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Human Document Project - introduction, goals & a small project

andreas manz
September 13, 2012

Human Document Project - introduction, goals & a small project

... talk given at Stanford. Human Document Project workshop, September 13-14, 2012.

andreas manz

September 13, 2012
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  1. introduction goals & a small project
    introduction, goals & a small project
    Andreas Manz, Jukyun Park
    b k
    KIST Europe, Saarbrücken Germany

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  2. „the human document project“
    p j
    goal
    t d 1 d t b t h
    •to produce 1 document about human
    culture, science, arts etc.
    culture, science, arts etc.
    •to preserve it for 1 million years

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  3. assumption 1
    ssu p o
    1 million years ahead
    can be extrapolated
    can be extrapolated
    for geology
    for astronomy
    for astronomy

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  4. a Million years?
    a Million years?
    19/36

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  5. a Million years?
    a Million years?
    19/36

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  6. a Million years?
    a Million years?
    19/36

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  7. a planetary clock ?
    a planetary clock ?
    37 628 AD occ ltation of Sat rn b J piter
    37,628 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    36,774 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    30,121 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    23 350 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    23,350 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    21,303 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    13,738 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    13 340 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    13,340 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    8,674 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter
    7,541 AD occultation of Saturn by Jupiter (2x within a few months)
    19/36

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  8. a planetary clock ?
    a planetary clock ?
    571,741 AD simultaneous transit Venus + Earth seen from Mars
    224,508 AD near-simultaneous transit of Venus and Mercury
    69,163 AD simultaneous Venus + Mercury transit
    38,172 AD transit of Uranus seen from Neptune
    15,790 AD simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    15,232 AD simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Venus 
    13,425 AD near-simultaneous transit of Venus and Mercury
    11 575 AD i lt l l li d t it f M
    11,575 AD simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    11,268 AD simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    10,663 AD simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    9 966 AD simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    9,966 AD simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    9,622 AD simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    9,361 AD simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    8 059 AD simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    8,059 AD simultaneous annular solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    6,757 AD simultaneous solar eclipse and transit of Mercury
    -15,607 BC simultaneous total solar eclipse and transit of Venus 
    -90 109 BC near-simultaneous transit of Venus and Mercury
    19/36
    90,109 BC near simultaneous transit of Venus and Mercury
    -373,173 BC simultaneous Venus + Mercury transit

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  9. assumption 2
    ssu p o
    1 million years back is similar to
    y
    1 million years ahead
    for biology

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  10. many Million years
    many Million years
    19/36

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  11. 1 million years back
    1 million years back
    Homo neanderthalensis
    Homo sapiens
    Homo heidelbergensis
    Homo habilis
    Homo erectus
    Paranthropus
    Ardipithecus
    Australopithecus
    6 5 4 3 2 1 0 million years

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  12. in 1 million years
    o ye s
    a biological species may have
    evolved into another (similar) one
    evolved into another (similar) one
    likelihood nearly 100%
    Homo sapiens may no longer exist
    Homo sapiens may no longer exist

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  13. assumption 3
    ssu p o 3
    the future could be much longer than
    the past
    the past
    for intelligent life
    for Hominid species
    for Hominid species

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  14. 1 million years back
    1 million years back
    5 4 3 2 1 0
    venus statuettes, cave paintings
    pottery
    pottery
    stone axes
    pebble tools

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  15. „the human document project“
    p j
    Lespugue, upper paleolithic, 25,000 B.C.

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  16. „the human document project“
    p j
    Lascaux cave, upper paleolithic, 14,000 B.C.

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  17. „the human document project“
    p j
    Tartaria tablets, 5,500 B.C. Jiahu symbols, 6,000 B.C.

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  18. „the human document project“
    p j
    Epic of Gilgamesh
    p g
    begins with instructions on
    how to find a box of copper
    ow to d a bo o coppe
    inside a foundation stone in the
    great walls of Uruk
    3,000 B.C.

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  19. the “culture record” of Hominids has
    some similarity to the fossil record
    governed by mechanisms of
    preservation
    and corrosion / destruction

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  20. assumption 4
    ssu p o
    we tend to underestimate Hominid
    intelligence past and future
    intelligence, past and future

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  21. „the human document project“
    p j
    Pioneer plaque 1972 Voyager CD 1977

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  22. a small project
    s p ojec
    t i t d itt l t
    to introduce written language to
    a future reader
    to store it on solid material
    to store it on solid material
    to test processes of aging

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  23. deep etching of monocrystalline silicon
    deep e c g o o oc ys e s co

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  24. learning / definitions
    Lik R tt t
    Like Rosetta stone

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  25. embedding it in amber
    e bedd g be
    resin source today
    Agathis australis (New Zealand)
    monomer: communic acid
    monomer: communic acid

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  26. Language over the ages
    Question1: What does this say?
    Question1: What does this say?
    Answer: Human Document
    (Old English Runic alphabet, used until 10th century)
    How can we make our document
    ( g p , y)
    Answer: We have to teach our language
    understandable?
    Answer: We have to teach our language

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  27. learning / definitions
    lik hild ’ l i
    like children’s learning

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  28. Primary school textbooks
    Sound based
    English
    Sound-based
    Sino-graphs
    English
    Korean
    Korean
    7/35

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  29. Primary school textbooks
    Analyze
    • Children taught to read by using pictures
    B k f t hi h th h t d ( ith
    Analyze
    • Books focus on teaching how the characters sound (with
    teacher/parental assistance)
    Problems
    Children’s books do not teach the meaning of words
    Need external influences to assist learning
    Problems
    Need external influences to assist learning
    8/35

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  30. Dictionary
    Analyze
    • Collection of words
    W d d ib d b th d
    Analyze
    • Words are described by other words
    • Often used to help learn other languages
    Problems
    • First steps of learning very difficult
    Problems
    p g y
    (excellent as a 2nd step)
    9/35

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  31. Picture-based dictionary
    Example
    호랑이털색은 녹슨 듯한 오렌지색 녹슨
    호랑이
    :
    털색은 녹슨 듯한 오렌지색, 녹슨
    듯한 갈색, 몸 아래 쪽과 얼굴
    일부분은 흰색 사자에 비해
    일부분은 흰색 사자에 비해
    얼굴이 작고 갈기가 없음. 온몸에
    검은색 세로 줄무늬가 있음
    One picture is worth a thousand words
    10/35

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  32. Picture-based dictionary
    Problems
     U bl t l i ll d b i t l
     Unable to explain all words by pictures alone
     Inefficient, in terms of coverage
    Possible solution
     Ontology: classification of words, and the relationships between
    h
    them
    11/35

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  33. Ontology
    Example 육식 동물: 동물을 먹이로 삼는 동물이다
    동물 Enlarge the tree
    ith b i
    Animal with basic
    pictures
    육식 동물
    포유 동물
    Mammal
    어류
    Fish
    조류
    Bird
    Predators
    Mammal Fish Bird
    12/35

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  34. Structure of the ontology
    earth
    Super class
    Super class
    Definition of a master class:
    1. Objects that can be easily seen in nature without
    Master class (2)
    Master class (1)
    j y
    additional tools
    2. Objects that might not change significantly even after
    1 million years
    1 million years
    3. Contains threshold hierarchy,
    e.g. mammal class, bird class
    Slave class
    (1.1)
    Slave class
    (1.2)
    Slave class
    (2.1)
    Slave class
    (2.2)
    13/35
    Slave
    class
    (1 1 2)

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  35. Structure of the ontology
    Example :
    Example :
    slave class
    (Human)
    ( )
    live at create has believe know play create
    use
    Has
    Human
    14/35

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  36. Applying the ontology
    to a chip
    Super picture Master picture Slave picture
     M t l
    picture which
     Master classes
     Unique objects
    (e.g Sun, Moon) picture which
    represents a
    current view
    of the Earth
    (e.g Sun, Moon)
     Exceptions
    (e.g. cloud,
    are inside the
    master
    i t
    of the Earth humans, fire)
    15/35
    pictures

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  37. Super picture design
    Super picture design
    Master
    i
    pictures
    Ontology
    t
    tree

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  38. Contents of the
    l i
    slave pictures
    1 Pi t d d t f "A i l” l
    1. Pictures descendent from "Animal” super class
    2 “Human” picture
    2. Human picture
    3. Master pictures with no slave classes
    p
    17/36

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  39. Contents of the
    l i
    slave pictures
    1 Pi t d d t f "A i l” l
    1. Pictures descendent from "Animal” super class
    2 “Human” picture
    2. Human picture
    3. Master pictures with no slave classes
    p
    18/36

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  40. Contents of the
    l i
    slave pictures
    1 Pi t d d t f "A i l” l
    1. Pictures descendent from "Animal” super class
    2 “Human” picture
    2. Human picture
    3. Master pictures with no slave classes
    p
    19/36

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  41. the mask layout
    the mask layout

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  42. Chip fabrication: material
    Material : Silicon
    Reasons:
    Reasons:
     Stable against temperature
     Stable against chemicals
    g
     Established micro fabrication methods
     Youngs modulus & Knoop hardness is high
    17/35

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  43. Chip fabrication: photolithography
    Result
    Problem: Caused by the high density of
    th K h t
    the Korean characters
    쀍 vs A
    Mask design Photo-
    XeF Etching
    Modification:
    쀍 vs A
    (Cadence) lithography
    XeF2
    Etching
    18/35

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  44. the wafer
    the wafer
    19/36

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  45. the wafer
    the wafer
    19/36

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  46. the wafer
    the wafer
    19/36

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  47. the wafer
    the wafer
    19/36

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  48. the wafer
    the wafer
    19/36

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  49. Causes of damage
    Type Possible occurrence Related parameter
    Er
    Friction Movement of chip or sand particles Speed & Force
    rosion
    Th
    Shock Occurence of fire
    Occurence of volcano
    Maximum temperature
    Fatigue Daily & annual Difference between maximum
    We
    Thermal
    Fatigue y
    temperature change and minimum temperature
    eathering
    Freezing Ice forming Minimum temperature
    Pressure Something can fall down over the wafer Applied pressure
    g
    Pressure Something can fall down over the wafer
    or an animal can walk over it
    Applied pressure
    Chemical Acid rain Concentration Temperature
    Chemical Acid rain
    Hydroxide round
    biochemical reaction etc
    Concentration Temperature

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  50. Friction tests (1)
    • Sand blaster used for friction experiment (1)
    p ( )
    nozzle
    chip
    Problem:
    Difficult to make a quantitative relation between sand particle
    Relationship between pressure and destruction
    velocity and the rate of destruction
    21/35

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  51. Friction tests (2)
    Friction tests (2)
    • Grinding machine used for friction experiment (2)
    • Two parameters investigated:
     Effect of grinding speed with constant force (2 N) for 20s
     Effect of force applied by grinding machine with constant speed (20,000
    ) f 20
    rpm) for 20 s
    22/35

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  52. Friction tests
    Friction tests
    (Constant force)
    (Constant force)
    Effect of grinding speed
    ( )
    ( )
    (constant force)
    Depth(µm)
    Depth = √(Ks × grinding speed) K 129 10-12
    Applied speed (rpm)
    23/35
    Depth = √(Ks × grinding speed) Ks = 129 x 10-12
    m/s

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  53. Friction tests
    Friction tests
    (Constant speed)
    (Constant speed)
    Effect of applied force (constant
    ( p )
    ( p )
    grinding speed)
    Depth(µm)
    A particle moving 1 cm/year with 2 N force would remove
    0 2 nm of chip material in 20 seconds
    0.2 nm of chip material in 20 seconds
    Lifetime of a 500um chip would be
    Applied force (N)
    Lifetime of a 500um chip would be
    1.5 years only !!!
    Depth = √(Kf × grinding speed) Kf = 590 µm2/N
    Applied force (N)
    24/35
    Kf = 590 µm /N

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  54. Chemical tests
    • Silicon is etched by hydroxide (OH-)
    – e.g. etching rate of silicon <100> with 20 % KOH at 20 °C is 25.3
    nm/min
    Etching rate of lower concentrations is linear
    – Etching rate of lower concentrations is linear
    etching rate = (1.25 X 10-3) Concentration
    It will take 14,000,000 years to etch a
    • Ground water is usually slightly alkaline (pH 8)
    – Natural sources of hydroxide:
    500 µm chip
    Natural sources of hydroxide:
    1) Erosion of carbonate-containing “limestone”
    2) Leaching from hardwood ashes (e.g. after forest fires)
    Concentration of ground water =5.61 X 10 -8
    26/35

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  55. Chemical tests
    Put the chip in
    Experiment
    Put the chip in
    20 % KOH
    at 20 °C
    Leave it for Repeat
    Leave it for
    50 min
    Repeat
    Clean & observe
    27/35

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  56. Chemical test results
    After 150 min the information was unreadable
    Estimated time: ~100,000 years to erase the
    information under pH8 condition
    information under pH8 condition
    29/35

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  57. Pressure considerations
    • Soil stress
    Example: to break 1 cm2 chip (500um thick)
    S ill d h hi d i h d
    Example: to break 1 cm chip (500um thick)
    4.58 MN is needed
    1m deep = 9.6 MN
    • Silicon hardness
    Stress will reduce when chips are deeper in the ground
    2m deep = 38.3MN
    3m deep = 43.1MN
    30/35

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  58. Summary of stability test
    Type Result
    Solution
    yp
    Erosi
    Friction Not stable enough
     packaging, resin cover
     put it underground
    no thermal problem
    ion
    g
    Th
    Shock Stable
    no thermal problem
    less pressure problem
     ti l t / f i ti ?
    Weat
    hermal
    Fatigue Stable
    Freezing Stable
    particle movement / friction ?
     put the chip on the moon
    thering
    Pressure Not stable enough
    Ch i l N t t bl h
     put the chip on the moon
    thermal problem ?
    friction problem ?
    Chemical Not stable enough
    friction problem ?
    no pressure problem (nobody there)
    no chemical problem (no water)
    31/35
    no chemical problem (no water)

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  59. conclusions
    combination of line drawings +
    ontology tree used for teaching
    ontology tree used for teaching
    silicon device needs better layout,
    splitting into chips, protective coating
    splitting into chips, protective coating
    bili i hi h
    stability tests give hints how to
    improve lifetime of devices
    33/35
    p

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