 640.8 1232.6 1824.4 2416.2 3008.0
    Mass (m/z)

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  71. how about a challenge?
    • manufacture an object
    hi h h ld b h d
    which you can hold by hand
    • from smaller parts
    which you cannot hold by hand
    • by self assembly
    y y
    • by structured approach

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  72. Organelle
    Atoms
    Smooth muscle cell
    Molecule
    Atoms
    Chemical level
    At bi t f l l
    Cellular level
    Cells are made up of molecules.
    1
    2
    Cardiovascular
    system
    Atoms combine to form molecules.
    Tissue level
    Smooth muscle tissue
    3
    system
    Tissues consist of similar
    types of cells.
    Blood vessel (organ)
    Heart
    Blood
    vessels
    Connective tissue
    Smooth muscle tissue
    Organ level
    Epithelial
    tissue
    4 Organ level
    Organs are made up of different types
    of tissues.
    Organ system level
    Organism level
    4
    5
    6 g y
    Organ systems consist of different
    organs that work together closely.
    Organism level
    The human organism is made up
    of many organ systems.
    6

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  73. hierarchical assembly
    y

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  74. self assembly
    self assembly
    S. A. Stauth, C. J. Morris, and B. A. Parviz,in
    Evolvable Hardware 2004, Seattle, WA, 2004
    Y H Jhang et al Organic Electronics
    Y.-H. Jhang et al., Organic Electronics,
    13(10), pp. 1865-1872, 2012
    K. Hosokawa, I. Shimoyama, and H. Miura,
    S & A t t A 57 117 125 1996
    T. L. Breen et al., Science, 284, pp. 948-951,
    Sensors & Actuators A, 57, pp. 117-125, 1996 1999

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  75. self assembly
    y
    S. E. Chung et al., Nature Materials, 5,
    pp. 1147, 2008
    S A St th d B A P i PNAS 103(38)
    C. Lin, Y. Liu, and H. Yan, biochemistry,
    48(8), pp. 1663-1674, 2009
    S. A. Stauth and B. A. Parviz, PNAS, 103(38),
    pp. 13922-13927, 2006

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  76. concept
    • the use of hard material
    • achievement of asymmetric pattern by logical
    sequence
    • morphology-based assembly (non chemical
    functionalization)
    )
    • capillary force as driving force
    • tripods as building blocks
    • tripods as building blocks
    • assembly at fluidic interface

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  77. lateral capillary force

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  78. capillary force
    Surface Surface
    Air
    Su ace
    tension (γ)
    Su ace
    tension
    Meniscus
    Meniscus
    Tripod
    Water
    Contact angle
    (θc
    )
    Water

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  79. capillary attraction
    As approaching each other the contact angle is decreased
    P. Singh et al., Soft Matter, 2010, 6, 4310-4325
    As approaching each other, the contact angle is decreased
    and laterally attractive capillary force is increased

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  80. capillary attraction
    Capillary attraction between hydrophobic & floating material
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TAY6RcJPEHY

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  81. size effect
    In order to increase Bond number, higher density, larger size,
    and weaker surface tension of floating material and medium are
    necessary
    necessary.

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  82. examples of LOGIC for self-assembly

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  83. B B’
    can bind to
    examples of LOGIC for self-assembly

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  84. symmetric type
    • ANTHRACENE
    • Six different tripods are needed for this
    Six different tripods are needed for this
    assembly.

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  85. B
    A
    B
    A’
    B
    A
    B
    B C
    B
    B C
    (upset
    patterns are
    !)
    A
    B C
    A’
    B C same!)
    A
    B C B C
    B B C C
    B B C
    B’
    B’
    2x
    C
    B B C C
    X and X’ are pairs
    p

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  86. C C’
    C’
    2x
    2x
    C
    2x
    2x

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  87. less symmetric type
    • PHENANTHRENE
    • 13 different tripods are needed for this
    13 different tripods are needed for this
    assembly.

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  88. B B
    A
    B
    A’
    B B
    B
    B C
    A’
    B
    B C
    A
    A’
    B D B D
    B D
    B B C
    B’
    B’
    C
    B B D
    B
    B
    2x
    D
    B B D D

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  89. E E
    D’
    D’
    A
    E
    A’
    D
    A
    B
    B C
    B
    B
    A
    A’
    B D
    B D B
    E
    D B
    F
    D’
    F

    B’
    B’
    E’ B’
    B B

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  90. F
    C
    C
    D’
    F
    D
    F’
    C C
    C
    D
    C
    C’ C’
    D’

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  91. design and fabrication of
    assembling elements
    assembling elements

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  92. our choice
    • Tripod: Plastic (SU-8)
    • Interface: water/air
    • The dimension of tripods: L 500 μm
    Material Densit (g/cm3) Yo ng’s mod l s(GPa)
    • The dimension of tripods: L~ 500 μm
    Material Density (g/cm3) Young’s modulus(GPa)
    Silicon 2.33 130-188
    SU-8 1.19 4.02
    PDMS 0.965 0.0018
    Polyimide 1.43 3.2

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  93. Fabrication Procedure of SU 8 Tripods
    1 Omnicoat is used as releasing
    Fabrication Procedure of SU-8 Tripods
    1. Omnicoat is used as releasing
    agent of SU-8 microstructure.
    2. The stress of the structure should
    Coating omnicoat and
    SU-8 2050 on the wafer
    be minimized (RT curing, no
    sudden thermal-process)
    3 Th t th th t i d
    3. The way to gather the tripods
    without stacking each other is
    necessary
    Curing at RT and
    patterning
    necessary
    patterning
    Filtration for obtaining SU-8
    tripods
    Releasing the tripods by dipping
    in the Remover PG

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  94. first design for tripods

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  95. first design for tripods

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  96. process flow
    process flow
    1. Fabricated
    SU-8 pattern
    2. Diced sample 3. Release of
    tripods from the
    wafer
    4. Placement of
    the filter paper
    on the filter
    5. Configuration of the
    filtration system with
    vacuum pump
    6. Filtration 7. Washing with
    D.I. water
    8. Vacuum-
    drying of the
    9. Observation
    with microscope
    10. The petridish
    with floating tripod
    thoroughly filter paper elements

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  97. fabricated tripods
    Fabricated SU-8 tripod
    on the wafer
    Released SU-8 tripod
    on the wafer

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  98. assembly results

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  99. ideal dimer formation

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  100. observed dimer formation

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  101. assembled tripods

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  102. t l ti
    rectangular tip case

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  103. elimination of local minimum
    elimination of local minimum
    -
    - Elimination of local
    Elimination of local
    Elimination of local
    Elimination of local
    minimum
    minimum
    A
    Elimination of local
    Elimination of local
    -
    - Elimination of local
    Elimination of local
    minimum
    minimum
    -
    - Round tip for
    Round tip for
    p
    p
    minimizing the
    minimizing the
    interacting area
    interacting area
    i i i
    i i i
    -
    - Sliding gradient
    Sliding gradient
    B

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  104. results (A type)
    results (A type)

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  105. results (B type)
    results (B type)

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  106. tripods
    tripods

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  107. tripods
    tripods

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  108. tripods
    tripods

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  109. tripods
    tripods

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  110. snapshots
    snapshots
    t=0 s t=0.25 s t=0.5 s
    t=0.75 s t=1 s
    t=0.8 s

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  111. smaller tripods
    smaller tripods
    Th tt ti f i t
    The attractive force is not
    strong enough to make
    them assembled because
    them assembled because
    the smaller size leads to
    smaller bond number and
    interfacial deformation

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  112. … lipid extrusions …
    li id t b l
    • lipid tubules
    • reproducible
    • um size
    • (lifetime limited)
    ( )

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  113. vesicle production
    PDMS
    p
    PDMS
    Si
    PDMS
    Si
    PDMS

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  114. vesicle production
    p
    PDMS
    Si
    PDMS 100 µm
    2 µm

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  115. vesicle production
    p
    flow direction
    100 µm
    100 µm
    side view side view
    fluorescence image

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  116. formation of
    P.S.Dittrich, M.Heule, P.Renaud, A.Manz
    Lab Chip 6 488-493 (2006) formation of
    vesicle tubes
    Lab Chip 6, 488 493 (2006)

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  117. Formation of helices
    50 µm
    50 µm
    P.S.Dittrich, M.Heule, P.Renaud, A.Manz
    Lab Chip 6, 488-493 (2006)

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  118. … ongoing work …
    t t i
    • spontaneous extrusions
    • parallel extrusions
    • tubing, cilia, large surface materials
    • soft materials

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  119. CONCLUSION
    CONCLUSION

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  120. CONCLUSION
    CONCLUSION
    • biomimetic microfabrication may be
    very interesting for manufacturing
    ill i i d i l
    • still curiosity driven, very early stage
    • concepts for selective hierarchical
    • concepts for selective hierarchical
    assembly needed
    y

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  121. k l d t
    acknowledgement
    Leon Abelmann, PhD, Professor
    Pavel Neuzil, PhD
    Matthias Altmeyer PhD
    Matthias Altmeyer, PhD
    Eric Castro, PhD
    Adam Pribylka
    V Al id
    In Korea:
    Vanessa Almeida
    Per Arvid Loethman
    Seung Jae Lee
    Tae Song Kim, KIST Seoul, Korea
    Seungwon Jung KIST Seoul Korea
    Mi Jang
    Himani Sharma
    Jukyung Park
    Seungwon Jung , KIST Seoul, Korea
    Min Cheol Park , KIST Seoul, Korea
    Pavithra Sukumar , KIST Seoul, Korea
    Christian Ahrberg
    Tim Mehlhorn
    Camila Madeira Campos
    Ca a ade a Ca pos
    Marc Pichel

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