The Shape of Trust

44b54d2ffcb7857004071cc6795dde11?s=47 Cassini Nazir
October 24, 2019

The Shape of Trust

A shorter version of this talk was first given at World Interaction Design Day on Sept. 24, 2019 to Dallas-area colleagues, designers, and students. This is an expanded version of the talk given at the Dallas UXPA on Oct. 24. View the write-up of this talk at https://medium.com/@cassininazir/the-shape-of-trust-ac913a227a13.

44b54d2ffcb7857004071cc6795dde11?s=128

Cassini Nazir

October 24, 2019
Tweet

Transcript

  1. 1.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Cassini Nazir Clinical

    Associate Professor The University of Texas at Dallas @cassininazir THO UG HTS ON THE E FFE CTS OF MOD ERN DE SIG N S H A P E O F T R U S T T H E Dallas UXPA Oct. 24, 2019 Dallas
  2. 3.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Shinkansen train modeled

    after beak of kingfisher bird. George de Mestral (1941) Eiji Nakatsu (1997) Designers look to nature for inspiration. This is called biomimicry. Burrs caught on dog fur inspired Velcro.
  3. 4.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature holds lessons

    we have only begun to unravel : defying gravity creating energy harnessing the invisible avoiding disaster keeping cool reducing pain Learning from the gecko… ... how to climb buildings.
  4. 5.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature holds lessons

    we have only begun to unravel : creating energy harnessing the invisible avoiding disaster keeping cool reducing pain Learning from sunflowers… ... how to optimize solar power.
  5. 6.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature holds lessons

    we have only begun to unravel : harnessing the invisible avoiding disaster keeping cool reducing pain Learning from whale fins... ... how to create efficient wind power.
  6. 7.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature holds lessons

    we have only begun to unravel : avoiding disaster keeping cool reducing pain Learning from dolphins… ... how to detect tsunamis earlier.
  7. 8.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature holds lessons

    we have only begun to unravel : keeping cool reducing pain Learning from termite colonies ... ... how to climate control buildings.
  8. 9.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature holds lessons

    we have only begun to unravel : reducing pain Learning from mosquitoes ... ... how to create “nicer needles.”
  9. 10.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Many common objects

    of today, were primitive human interactions. before they were neolithic objects, Ceramic cup, circa 6000 BC Modern coffee cup Gesture of cupping hands Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  10. 11.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Many common interactions

    of yesterday… are now an object used as an extension of ourselves. Using hands to eat Using utensil to eat Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  11. 12.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Go to nature

    … rejecting nothing, selecting nothing, and scorning nothing.” “ — John Ruskin, Modern Painters Vol. 1 (1843)
  12. 13.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Nature is the

    first circular economy: nothing is wasted. Herbivores Carnivore Carnivore Decomposers Producers Herbivores Sun Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
  13. 15.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust It certainly exists

    in the technological world Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi from the Noun Project Does the button occur in nature? QUESTION
  14. 16.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Where do you

    pour water to make a plant grow? Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019 Imagine you are a child in 10,000 BC. You heard water helps a plant grow, but you don’t understand how it works.
  15. 17.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Where do you

    pour water to make a plant grow? Stuff grows here It would be a waste to put water here! Water should go here, too Mental Model (incorrect) Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019 Imagine you are a child in 10,000 BC. You heard water helps a plant grow, but you don’t understand how it works.
  16. 18.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1 Water and

    minerals absorbed by roots System Model (simplified) 2 Water travels through plant 3 Sunlight needed for photosynthesis 4 Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen Where do you pour water to make a plant grow? Stuff grows here It would be a waste to put water here! Water should go here, too Mental Model (incorrect) Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019 Imagine you are a child in 10,000 BC. You heard water helps a plant grow, but you don’t understand how it works.
  17. 19.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust The concept behind

    the button is profound. Natural World timeless Visible action Slow reaction process Tangible distance Cyclical time Not concerned with efficiency Watering plant roots… … makes a plant grow.
  18. 20.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust The concept behind

    the button is profound. Natural World timeless Mechanical Age 15th-19th century Digital Age Late 20th century-present Visible action Invisible/abstracted reaction process Heavily abstracted distance Heavily abstracted time Exponential efficiency Visible action Slow reaction process Tangible distance Cyclical time Not concerned with efficiency Visible action Visible reaction process Tangible distance Semi-cyclical time Multiplier factor of efficiency Watering plant roots… … makes a plant grow. Operating a lever or crank… … makes an action more efficient. Pressing a digital button… … can make nearly anything happen, immediately. Electrical Age 19th-20th century Visible action Hidden reaction process Abstracted distance Abstracted time Multiplier factor of efficiency Operating an electrical button… … further increases efficiency. … shortens distance.
  19. 21.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust In the mechanical

    age, we could see the action as it happened. The process of separation was visible throughout the cotton gin. 1 hour of cotton gin machine = 600 hours of human work Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  20. 22.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Even if you

    couldn't see the action as it happened, the average person could understand the process. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019 Heating 5 tons of iron once took 24 hours. The Bessemer process was 20 minutes.
  21. 23.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Buttons changed how

    we experience distance. The world suddenly became smaller. “What hath God wrought?” Numbers 23:23 First telegraph sent on May 24, 1844 Telegraph (1837) Samuel Morse Telephone (1876) Alexander Graham Bell Radio (1895) Guglielmo Marconi The letter “S” First radio transmission on Dec. 12, 1901 “Mr. Watson—come here—I want to see you.” First telephone call on March 10, 1876
  22. 24.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust The concept behind

    the button is profound. Natural World timeless Mechanical Age 15th-19th century Digital Age Late 20th century-present Visible action Invisible/abstracted reaction process Heavily abstracted distance Heavily abstracted time Exponential efficiency Visible action Slow reaction process Tangible distance Cyclical time Not concerned with efficiency Visible action Visible reaction process Tangible distance Semi-cyclical time Multiplier factor of efficiency Watering plant roots… … makes a plant grow. Operating a lever or crank… … makes an action more efficient. Pressing a digital button… … can make nearly anything happen, immediately. Electrical Age 19th-20th century Visible action Hidden reaction process Abstracted distance Abstracted time Multiplier factor of efficiency Operating an electrical button… … further increases efficiency. … shortens distance.
  23. 25.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust We can now

    press a button here … … to affect a result there. Ring doorbell Ignored by cat Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  24. 26.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust We can now

    press a button here … … to affect a result there. Press button on keyboard Send document to print Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  25. 27.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust We can now

    press a button here … … to affect a result there. Shop from anywhere Package delivered, anywhere. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  26. 28.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust We can now

    press a button here … … to affect a result there. Launch a rocket Send a satellite into orbit Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  27. 29.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust We can now

    press a button here … … to affect a result there. Push the button Destroy anything, anywhere Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
  28. 30.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust The concept behind

    the button is profound: interacting with a thing here can affect something or someone there. Natural World timeless Mechanical Age 15th-19th century Digital Age Late 20th century-present Visible action Invisible/abstracted reaction process Heavily abstracted distance Heavily abstracted time Exponential efficiency Visible action Slow reaction process Tangible distance Cyclical time Not concerned with efficiency Visible action Visible reaction process Tangible distance Semi-cyclical time Multiplier factor of efficiency Watering plant roots… … makes a plant grow. Operating a lever or crank… … makes an action more efficient. Pressing a digital button… … can make nearly anything happen, immediately. Electrical Age 19th-20th century Visible action Hidden reaction process Abstracted distance Abstracted time Multiplier factor of efficiency Operating an electrical button… … further increases efficiency. … shortens distance.
  29. 31.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust HERE THERE REFLECT

    In what ways have you pressed a button here and affected someone else there?
  30. 32.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Our capacity for

    deep empathy changes the further out we go.
  31. 35.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust ACTIVITY Think of

    the person you trust most. Now draw that person.
  32. 36.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust ACTIVITY Think of

    the person you trust most. Now draw that person. What words best describe that person?
  33. 37.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust ACTIVITY Think of

    the person you trust most. Now draw that person. What words best describe that person? Do those words also describe you?
  34. 38.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 40 years of

    academic research on trust can be summarized by three attributes: Definition of trust Shawn Burke DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.006 The willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another party based on the expectation that the other party will perform a particular action important to the trustor, irrespective of the ability to monitor or control the other party Risk or having something invested, is requisite to trust; trust is evident only in situations where the potential damage from unfulfilled trust is greater than possible gain if trust is fulfilled 1. trust entails the assumption of risks some form of trust in inherent in all relationships Willingness to take risks (one of the few characteristics common to all trust situations) There must be some meaningful incentives at stake and that the trustor must be cognizant of the risk involved Cognitive trust refers to beliefs about another's trustworthiness Affective trust refers to the important role of emotions in the trust process Behavioral trust in teams is relying on another and disclosing sensitive information to another Accepting the risks associated with the type and depth of the interdependence inherent in a given relationship Group's trust for another: A shared belief by member's of a focal group about how willing that group is to be vulnerable to the a target group Interorganizational trust is collectively held trust orientation toward the partner firm Mutual trust exists when two people have complementary trust for one another and when each perceives that the other is aware of his intent and his trust Reciprocal trust is the trust that results when a party observes the actions of another and reconsiders one's attitude and subsequent behavior based on those observations Trust implies a belief that an individual will not act opportunistically or in a self-serving manner; belief of a congruence of values Trust (3 Facets) 1. trust in another party reflects an expectation or belief that the other party will act benevolently 2. trust involves a willingness to be vulnerable and risk that the other party may not fulfill the expectations 3. trust involves some level of dependency on the other party so that the outcomes of one individual are influenced by the actions of another Source Mayer et al. (1995) Sheppard & Sherman, 1998; Deutsch, 1958 Johnson-George and Swap (1982) Kee and Knox (1970) Gillespie & Mann, 2004; Gillespie, 2003 Sheppard and Sherman (1998) Serva, Fuller, & Mayer, 2005; Mayer et al., 1995 Serva et al., 2005; Zaheer, McEvily, & Perrone, 1998 Serva et al., 2005; Deutsch, 1958 Serva et al. (2005) Hall et al., 2004; Lewicki & Bunker, 1995 Whitener et al. (1998) Definition of trust Trust can be viewed as an attitude (derived from trustor's perceptions, beliefs, and attributions about the trustee based upon trustee's behavior) held by one individual toward another A psychological state compromising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behavior of another Willingness to be vulnerable Willingness to rely on another Interpersonal trust: two dimensions 1. Cognitive — reflect issues such as the reliability, integrity, honest, and fairness of a referent 2. Affective — reflect a special relationship with the referent to demonstrate concern about one's welfare One's willingness to rely on another's actions in a situation involving the risk of opportunism Based on individuals' expectations that others will behave in ways that are helpful or at least not harmful One believes in and is willing to depend on another party Two components: Trusting intention: one is willing to depend on the other person in a given situation Trusting beliefs: one believes the other person is benevolent, competent, honest, or predictable in a situation Disposition to trust: refers to a tendency to be willing to depend on others Institution-based trust: one believes impersonal structures support one's likelihood for success in a given situation; reflects the security one feels about a situation because of guarantees, safety nets, or other structures Personality-based trust: develops during childhood as an infant seeks and receives help from his or her benevolent caregiver resulting in a general tendency to trust others Cognitive-based trust: relies on rapid, cognitive cues or first impressions as opposed to personal interactions Source Whitener et al. (1998) Rousseau et al. (1998) Rousseau et al. (1998) Rousseau et al., 1998; Doney, Cannon, & Mullen, 1998 Dirks & Ferrin, 2002; McAllister, 1995 Williams, 2001; Mayer et al., 1995; Zand, 1972 Williams, 2001; Gambetta, 1998 McKnight, Cummings, & Chervany, 1998; Mayer et al., 1995 McKnight et al., 1998; Currall & Judge, 1995 McKnight et al., 1998; Mayer et al., 1995 McKnight et al. (1998) McKnight et al., 1998; Shapiro, 1987; Zucker, 1986 McKnight et al., 1998; Bowlby, 1982; Erikson, 1968; Rotter, 1967 McKnight et al., 1998; Brewer, 1981; Lewis & Weingert, 1985; Meyerson, Weick, & Kramer, 1996
  35. 39.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Ability Integrity Benevolence

    Shawn Burke DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.006 A group of skills, competencies, and characteristics that enable a person to have influence with others The perception that a person adheres to a set of principles that you find acceptable Genuine care about others and authentic concern in relationships 40 years of academic research on trust can be summarized by three attributes:
  36. 40.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Trust has three

    attributes. Conceptualize your trust index by multiplying them. Ability Integrity Benevolence x x = Trust Index Ideal is to score high in all attributes. Jean-Luc Picard captain from ST:NG 10 10 10 1000 x x =
  37. 41.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Trust has three

    attributes. Conceptualize your trust index by multiplying them. Ability Integrity Benevolence x x = Trust Index Score zero on any one, and your total is zero. 10 5 0 0 Harvey Weinstein the bastard from real life x x = Michael Scott boss from The Office Score high on two, with a blind spot in a third. 1 10 10 100 x x = Ideal is to score high in all attributes. Jean-Luc Picard captain from ST:NG 10 10 10 1000 x x =
  38. 42.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Trust has three

    attributes. Conceptualize your trust index by multiplying them. Ability Integrity Benevolence x x = Trust Index Score zero on any one, and your total is zero. 10 5 0 0 Harvey Weinstein the bastard from real life x x = Michael Scott boss from The Office Score high on two, with a blind spot in a third. 1 10 10 100 x x = Ideal is to score high in all attributes. Jean-Luc Picard captain from ST:NG 10 10 10 1000 x x =
  39. 43.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Ability Skills x

    influence Integrity Principles Benevolence Care and concern Designer Individual Be as honest as possible. Take a moment to score yourself (from 0 to 10) in each attribute. ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST
  40. 44.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Ability Skills x

    influence Integrity Principles Benevolence Care and concern Team Interdisciplinary Designer Individual But trust is more than just you. You probably are on a team. How trustworthy is your team? ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST SCOPE OF TRUST Make sure your team members aren’t looking at your answers.
  41. 45.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Ability Skills x

    influence Integrity Principles Benevolence Care and concern Team Interdisciplinary Company Org-at-large Designer Individual Your team exists inside an organization. How trustworthy is it? ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST SCOPE OF TRUST
  42. 46.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Ability Skills &

    influence Integrity Principles Benevolence Care and concern Team Interdisciplinary Company Org-at-large Designer Individual ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST SCOPE OF TRUST T IM E Ability Integrity Benevolence Team Your team Company Your company Designer You 5 5 8 4 3 9 4 3 6 200 108 72 Try calculating a trust index for your unique scenario. The numbers are often lower with each higher rung. This grid of trust shows each trust attribute applied to the designer, their team and the company at large. Example
  43. 47.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Ability Skills &

    influence Integrity Principles Benevolence Care and concern Team Interdisciplinary Company Org-at-large Designer Individual ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST SCOPE OF TRUST T IM E What might your indices be in… 1 year? 5 years? 10 years?
  44. 48.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Travis Bradberry, Emotional

    Intelligence 2.0 (2009) CEO Sr. Exec Exec/VP Director Manager Boss Individual 80% 78 76 74 72 70 68 Emotional Intelligence Scores and Job Title Ability Skills & influence Integrity Principles Benevolence Care and concern Team Interdisciplinary Company Org-at-large Designer Individual ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST SCOPE OF TRUST T IM E Reminder: As you move up in management, your EQ gets progressively lower.
  45. 49.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust The shape of

    trust is a cloud… Indescribable. Forever changing. Visible, but not graspable. A source of beauty and destruction. A place for aspiration and imagination.
  46. 50.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Direct Negative Feedback

    Negative feedback is frank, blunt, honest and not softened by positiv. Criticism given to an individual in front of a group. Indirect Negative Feedback Negative feedback is soft, subtle, and diplomatic, wrapped in positive messages. Criticism given only in private. EVALUATING High-context Sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are spoken and read between the lines; implied but not plainly expressed. Applications-first Begin by building up a theoretical argument before moving to conclusion. Underlying conceptual principles are valued. Relationship-Based Trust built slowly over long term. I’ve seen who you are at a deep level; shared personal time with you ∴ I trust you. Top-down Decisions are made by individuals (usually the boss). Avoidant Disagreement is negative for group. Open confrontation is inappropriate, breaks group harmony. Flexible-time Steps are fluid, changing opportunities arise. Interruptions are accepted. Focus is on adaptability; flexibility is valued. Linear-time Steps are sequential: one thing at a time. No interruptions. Emphasis on promptness; good organization over flexibility. Unspoken cultural interpretations and expectations are often sources of conflict. Low-context Communication is precise, simple, and clear. Messages are expressed/understood at face value. Repetition may clarify. Principles-first Begins with an executive summary. Discussions are practical and concrete. Theoretical discussions avoided. Task-based Trust built by business-related activities, but dropped easily. You do good work consistently and are reliable ∴ I trust you. Consensual Decisions made in groups through unanimous agreement. Egalitarian Org structures are flat. A boss is a facilitator among equals. Communication skips hierarchical lines. Hierarchical A boss is a strong director who leads from the front. Status is important. Org is multilayered and fixed. Confrontational Disagreement positive for team/org. Open confrontation is appropriate and not negatively affect relationship. COMMUNICATING PERSUADING TRUSTING DECIDING LEADING SCHEDULING DISAGREEING Erin Meyer, The Culture Map (2014)
  47. 51.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Direct Negative Feedback

    Negative feedback is frank, blunt, honest and not softened by positiv. Criticism given to an individual in front of a group. Indirect Negative Feedback Negative feedback is soft, subtle, and diplomatic, wrapped in positive messages. Criticism given only in private. EVALUATING High-context Sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are spoken and read between the lines; implied but not plainly expressed. Applications-first Begin by building up a theoretical argument before moving to conclusion. Underlying conceptual principles are valued. Relationship-Based Trust built slowly over long term. I’ve seen who you are at a deep level; shared personal time with you ∴ I trust you. Top-down Decisions are made by individuals (usually the boss). Avoidant Disagreement is negative for group. Open confrontation is inappropriate, breaks group harmony. Flexible-time Steps are fluid, changing opportunities arise. Interruptions are accepted. Focus is on adaptability; flexibility is valued. Linear-time Steps are sequential: one thing at a time. No interruptions. Emphasis on promptness; good organization over flexibility. Low-context Communication is precise, simple, and clear. Messages are expressed/understood at face value. Repetition may clarify. Principles-first Begins with an executive summary. Discussions are practical and concrete. Theoretical discussions avoided. Task-based Trust built by business-related activities, but dropped easily. You do good work consistently and are reliable ∴ I trust you. Consensual Decisions made in groups through unanimous agreement. Egalitarian Org structures are flat. A boss is a facilitator among equals. Communication skips hierarchical lines. Hierarchical A boss is a strong director who leads from the front. Status is important. Org is multilayered and fixed. Confrontational Disagreement positive for team/org. Open confrontation is appropriate and not negatively affect relationship. COMMUNICATING PERSUADING TRUSTING DECIDING LEADING SCHEDULING DISAGREEING Erin Meyer, The Culture Map (2014) Yellow dots indicates where businesses in the United States tend to be.
  48. 52.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Trust built slowly

    over long term. I know who you are at a deep level; shared time with you, ∴ I trust you. Task-based Trust built by business- related activities, but dropped easily. You do good work consistently and are reliable, ∴ I trust you. TRUST Trust is layered differently depending on cultural contexts. Relationship-Based Saudi Arabia Nigeria China US Denmark Germany Netherlands Finland Australia Austria UK Poland Spain France Italy Mexico Brazil Russia Japan Turkey Thailand India
  49. 53.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Trust built slowly

    over long term. I know who you are at a deep level; shared time with you, ∴ I trust you. Co-worker (same team) CEO Director Manager Task-based Trust built by business- related activities, but dropped easily. You do good work consistently and are reliable, ∴ I trust you. TRUST Co-worker (different team) Boss Co-worker (overseas team) Executive Might trust also be woven uniquely depending on the team? Relationship-Based
  50. 54.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Dieter Rams knew

    the value of trust for good design. Good design is innovative Good design makes a product useful Good design is aesthetic Good design makes a product understandable Good design is unobtrusive Good design is honest Good design is long-lasting Good design is thorough down to the last detail Good design is environmentally-friendly Good design is as little design as possible Dieter Rams (1976), Design by Vitsœ. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
  51. 55.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Rachel Botsman describes

    three models of trust that underpin the modern world. Rachel Botsman, Who Can You Trust (2017). Local trust Institutional trust Distributed trust
  52. 56.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Institutional trust Distributed

    trust (Digital) Adapted from Rachel Botsman, Who Can You Trust (2017). Distributed quickly network Local trust Distributed slowly via network Distributed via institution Rachel Botsman describes three models of trust that underpin the modern world, but trust has always been distributed. Only recently has the pace quickened.
  53. 59.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust QUESTION What things

    be different about you if you grew up playing… Tetris Strict, rules-based game Minecraft The only rules are those I create
  54. 60.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Baby Boomers 1946-1964

    Gen X 1965-1982 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Gen Y Millennials 1982-2004 (Census Bureau) (Harvard Center) (Harvard Center) (Strauss and Howe) Silent Gen. until 1945 (Tom Brokaw) Generational cycles are approximately every 20 years.
  55. 61.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1930 1940 1950

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination. Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen X 1965-1982 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Millennials 1982-2004 Silent Gen. until 1945
  56. 62.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1930 1940 1950

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination. Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Millennials 1982-2004 circa 1975 Work became digital with the rise of the personal computer. 1 Gen X 1965-1982 Silent Gen. until 1945
  57. 63.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1930 1940 1950

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination. circa 1975 Work became digital with the rise of the personal computer. 1 Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Millennials 1982-2004 Gen X 1965-1982 circa 1995 People got connected with widespread access to the Internet. 2 Silent Gen. until 1945
  58. 64.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1930 1940 1950

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination. circa 1975 Work became digital with the rise of the personal computer. 1 Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Millennials 1982-2004 Gen X 1965-1982 circa 1995 People got connected with widespread access to the Internet. 2 circa 2015 Things got connected with a proliferation of networked devices. 3 Silent Gen. until 1945
  59. 65.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1930 1940 1950

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination. near future Things behave like humans, only better. 4 Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen X 1965-1982 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Millennials 1982-2004 circa 1975 Work became digital with the rise of the personal computer. 1 circa 1995 People got connected with widespread access to the Internet. 2 circa 2015 Things got connected with a proliferation of networked devices. 3 Silent Gen. until 1945
  60. 66.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Silent Gen. until

    1945 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination. circa 1975 Work became digital with the rise of the personal computer. 1 circa 1995 People got connected with widespread access to the Internet. 2 circa 2015 Things got connected with a proliferation of networked devices. 3 near future Things behave like humans, only better. 4 Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Gen X 1965-1982 Millennials 1982-2004
  61. 67.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust 1930 1940 1950

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 This visualization indicates the scale of effects of each technology is the same. circa 1975 Work became digital with the rise of the personal computer. 1 circa 1995 People got connected with widespread access to the Internet. 2 circa 2015 Things got connected with a proliferation of networked devices. 3 near future Things behave like humans, only better. 4 Baby Boomers 1946-1964 Gen X 1965-1982 Gen Z 2004-? Gen ? Millennials 1982-2004 Silent Gen. until 1945
  62. 68.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust This is an

    example of scale of the effects of each technology. Work became digital 1 People got connected 2 Things got connected 3 Things behave like humans 4
  63. 69.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Combinatorial innovation tells

    us these trends will have outsized effects. People got connected 2 Work became digital 1 Things got connected 3 Things behave like humans 4
  64. 70.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Combinatorial innovation tells

    us these trends will have outsized effects. People got connected 2 Work became digital 1 Things got connected 3 Things behave like humans 4
  65. 71.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Combinatorial innovation tells

    us these trends will have outsized effects. People got connected 2 Work became digital 1 Things got connected 3 Things behave like humans 4
  66. 72.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Combinatorial innovation tells

    us these trends will have outsized effects. People got connected 2 Work became digital 1 Things got connected 3 Things behave like humans 4
  67. 73.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Each of these

    trends will have greater and greater effects. People got connected 2 Work became digital 1 Things got connected 3 Things behave like humans 4
  68. 74.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust As we move

    into higher levels of autonomy, who decides and acts changes. Autonomy Acquire Information Analyze Situation Decide Act Level 0 Human Human Human Human 1 Human/System Human Human Human 2 System Human/System Human Human 3 System System Human/System Human 4 System System System Human/System 5 System System System System
  69. 75.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust As we move

    into higher levels of autonomy, who decides and acts changes. Autonomy Acquire Information Analyze Situation Decide Act Level 0 Human Human Human Human 1 Human/System Human Human Human 2 System Human/System Human Human 3 System System Human/System Human 4 System System System Human/System 5 System System System System 2020 Future
  70. 76.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Technology will not

    just do things for us… Adapted from Paul Pangaro and Hugh Dubberly “Lexus, play news from NPR.” “Lexus, I want to listen to news. What are my options?” “Lexus, some news please.” “Lexus, help me decide the best local news in this area.” Controlling Guiding Delegating Collaborating Human tells car what to do and how to do it Human sets goal but discusses means with car Human sets the goal but lets car decide the means to reach it Human and car decide together on goals Goals Goals Means Means Goals Goals Means Means Human Vehicle Human Vehicle Goals Goals Means Means Human Vehicle Goals Goals Means Means Human Vehicle Present Now or near future
  71. 77.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Technology will not

    just do things for us, it will soon help us decide. “Lexus, play news from NPR.” “Lexus, I want to listen to news. What are my options?” “Lexus, some news please.” “Lexus, help me decide the best local news in this area.” Controlling Guiding Delegating Collaborating Human tells car what to do and how to do it Human sets goal but discusses means with car Human sets the goal but lets car decide the means to reach it Human and car decide together on goals Goals Goals Means Means Goals Goals Means Means Human Vehicle Human Vehicle Goals Goals Means Means Human Vehicle Goals Goals Means Means Human Vehicle Adapted from Paul Pangaro and Hugh Dubberly Present Now or near future
  72. 80.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust DESIGN THINKING How

    might we…? Update your design process from asking just… CHALLENGE 1
  73. 81.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust DESIGN THINKING ETHICAL

    COMPONENTS How might we…? Why should we…? ... design a better way to enjoy flowers in the home. Update your design process from asking just… CHALLENGE 1 ... design a better way to enjoy flowers in the home.
  74. 83.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Architects have a

    code of ethics made of six canons. 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 5 E.S. 6.5 Climate Change Members should incorporate adaptation strategies with their clients to anticipate extreme weather events and minimize adverse effects on the environment, economy and public health. Rule Members shall consider with their 6.501 clients the environmental effects of their project decisions. RULES OF APPLICATION, ENFORCEMENT, AND AMENDMENT Application The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct applies to the professional activities of all members of the AIA. Enforcement The Bylaws of the Institute state procedures for the enforcement of the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Such procedures provide that: (1) Enforcement of the Code is administered through a National Ethics Council, appointed by the AIA Board of Directors. (2) Formal charges are filed directly with the National Ethics Council by Members, components, or anyone directly aggrieved by the conduct of the Members. (3) Penalties that may be imposed by the National Ethics Council are: (a) Admonition (b) Censure (c) Suspension of membership for a period of time (d) Termination of membership. (4) Appeal procedures are available. (5) All proceedings are confidential, as is the imposition of an admonishment; however, all other penalties shall be made public. Enforcement of Rules 4.101 and 4.202 refer to and support enforcement of other Rules. A violation of Rules 4.101 or 4.202 cannot be established without proof of a pertinent violation of at least one other Rule. Amendment The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct may be amended by the convention of the Institute under the same procedures as are necessary to amend the In i e B la The Code may also be amended by the AIA Board of Directors upon a two-thirds vote of the entire Board. *2018 Edition. This copy of the Code of Ethics is current as of September 6, 2018. Con ac he General Co n el Office for further information at (202) 626-7311. 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 2 slights, annoyances, and isolated incidents (unless extremely serious) will not rise to the level of violation of this Rule. Rule Members shall not engage in 1.402 conduct involving wanton disregard of the rights of others. Commentary: Wanton disregard under this rule includes conduct taken in disregard of (1) a high degree of risk that the Complainant would be adversely affected, and (2) that risk would be apparent to a ea onable e on Rea onable e on i an objective standard and considers someone who uses such qualities as attention, knowledge, intelligence, and judgement which a society requires of its members to protect their own interests and the interests of others. Wanton disregard under this rule also includes engaging in conduct that is severe or pervasive enough that a reasonable person would consider it harassing, hostile, or abusive. This includes, but is not limited to, sexual misconduct, bullying, intimidation, or retaliation. E.S. 1.5 Design for Human Dignity and the Health, Safety, and Welfare of the Public: Members should employ their professional knowledge and skill to design buildings and spaces that will enhance and facilitate human dignity and the health, safety, and welfare of the individual and the public. E.S. 1.6 Allied Arts and Industries: Members should promote allied arts and contribute to the knowledge and capability of the building industries as a whole. CANON II Obligations to the Public Members should embrace the spirit and letter of the law governing their professional affairs and should promote and serve the public interest in their personal and professional activities. E.S. 2.1 Conduct: Members should uphold the law in the conduct of their professional activities. Rule Members shall not, in the conduct 2.101 of their professional practice, knowingly violate the law. Commentary: The violation of any law, local, state or federal, occurring in the conduct of a Membe ofe ional ac ice i made he basis for discipline by this rule. This includes the federal Copyright Act, which prohibits copying architectural works without the permission of the copyright owner. Allegations of violations of this rule must be based on an independent finding of a violation of the law by a court of competent jurisdiction or an administrative or regulatory body. Rule Members shall neither offer nor 2.102 make any payment or gift to a public official with the intent of infl encing he official j dgmen in connection with an existing or prospective project in which the Members are interested. Commentary: This rule does not prohibit campaign contributions made in conformity with applicable campaign financing laws. Rule Members serving in a public 2.103 capacity shall not accept payments or gifts which are intended to influence their judgment. Rule Members shall not engage in 2.104 conduct involving fraud. Commentary: This rule addresses serious misconduct whether or not related to a Membe ofe ional ac ice Proof of fraud must be based on an independent finding of a violation of the law or a finding of fraud by a court of competent jurisdiction or an administrative or regulatory body. Rule If, in the course of their work on 2.105 a project, the Members become aware of a decision taken by their employer or client which violates any law or regulation and which ill in he Membe j dgmen materially affect adversely the safety to the public of the finished project, the Members shall: (a) advise their employer or client against the decision, (b) refuse to consent to the decision, and (c) report the decision to the local building inspector or other public official charged with the enforcement of the applicable laws and regulations, unless the Members are able to cause the matter to be satisfactorily resolved by other means. Commentary: This rule extends only to violations of the building laws that threaten the public safety. The obligation under this rule applies only to the safety of the finished project, an obligation coextensive with the usual undertaking of an architect. Rule Members shall not counsel or 2.106 assist a client in conduct that the architect knows, or reasonably should know, is fraudulent or illegal. E.S. 2.2 Public Interest Services: Members should render public interest professional services, including pro bono services, and encourage their employees to render such services. Pro bono services are those rendered without expecting compensation, including those rendered for indigent persons, after disasters, or in other emergencies. E.S. 2.3 Civic Responsibility: Members should be involved in civic activities as citizens and professionals, and should strive to improve public appreciation and understanding of architecture and the functions and responsibilities of architects. Rule Members making public statements 2.301 on architectural issues shall disclose when they are being compensated for making such statements or when they have an economic interest in the issue. E.S. 2.4 Environmental Equity and Justice Members should promote fairness and safety in providing professional services and make reasonable efforts to advise their clients and employers of their obligations to the environment, including: access to clean air, water, sunlight and energy for all; sustainable production, extraction, transportation and consumption practices; a built environment that equitably supports human health and well-being and is resistant to climate change; and restoring F R O M T H E O F F I C E O F G E N E R A L C O U N S E L 2018 Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Preamble Members of The American Institute of Architects are dedicated to the highest standards of professionalism, integrity, and competence. This Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct states guidelines for the conduct of Members in fulfilling those obligations. The Code is arranged in three tiers of statements: Canons, Ethical Standards, and Rules of Conduct: ƒ Canons are broad principles of conduct. ƒ Ethical Standards (E.S.) are more specific goals toward which Members should aspire in professional performance and behavior. ƒ Rules of Conduct (Rule) are mandatory; violation of a Rule is grounds for disciplinary action by the Institute. Rules of Conduct, in some instances, implement more than one Canon or Ethical Standard. The Code applies to the professional activities of all classes of Members, wherever they occur. It addresses responsibilities to the public, which the profession serves and enriches; to the clients and users of architecture and in the building industries, who help to shape the built environment; and to the art and science of architecture, that continuum of knowledge and creation which is the heritage and legacy of the profession. Commentary is provided for some of the Rules of Conduct. That commentary is meant to clarify or elaborate the intent of the rule. The commentary is not part of the Code. Enforcement will be determined by application of the Rules of Conduct alone; the commentary will assist those seeking to conform their conduct to the Code and those charged with its enforcement. Statement in Compliance With Antitrust Law The following practices are not, in themselves, unethical, unprofessional, or contrary to any policy of The American Institute of Architects or any of its components: (1) submitting, at any time, competitive bids or price quotations, including in circumstances where price is the sole or principal consideration in the selection of an architect; (2) providing discounts; or (3) providing free services. Individual architects or architecture firms, acting alone and not on behalf of the Institute or any of its components, are free to decide for themselves whether or not to engage in any of these practices. Antitrust law permits the Institute, its components, or Members to advocate legislative or other government policies or actions relating to these practices. Finally, architects should continue to consult with state laws or regulations governing the practice of architecture. CANON I General Obligations Members should maintain and advance their knowledge of the art and science of architecture, respect the body of architectural accomplishment, contribute to its growth, thoughtfully consider the social and environmental impact of their professional activities, and exercise learned and uncompromised professional judgment. E.S. 1.1 Knowledge and Skill: Members should strive to improve their professional knowledge and skill. Rule In practicing architecture, 1.101 Members shall demonstrate a consistent pattern of reasonable care and competence, and shall apply the technical knowledge and skill which is ordinarily applied by architects of good standing practicing in the same locality. Commentary: B requiring a consistent pattern of adherence to the common law standard of competence, this rule allows for discipline of a Member who more than infrequently does not achieve that standard. Isolated instances of minor lapses would not provide the basis for discipline. E.S. 1.2 Standards of Excellence: Members should continually seek to raise the standards of aesthetic excellence, architectural education, research, training, and practice. E.S. 1.3 Natural and Cultural Heritage: Members should respect and help conserve their natural and cultural heritage while striving to improve the environment and the quality of life within it. E.S. 1.4 Human Rights: Members should uphold human rights in all their professional endeavors. Rule Members shall not engage in 1.401 harassment or discrimination in their professional activities on the basis of race, religion, national origin, age, disability, caregiver status, gender, gender identity, or sexual orientation. Commentary: Harassment may include, but is not limited to, offensive jokes, slurs, epithets or name calling, unwelcome physical contact, or threats, intimidation, ridicule or mockery, insults or put-downs, offensive objects or pictures, and interference with work performance. Petty 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 3 degraded or depleted natural resources. Rule When performing professional 2.401 services, Members shall make reasonable efforts to inform their clients of the potential environmental impacts or consequences the Member reasonably believes may occur as a result of work performed on behalf of the clients. CANON III Obligations to the Client Members should serve their clients competently and in a professional manner, and should exercise unprejudiced and unbiased judgment when performing all professional services. E.S. 3.1 Competence: Members should serve their clients in a timely and competent manner. Rule In performing professional services, 3.101 Members shall take into account applicable laws and regulations. Members may rely on the advice of other qualified persons as to the intent and meaning of such regulations. Rule Members shall undertake to 3.102 perform professional services only when they, together with those whom they may engage as consultants, are qualified by education, training, or experience in the specific technical areas involved. Commentary: This rule is meant to ensure that Members not undertake projects that are beyond their professional capacity. Members venturing into areas that require expertise they do not possess may obtain that expertise by additional education, training, or through the retention of consultants with the necessary expertise. Rule Members shall not materially alter 3.103 the scope or objectives of a jec i h he clien consent. E.S. 3.2 Conflict of Interest: Members should avoid conflicts of interest in their professional practices and fully disclose all unavoidable conflicts as they arise. Rule A Member shall not render 3.201 professional services if the Membe fe i nal j dgmen could be affected by responsibilities to another project e n b he Membe n interests, unless all those who rely n he Membe j dgmen consent after full disclosure. Commentary: This rule is intended to embrace the full range of situations that may present a Member with a conflict between his interests or responsibilities and the interest of others. Those who are entitled to disclosure may include a client, owner, employer, contractor, or others who rely on or are affected by the Membe fe i nal deci i n A Membe who cannot appropriately communicate about a conflict directly with an affected person must take steps to ensure that disclosure is made by other means. Rule When acting by agreement of the 3.202 parties as the independent interpreter of building contract documents and the judge of contract performance, Members shall render decisions impartially. Commentary: This rule applies when the Member, though paid by the owner and owing the owner loyalty, is nonetheless required to ac i h im a iali in f lfilling he a chi ec professional responsibilities. E.S. 3.3 Candor and Truthfulness: Members should be candid and truthful in their professional communications and keep their clients reasonably informed about he clien jec Rule Members shall not intentionally 3.301 or recklessly mislead existing or prospective clients about the results that can be achieved h gh he e f he Membe services, nor shall the Members state that they can achieve results by means that violate applicable law or this Code. Commentary: This rule is meant to preclude dishonest, reckless, or illegal representations by a Member either in the course of soliciting a client or during performance. E.S. 3.4 Confidentiality: Members should safeguard the trust placed in them by their clients. Rule Members shall not knowingly 3.401 disclose information that would adversely affect their client or that they have been asked to maintain in confidence, except as otherwise allowed or required by this Code or applicable law. Commentary: To encourage the full and open exchange of information necessary for a successful professional relationship, Members must recognize and respect the sensitive nature of confidential client communications. Because the law does not recognize an architect-client privilege, however, the rule permits a Member to reveal a confidence when a failure to do so would be unlawful or contrary to another ethical duty imposed by this Code. CANON IV Obligations to the Profession Members should uphold the integrity and dignity of the profession. E.S. 4.1 Honesty and Fairness: Members should pursue their professional activities with honesty and fairness. Rule Members having substantial 4.101 information which leads to a reasonable belief that another Member has committed a violation of this Code which raises a serious question as to that Membe h ne trustworthiness, or fitness as a Member, shall file a complaint with the National Ethics Council. Commentary: Often, only an architect can recognize that the behavior of another architect poses a serious question as to that he fe i nal in eg i In h e ci c m ance he d he fe i nal calling requires that a complaint be filed. In most jurisdictions, a complaint that invokes professional standards is protected from a libel or slander action if the complaint was made in good faith. If in doubt, a Member should seek counsel before reporting on another under this rule. 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 4 Rule Members shall not sign or seal 4.102 drawings, specifications, reports, or other professional work for which they do not have responsible control. Commentary: Responsible control means the degree of knowledge and supervision ordinarily required by the professional standard of care. With respect to the work of licensed consultants, Members may sign or seal such work if they have reviewed it, coordinated its preparation, or intend to be responsible for its adequacy. Rule Members speaking in their 4.103 professional capacity shall not knowingly make false statements of material fact. Commentary: This rule applies to statements in all professional contexts, including applications for licensure and AIA membership. E.S. 4.2 Dignity and Integrity: Members should strive, through their actions, to promote the dignity and integrity of the profession, and to ensure that their representatives and employees conform their conduct to this Code. Rule Members shall not make 4.201 misleading, deceptive, or false statements or claims about their professional qualifications, experience, or performance and shall accurately state the scope and nature of their responsibilities in connection with work for which they are claiming credit. Commentary: This rule is meant to prevent Members from claiming or implying credit for work which they did not do, misleading others, and denying other participants in a project their proper share of credit. Rule Members shall make reasonable 4.202 efforts to ensure that those over whom they have supervisory authority conform their conduct to this Code. Commen ar Wha con i e rea onable effor nder hi r le i a common en e matter. As it makes sense to ensure that those over whom the architect exercises supervision be made generally aware of the Code, it can also make sense to bring a particular provision to the attention of a particular employee when a situation is present which might give rise to violation. CANON V Obligations to Colleagues Members should respect the rights and acknowledge the professional aspirations and contributions of their colleagues. E.S. 5.1 Professional Environment: Members should provide their colleagues and employees with a fair and equitable working environment, compensate them fairly, and facilitate their professional development. Rule Members shall treat their 5.101 colleagues and employees with mutual respect, and provide an equitable working environment. E.S. 5.2 Intern and Professional Development: Members should recognize and fulfill their obligation to nurture fellow professionals as they progress through all stages of their career, beginning with professional education in the academy, progressing through internship and continuing throughout their career. Rule Members who have agreed to 5.201 work with individuals engaged in an architectural internship program or an experience requirement for licensure shall reasonably assist in proper and timely documentation in accordance with that program. E.S. 5.3 Professional Recognition: Members should build their professional reputation on the merits of their own service and performance and should recognize and give credit to others for the professional work they have performed. Rule Members shall recognize and 5.301 respect the professional contributions of their employees, employers, professional colleagues, and business associates. Rule Members leaving a firm shall not, 5.302 without the permission of their employer or partner, take designs, drawings, data, reports, notes, or other materials relating to the firm ork he her or no performed by the Member. Rule A Member shall not unreasonably 5.303 withhold permission from a departing employee or partner to take copies of designs, drawings, data, reports, notes, or other materials relating to work performed by the employee or partner that are not confidential. Commentary: A Member may impose reasonable conditions, such as the payment of copying costs, on the right of departing persons to take copies of their work. CANON VI Obligations to the Environment Members should recognize and acknowledge the professional responsibilities they have to promote sustainable design and development in the natural and built environments and to implement energy and resource conscious design. E.S. 6.1 Energy conservation: Members should set ambitious performance goals for greenhouse gas emission reduction with their clients for each project. E.S. 6.2 Water Use: Members should optimize water conservation in each project to reduce water use and protect water supply, water quality, and watershed resources. E.S. 6.3 Building Materials: Members should select and use building materials to minimize exposure to toxins and pollutants in the environment to promote environmental and human health and to reduce waste and pollution. E.S. 6.4 Ecosystems Members should consider with their clients the impact of each project on the natural habitat and ecosystem to promote environmental and human health. General obligations Obligations to the Public Obligations to the Client Obligations to the Profession Obligations to the Colleagues Obligations to the Environment Public Client Profession Colleagues Environment General obligations Scope, ramifications and externalities of obligations increase https://aianova.org/pdf/codeofethics.pdf Obligations to…
  75. 84.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Architects have a

    code of ethics made of six canons. Interaction designers have none. 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 5 E.S. 6.5 Climate Change Members should incorporate adaptation strategies with their clients to anticipate extreme weather events and minimize adverse effects on the environment, economy and public health. Rule Members shall consider with their 6.501 clients the environmental effects of their project decisions. RULES OF APPLICATION, ENFORCEMENT, AND AMENDMENT Application The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct applies to the professional activities of all members of the AIA. Enforcement The Bylaws of the Institute state procedures for the enforcement of the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Such procedures provide that: (1) Enforcement of the Code is administered through a National Ethics Council, appointed by the AIA Board of Directors. (2) Formal charges are filed directly with the National Ethics Council by Members, components, or anyone directly aggrieved by the conduct of the Members. (3) Penalties that may be imposed by the National Ethics Council are: (a) Admonition (b) Censure (c) Suspension of membership for a period of time (d) Termination of membership. (4) Appeal procedures are available. (5) All proceedings are confidential, as is the imposition of an admonishment; however, all other penalties shall be made public. Enforcement of Rules 4.101 and 4.202 refer to and support enforcement of other Rules. A violation of Rules 4.101 or 4.202 cannot be established without proof of a pertinent violation of at least one other Rule. Amendment The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct may be amended by the convention of the Institute under the same procedures as are necessary to amend the In i e B la The Code may also be amended by the AIA Board of Directors upon a two-thirds vote of the entire Board. *2018 Edition. This copy of the Code of Ethics is current as of September 6, 2018. Con ac he General Co n el Office for further information at (202) 626-7311. 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 2 slights, annoyances, and isolated incidents (unless extremely serious) will not rise to the level of violation of this Rule. Rule Members shall not engage in 1.402 conduct involving wanton disregard of the rights of others. Commentary: Wanton disregard under this rule includes conduct taken in disregard of (1) a high degree of risk that the Complainant would be adversely affected, and (2) that risk would be apparent to a ea onable e on Rea onable e on i an objective standard and considers someone who uses such qualities as attention, knowledge, intelligence, and judgement which a society requires of its members to protect their own interests and the interests of others. Wanton disregard under this rule also includes engaging in conduct that is severe or pervasive enough that a reasonable person would consider it harassing, hostile, or abusive. This includes, but is not limited to, sexual misconduct, bullying, intimidation, or retaliation. E.S. 1.5 Design for Human Dignity and the Health, Safety, and Welfare of the Public: Members should employ their professional knowledge and skill to design buildings and spaces that will enhance and facilitate human dignity and the health, safety, and welfare of the individual and the public. E.S. 1.6 Allied Arts and Industries: Members should promote allied arts and contribute to the knowledge and capability of the building industries as a whole. CANON II Obligations to the Public Members should embrace the spirit and letter of the law governing their professional affairs and should promote and serve the public interest in their personal and professional activities. E.S. 2.1 Conduct: Members should uphold the law in the conduct of their professional activities. Rule Members shall not, in the conduct 2.101 of their professional practice, knowingly violate the law. Commentary: The violation of any law, local, state or federal, occurring in the conduct of a Membe ofe ional ac ice i made he basis for discipline by this rule. This includes the federal Copyright Act, which prohibits copying architectural works without the permission of the copyright owner. Allegations of violations of this rule must be based on an independent finding of a violation of the law by a court of competent jurisdiction or an administrative or regulatory body. Rule Members shall neither offer nor 2.102 make any payment or gift to a public official with the intent of infl encing he official j dgmen in connection with an existing or prospective project in which the Members are interested. Commentary: This rule does not prohibit campaign contributions made in conformity with applicable campaign financing laws. Rule Members serving in a public 2.103 capacity shall not accept payments or gifts which are intended to influence their judgment. Rule Members shall not engage in 2.104 conduct involving fraud. Commentary: This rule addresses serious misconduct whether or not related to a Membe ofe ional ac ice Proof of fraud must be based on an independent finding of a violation of the law or a finding of fraud by a court of competent jurisdiction or an administrative or regulatory body. Rule If, in the course of their work on 2.105 a project, the Members become aware of a decision taken by their employer or client which violates any law or regulation and which ill in he Membe j dgmen materially affect adversely the safety to the public of the finished project, the Members shall: (a) advise their employer or client against the decision, (b) refuse to consent to the decision, and (c) report the decision to the local building inspector or other public official charged with the enforcement of the applicable laws and regulations, unless the Members are able to cause the matter to be satisfactorily resolved by other means. Commentary: This rule extends only to violations of the building laws that threaten the public safety. The obligation under this rule applies only to the safety of the finished project, an obligation coextensive with the usual undertaking of an architect. Rule Members shall not counsel or 2.106 assist a client in conduct that the architect knows, or reasonably should know, is fraudulent or illegal. E.S. 2.2 Public Interest Services: Members should render public interest professional services, including pro bono services, and encourage their employees to render such services. Pro bono services are those rendered without expecting compensation, including those rendered for indigent persons, after disasters, or in other emergencies. E.S. 2.3 Civic Responsibility: Members should be involved in civic activities as citizens and professionals, and should strive to improve public appreciation and understanding of architecture and the functions and responsibilities of architects. Rule Members making public statements 2.301 on architectural issues shall disclose when they are being compensated for making such statements or when they have an economic interest in the issue. E.S. 2.4 Environmental Equity and Justice Members should promote fairness and safety in providing professional services and make reasonable efforts to advise their clients and employers of their obligations to the environment, including: access to clean air, water, sunlight and energy for all; sustainable production, extraction, transportation and consumption practices; a built environment that equitably supports human health and well-being and is resistant to climate change; and restoring F R O M T H E O F F I C E O F G E N E R A L C O U N S E L 2018 Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct Preamble Members of The American Institute of Architects are dedicated to the highest standards of professionalism, integrity, and competence. This Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct states guidelines for the conduct of Members in fulfilling those obligations. The Code is arranged in three tiers of statements: Canons, Ethical Standards, and Rules of Conduct: ƒ Canons are broad principles of conduct. ƒ Ethical Standards (E.S.) are more specific goals toward which Members should aspire in professional performance and behavior. ƒ Rules of Conduct (Rule) are mandatory; violation of a Rule is grounds for disciplinary action by the Institute. Rules of Conduct, in some instances, implement more than one Canon or Ethical Standard. The Code applies to the professional activities of all classes of Members, wherever they occur. It addresses responsibilities to the public, which the profession serves and enriches; to the clients and users of architecture and in the building industries, who help to shape the built environment; and to the art and science of architecture, that continuum of knowledge and creation which is the heritage and legacy of the profession. Commentary is provided for some of the Rules of Conduct. That commentary is meant to clarify or elaborate the intent of the rule. The commentary is not part of the Code. Enforcement will be determined by application of the Rules of Conduct alone; the commentary will assist those seeking to conform their conduct to the Code and those charged with its enforcement. Statement in Compliance With Antitrust Law The following practices are not, in themselves, unethical, unprofessional, or contrary to any policy of The American Institute of Architects or any of its components: (1) submitting, at any time, competitive bids or price quotations, including in circumstances where price is the sole or principal consideration in the selection of an architect; (2) providing discounts; or (3) providing free services. Individual architects or architecture firms, acting alone and not on behalf of the Institute or any of its components, are free to decide for themselves whether or not to engage in any of these practices. Antitrust law permits the Institute, its components, or Members to advocate legislative or other government policies or actions relating to these practices. Finally, architects should continue to consult with state laws or regulations governing the practice of architecture. CANON I General Obligations Members should maintain and advance their knowledge of the art and science of architecture, respect the body of architectural accomplishment, contribute to its growth, thoughtfully consider the social and environmental impact of their professional activities, and exercise learned and uncompromised professional judgment. E.S. 1.1 Knowledge and Skill: Members should strive to improve their professional knowledge and skill. Rule In practicing architecture, 1.101 Members shall demonstrate a consistent pattern of reasonable care and competence, and shall apply the technical knowledge and skill which is ordinarily applied by architects of good standing practicing in the same locality. Commentary: B requiring a consistent pattern of adherence to the common law standard of competence, this rule allows for discipline of a Member who more than infrequently does not achieve that standard. Isolated instances of minor lapses would not provide the basis for discipline. E.S. 1.2 Standards of Excellence: Members should continually seek to raise the standards of aesthetic excellence, architectural education, research, training, and practice. E.S. 1.3 Natural and Cultural Heritage: Members should respect and help conserve their natural and cultural heritage while striving to improve the environment and the quality of life within it. E.S. 1.4 Human Rights: Members should uphold human rights in all their professional endeavors. Rule Members shall not engage in 1.401 harassment or discrimination in their professional activities on the basis of race, religion, national origin, age, disability, caregiver status, gender, gender identity, or sexual orientation. Commentary: Harassment may include, but is not limited to, offensive jokes, slurs, epithets or name calling, unwelcome physical contact, or threats, intimidation, ridicule or mockery, insults or put-downs, offensive objects or pictures, and interference with work performance. Petty 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 3 degraded or depleted natural resources. Rule When performing professional 2.401 services, Members shall make reasonable efforts to inform their clients of the potential environmental impacts or consequences the Member reasonably believes may occur as a result of work performed on behalf of the clients. CANON III Obligations to the Client Members should serve their clients competently and in a professional manner, and should exercise unprejudiced and unbiased judgment when performing all professional services. E.S. 3.1 Competence: Members should serve their clients in a timely and competent manner. Rule In performing professional services, 3.101 Members shall take into account applicable laws and regulations. Members may rely on the advice of other qualified persons as to the intent and meaning of such regulations. Rule Members shall undertake to 3.102 perform professional services only when they, together with those whom they may engage as consultants, are qualified by education, training, or experience in the specific technical areas involved. Commentary: This rule is meant to ensure that Members not undertake projects that are beyond their professional capacity. Members venturing into areas that require expertise they do not possess may obtain that expertise by additional education, training, or through the retention of consultants with the necessary expertise. Rule Members shall not materially alter 3.103 the scope or objectives of a jec i h he clien consent. E.S. 3.2 Conflict of Interest: Members should avoid conflicts of interest in their professional practices and fully disclose all unavoidable conflicts as they arise. Rule A Member shall not render 3.201 professional services if the Membe fe i nal j dgmen could be affected by responsibilities to another project e n b he Membe n interests, unless all those who rely n he Membe j dgmen consent after full disclosure. Commentary: This rule is intended to embrace the full range of situations that may present a Member with a conflict between his interests or responsibilities and the interest of others. Those who are entitled to disclosure may include a client, owner, employer, contractor, or others who rely on or are affected by the Membe fe i nal deci i n A Membe who cannot appropriately communicate about a conflict directly with an affected person must take steps to ensure that disclosure is made by other means. Rule When acting by agreement of the 3.202 parties as the independent interpreter of building contract documents and the judge of contract performance, Members shall render decisions impartially. Commentary: This rule applies when the Member, though paid by the owner and owing the owner loyalty, is nonetheless required to ac i h im a iali in f lfilling he a chi ec professional responsibilities. E.S. 3.3 Candor and Truthfulness: Members should be candid and truthful in their professional communications and keep their clients reasonably informed about he clien jec Rule Members shall not intentionally 3.301 or recklessly mislead existing or prospective clients about the results that can be achieved h gh he e f he Membe services, nor shall the Members state that they can achieve results by means that violate applicable law or this Code. Commentary: This rule is meant to preclude dishonest, reckless, or illegal representations by a Member either in the course of soliciting a client or during performance. E.S. 3.4 Confidentiality: Members should safeguard the trust placed in them by their clients. Rule Members shall not knowingly 3.401 disclose information that would adversely affect their client or that they have been asked to maintain in confidence, except as otherwise allowed or required by this Code or applicable law. Commentary: To encourage the full and open exchange of information necessary for a successful professional relationship, Members must recognize and respect the sensitive nature of confidential client communications. Because the law does not recognize an architect-client privilege, however, the rule permits a Member to reveal a confidence when a failure to do so would be unlawful or contrary to another ethical duty imposed by this Code. CANON IV Obligations to the Profession Members should uphold the integrity and dignity of the profession. E.S. 4.1 Honesty and Fairness: Members should pursue their professional activities with honesty and fairness. Rule Members having substantial 4.101 information which leads to a reasonable belief that another Member has committed a violation of this Code which raises a serious question as to that Membe h ne trustworthiness, or fitness as a Member, shall file a complaint with the National Ethics Council. Commentary: Often, only an architect can recognize that the behavior of another architect poses a serious question as to that he fe i nal in eg i In h e ci c m ance he d he fe i nal calling requires that a complaint be filed. In most jurisdictions, a complaint that invokes professional standards is protected from a libel or slander action if the complaint was made in good faith. If in doubt, a Member should seek counsel before reporting on another under this rule. 2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 4 Rule Members shall not sign or seal 4.102 drawings, specifications, reports, or other professional work for which they do not have responsible control. Commentary: Responsible control means the degree of knowledge and supervision ordinarily required by the professional standard of care. With respect to the work of licensed consultants, Members may sign or seal such work if they have reviewed it, coordinated its preparation, or intend to be responsible for its adequacy. Rule Members speaking in their 4.103 professional capacity shall not knowingly make false statements of material fact. Commentary: This rule applies to statements in all professional contexts, including applications for licensure and AIA membership. E.S. 4.2 Dignity and Integrity: Members should strive, through their actions, to promote the dignity and integrity of the profession, and to ensure that their representatives and employees conform their conduct to this Code. Rule Members shall not make 4.201 misleading, deceptive, or false statements or claims about their professional qualifications, experience, or performance and shall accurately state the scope and nature of their responsibilities in connection with work for which they are claiming credit. Commentary: This rule is meant to prevent Members from claiming or implying credit for work which they did not do, misleading others, and denying other participants in a project their proper share of credit. Rule Members shall make reasonable 4.202 efforts to ensure that those over whom they have supervisory authority conform their conduct to this Code. Commen ar Wha con i e rea onable effor nder hi r le i a common en e matter. As it makes sense to ensure that those over whom the architect exercises supervision be made generally aware of the Code, it can also make sense to bring a particular provision to the attention of a particular employee when a situation is present which might give rise to violation. CANON V Obligations to Colleagues Members should respect the rights and acknowledge the professional aspirations and contributions of their colleagues. E.S. 5.1 Professional Environment: Members should provide their colleagues and employees with a fair and equitable working environment, compensate them fairly, and facilitate their professional development. Rule Members shall treat their 5.101 colleagues and employees with mutual respect, and provide an equitable working environment. E.S. 5.2 Intern and Professional Development: Members should recognize and fulfill their obligation to nurture fellow professionals as they progress through all stages of their career, beginning with professional education in the academy, progressing through internship and continuing throughout their career. Rule Members who have agreed to 5.201 work with individuals engaged in an architectural internship program or an experience requirement for licensure shall reasonably assist in proper and timely documentation in accordance with that program. E.S. 5.3 Professional Recognition: Members should build their professional reputation on the merits of their own service and performance and should recognize and give credit to others for the professional work they have performed. Rule Members shall recognize and 5.301 respect the professional contributions of their employees, employers, professional colleagues, and business associates. Rule Members leaving a firm shall not, 5.302 without the permission of their employer or partner, take designs, drawings, data, reports, notes, or other materials relating to the firm ork he her or no performed by the Member. Rule A Member shall not unreasonably 5.303 withhold permission from a departing employee or partner to take copies of designs, drawings, data, reports, notes, or other materials relating to work performed by the employee or partner that are not confidential. Commentary: A Member may impose reasonable conditions, such as the payment of copying costs, on the right of departing persons to take copies of their work. CANON VI Obligations to the Environment Members should recognize and acknowledge the professional responsibilities they have to promote sustainable design and development in the natural and built environments and to implement energy and resource conscious design. E.S. 6.1 Energy conservation: Members should set ambitious performance goals for greenhouse gas emission reduction with their clients for each project. E.S. 6.2 Water Use: Members should optimize water conservation in each project to reduce water use and protect water supply, water quality, and watershed resources. E.S. 6.3 Building Materials: Members should select and use building materials to minimize exposure to toxins and pollutants in the environment to promote environmental and human health and to reduce waste and pollution. E.S. 6.4 Ecosystems Members should consider with their clients the impact of each project on the natural habitat and ecosystem to promote environmental and human health. General obligations Obligations to the Public Obligations to the Client Obligations to the Profession Obligations to the Colleagues Obligations to the Environment Public Client Profession Colleagues Environment General obligations Scope, ramifications and externalities of obligations increase https://aianova.org/pdf/codeofethics.pdf Obligations to…
  76. 85.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust https://uxpamagazine.org/developing-a-code-of-ethics WELL Building

    Standard Quality standards including filtration, cleaning protocols, microbe control, material safety Testing and monitoring to control public water additives and system contaminants. Promoting of healthy food options, nutrition labeling, safe food preparation and sourcing Glare-free and circadian lighting design, effects of surfaces and contrast, light quality, daylighting Active design enhanced ergonomics, activity incentives, and structured fitness programs Maximum thermal comfort by meeting individual thermal preferences Identify and mitigate parameters of acoustical comfort Reduce human exposure to hazardous building materials known to be toxic Organizational policies and transparency, biophilic design, flexible and adaptable spaces Establish inclusive, integrated communities through social equity and civic engagement Find new ways to go beyond the standard to create healthy environments Innovations Air Water Nourishment Light Movement Thermal comfort Sound Materials Mind Community Proposed UX Design Ethics (Shamonsky, 2018) Reduce obstacles to those with disabilities including vision, hearing and dexterity Appropriate, safe and non-damaging for human bodies Take care with potential life-risking apps such as self-driving cars, robotic surgery, etc. Use calm tech when appropriate, discourage addiction and distraction Mobility, wearables, fitness, healthy lifestyle Consider the aesthetic effects, don’t be annoying, unpleasant or unnecessary Be transparent about dark GUI patterns, promote awareness of invisible/ubiquitous computing Understand what, when and why of gathered personal data and protect privacy Natural, intuitive, or, when appropriate, learnable user experiences Manage bullying, social isolation and fakes news Use new technology to create more natural and beautiful user experiences Innovations Accessibility Ergonomics Safety Appropriate Attention Movement Beauty Transparency Security Mind Community Designers have tried to adapt other standards to what we do…
  77. 86.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust General obligations Obligations

    to the Public Obligations to the Client Obligations to the Profession Obligations to the Colleagues Obligations to the Environment CHALLENGE 2 Write your own code of ethics.
  78. 87.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Koyaanisqatsi: Life out

    of Balance (1983) When an architect fails, a building falls... What falls when a designer fails?
  79. 88.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust Cassini Nazir ·

    The Shape of Trust: World Interaction Design Day · Sept 24, 2019 CHALLENGE 3 Write your own unique challenge.
  80. 89.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust The self-renewing person

    remembers Antaeus—invincible in wresting as long as he remained in contact with the earth. A periodic return to the solid earth of direct experience. Certain kinds of creativity require a reasonable margin of abundance. aletheia The Greek story of Antaeus is important. William Blake, Antaeus sets down Dante and Virgil A wrestler, Antaeus was invincible, so as long as he remained in contact with the earth.
  81. 90.

    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust William Blake, Antaeus

    sets down Dante and Virgil Cassini Nazir Clinical Associate Professor The University of Texas at Dallas @cassininazir Dallas Like Antaeus, what things help keep you grounded?