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The Shape of Trust

Cassini Nazir
October 24, 2019

The Shape of Trust

A shorter version of this talk was first given at World Interaction Design Day on Sept. 24, 2019 to Dallas-area colleagues, designers, and students. This is an expanded version of the talk given at the Dallas UXPA on Oct. 24. View the write-up of this talk at https://medium.com/@cassininazir/the-shape-of-trust-ac913a227a13.

Cassini Nazir

October 24, 2019
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  1. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Cassini Nazir
    Clinical Associate Professor
    The University of Texas at Dallas
    @cassininazir
    THO UG HTS
    ON THE
    E FFE CTS OF
    MOD ERN DE SIG N
    S H A P E
    O F
    T R U S T
    T H E
    Dallas UXPA
    Oct. 24, 2019
    Dallas

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  2. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The button
    ACT I

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  3. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Shinkansen train modeled after beak of kingfisher bird.
    George de Mestral (1941) Eiji Nakatsu (1997)
    Designers look to nature for inspiration. This is called biomimicry.
    Burrs caught on dog fur inspired Velcro.

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  4. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature holds lessons we have only begun to unravel : defying gravity
    creating energy
    harnessing the invisible
    avoiding disaster
    keeping cool
    reducing pain
    Learning from the gecko… ... how to climb buildings.

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  5. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature holds lessons we have only begun to unravel : creating energy
    harnessing the invisible
    avoiding disaster
    keeping cool
    reducing pain
    Learning from sunflowers… ... how to optimize solar power.

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  6. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature holds lessons we have only begun to unravel : harnessing the invisible
    avoiding disaster
    keeping cool
    reducing pain
    Learning from whale fins... ... how to create efficient wind power.

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  7. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature holds lessons we have only begun to unravel : avoiding disaster
    keeping cool
    reducing pain
    Learning from dolphins… ... how to detect tsunamis earlier.

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  8. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature holds lessons we have only begun to unravel : keeping cool
    reducing pain
    Learning from termite colonies ... ... how to climate control buildings.

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  9. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature holds lessons we have only begun to unravel : reducing pain
    Learning from mosquitoes ... ... how to create “nicer needles.”

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  10. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Many common objects of today, were primitive human interactions.
    before they were neolithic objects,
    Ceramic cup, circa 6000 BC
    Modern coffee cup Gesture of cupping hands
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  11. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Many common interactions of yesterday… are now an object used as an extension of ourselves.
    Using hands to eat Using utensil to eat
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  12. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Go to nature …
    rejecting nothing,
    selecting nothing,
    and scorning nothing.”

    — John Ruskin, Modern Painters Vol. 1 (1843)

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  13. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Nature is the first circular economy: nothing is wasted.
    Herbivores
    Carnivore
    Carnivore
    Decomposers
    Producers
    Herbivores
    Sun
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust

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  14. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    QUESTION
    Does the button occur in nature?

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  15. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    It certainly exists in the technological world
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Created by Oleksandr Panasovskyi
    from the Noun Project
    Does the button occur in nature?
    QUESTION

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  16. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Where do you pour water to make a plant grow?
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
    Imagine you are a child in 10,000 BC.
    You heard water helps a plant grow, but you don’t understand how it works.

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  17. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Where do you pour water to make a plant grow?
    Stuff grows here
    It would be a waste
    to put water here!
    Water should go here, too
    Mental Model
    (incorrect)
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
    Imagine you are a child in 10,000 BC.
    You heard water helps a plant grow, but you don’t understand how it works.

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  18. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1 Water and minerals
    absorbed by roots
    System Model
    (simplified)
    2 Water travels
    through plant
    3 Sunlight needed
    for photosynthesis
    4 Plants take in carbon dioxide
    and release oxygen
    Where do you pour water to make a plant grow?
    Stuff grows here
    It would be a waste
    to put water here!
    Water should go here, too
    Mental Model
    (incorrect)
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
    Imagine you are a child in 10,000 BC.
    You heard water helps a plant grow, but you don’t understand how it works.

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  19. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The concept behind the button is profound.
    Natural World
    timeless
    Visible action
    Slow reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Cyclical time
    Not concerned with efficiency
    Watering plant roots…
    … makes a plant grow.

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  20. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The concept behind the button is profound.
    Natural World
    timeless
    Mechanical Age
    15th-19th century
    Digital Age
    Late 20th century-present
    Visible action
    Invisible/abstracted reaction process
    Heavily abstracted distance
    Heavily abstracted time
    Exponential efficiency
    Visible action
    Slow reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Cyclical time
    Not concerned with efficiency
    Visible action
    Visible reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Semi-cyclical time
    Multiplier factor of efficiency
    Watering plant roots…
    … makes a plant grow.
    Operating a lever or crank…
    … makes an action more efficient.
    Pressing a digital button…
    … can make nearly anything
    happen, immediately.
    Electrical Age
    19th-20th century
    Visible action
    Hidden reaction process
    Abstracted distance
    Abstracted time
    Multiplier factor of efficiency
    Operating an electrical button…
    … further increases efficiency.
    … shortens distance.

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  21. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    In the mechanical age, we could see the action as it happened.
    The process of separation was visible throughout the cotton gin.
    1 hour of cotton gin machine = 600 hours of human work
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  22. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Even if you couldn't see the action as it happened,
    the average person could understand the process.
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019
    Heating 5 tons of iron once took 24 hours.
    The Bessemer process was 20 minutes.

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  23. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Buttons changed how we experience distance.
    The world suddenly became smaller.
    “What hath God wrought?” Numbers 23:23
    First telegraph sent on May 24, 1844
    Telegraph (1837)
    Samuel Morse
    Telephone (1876)
    Alexander Graham Bell
    Radio (1895)
    Guglielmo Marconi
    The letter “S”
    First radio transmission on Dec. 12, 1901
    “Mr. Watson—come here—I want to see you.”
    First telephone call on March 10, 1876

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  24. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The concept behind the button is profound.
    Natural World
    timeless
    Mechanical Age
    15th-19th century
    Digital Age
    Late 20th century-present
    Visible action
    Invisible/abstracted reaction process
    Heavily abstracted distance
    Heavily abstracted time
    Exponential efficiency
    Visible action
    Slow reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Cyclical time
    Not concerned with efficiency
    Visible action
    Visible reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Semi-cyclical time
    Multiplier factor of efficiency
    Watering plant roots…
    … makes a plant grow.
    Operating a lever or crank…
    … makes an action more efficient.
    Pressing a digital button…
    … can make nearly anything
    happen, immediately.
    Electrical Age
    19th-20th century
    Visible action
    Hidden reaction process
    Abstracted distance
    Abstracted time
    Multiplier factor of efficiency
    Operating an electrical button…
    … further increases efficiency.
    … shortens distance.

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  25. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    We can now press a button here … … to affect a result there.
    Ring doorbell Ignored by cat
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  26. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    We can now press a button here … … to affect a result there.
    Press button on keyboard Send document to print
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  27. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    We can now press a button here … … to affect a result there.
    Shop from anywhere Package delivered, anywhere.
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  28. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    We can now press a button here … … to affect a result there.
    Launch a rocket Send a satellite into orbit
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  29. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    We can now press a button here … … to affect a result there.
    Push the button Destroy anything, anywhere
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: UXPA Dallas · Oct. 24, 2019

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  30. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The concept behind the button is profound:
    interacting with a thing here can affect something or someone there.
    Natural World
    timeless
    Mechanical Age
    15th-19th century
    Digital Age
    Late 20th century-present
    Visible action
    Invisible/abstracted reaction process
    Heavily abstracted distance
    Heavily abstracted time
    Exponential efficiency
    Visible action
    Slow reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Cyclical time
    Not concerned with efficiency
    Visible action
    Visible reaction process
    Tangible distance
    Semi-cyclical time
    Multiplier factor of efficiency
    Watering plant roots…
    … makes a plant grow.
    Operating a lever or crank…
    … makes an action more efficient.
    Pressing a digital button…
    … can make nearly anything
    happen, immediately.
    Electrical Age
    19th-20th century
    Visible action
    Hidden reaction process
    Abstracted distance
    Abstracted time
    Multiplier factor of efficiency
    Operating an electrical button…
    … further increases efficiency.
    … shortens distance.

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  31. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    HERE THERE
    REFLECT
    In what ways have you pressed a button here
    and affected someone else there?

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  32. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Our capacity for deep empathy changes the further out we go.

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  33. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Trusting
    ACT 2

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  34. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    ACTIVITY
    Think of the person you trust most.

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  35. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    ACTIVITY
    Think of the person you trust most.
    Now draw that person.

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  36. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    ACTIVITY
    Think of the person you trust most.
    Now draw that person.
    What words best describe that person?

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  37. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    ACTIVITY
    Think of the person you trust most.
    Now draw that person.
    What words best describe that person?
    Do those words also describe you?

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  38. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    40 years of academic research on trust can be summarized by three attributes:
    Definition of trust
    Shawn Burke DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.006
    The willingness of a party to be vulnerable to the actions of another
    party based on the expectation that the other party will perform a
    particular action important to the trustor, irrespective of the ability
    to monitor or control the other party
    Risk or having something invested, is requisite to trust; trust is evident
    only in situations where the potential damage from unfulfilled trust
    is greater than possible gain if trust is fulfilled
    1. trust entails the assumption of risks some form of trust in
    inherent in all relationships
    Willingness to take risks (one of the few characteristics common to all
    trust situations)
    There must be some meaningful incentives at stake and that the
    trustor must be cognizant of the risk involved
    Cognitive trust refers to beliefs about another's trustworthiness
    Affective trust refers to the important role of emotions in the trust
    process
    Behavioral trust in teams is relying on another and disclosing sensitive
    information to another
    Accepting the risks associated with the type and depth of the
    interdependence inherent in a given relationship
    Group's trust for another: A shared belief by member's of a focal group
    about how willing that group is to be vulnerable to the a target group
    Interorganizational trust is collectively held trust orientation toward the
    partner firm
    Mutual trust exists when two people have complementary trust for one
    another and when each perceives that the other is aware of his
    intent and his trust
    Reciprocal trust is the trust that results when a party observes the
    actions of another and reconsiders one's attitude and subsequent
    behavior based on those observations
    Trust implies a belief that an individual will not act opportunistically or
    in a self-serving manner; belief of a congruence of values
    Trust (3 Facets)
    1. trust in another party reflects an expectation or belief that the
    other party will act benevolently
    2. trust involves a willingness to be vulnerable and risk that the
    other party may not fulfill the expectations
    3. trust involves some level of dependency on the other party so that
    the outcomes of one individual are influenced by the actions of
    another
    Source
    Mayer et al. (1995)
    Sheppard & Sherman, 1998; Deutsch, 1958
    Johnson-George and Swap (1982)
    Kee and Knox (1970)
    Gillespie & Mann, 2004; Gillespie, 2003
    Sheppard and Sherman (1998)
    Serva, Fuller, & Mayer, 2005; Mayer et al.,
    1995
    Serva et al., 2005; Zaheer, McEvily, &
    Perrone, 1998 Serva et al., 2005; Deutsch,
    1958
    Serva et al. (2005)
    Hall et al., 2004; Lewicki & Bunker, 1995
    Whitener et al. (1998)
    Definition of trust
    Trust can be viewed as an attitude (derived from trustor's perceptions,
    beliefs, and attributions about the trustee based upon trustee's
    behavior) held by one individual toward another
    A psychological state compromising the intention to accept
    vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or
    behavior of another
    Willingness to be vulnerable
    Willingness to rely on another
    Interpersonal trust: two dimensions
    1. Cognitive — reflect issues such as the reliability, integrity, honest,
    and fairness of a referent
    2. Affective — reflect a special relationship with the referent to
    demonstrate concern about one's welfare
    One's willingness to rely on another's actions in a situation involving
    the risk of opportunism
    Based on individuals' expectations that others will behave in ways that
    are helpful or at least not harmful
    One believes in and is willing to depend on another party
    Two components:
    Trusting intention: one is willing to depend on the other person in a
    given situation Trusting beliefs: one believes the other person is
    benevolent, competent, honest,
    or predictable in a situation
    Disposition to trust: refers to a tendency to be willing to depend on
    others
    Institution-based trust: one believes impersonal structures support
    one's likelihood for success in a given situation; reflects the security
    one feels about a situation because of guarantees, safety nets, or
    other structures
    Personality-based trust: develops during childhood as an infant seeks
    and receives help from his or her benevolent caregiver resulting in a
    general tendency to trust others
    Cognitive-based trust: relies on rapid, cognitive cues or first
    impressions as opposed to personal interactions
    Source
    Whitener et al. (1998)
    Rousseau et al. (1998)
    Rousseau et al. (1998)
    Rousseau et al., 1998; Doney, Cannon, &
    Mullen, 1998
    Dirks & Ferrin, 2002; McAllister, 1995
    Williams, 2001; Mayer et al., 1995; Zand,
    1972
    Williams, 2001; Gambetta, 1998
    McKnight, Cummings, & Chervany, 1998;
    Mayer et al., 1995
    McKnight et al., 1998; Currall & Judge,
    1995
    McKnight et al., 1998; Mayer et al., 1995
    McKnight et al. (1998)
    McKnight et al., 1998; Shapiro, 1987;
    Zucker, 1986
    McKnight et al., 1998; Bowlby, 1982;
    Erikson, 1968; Rotter, 1967
    McKnight et al., 1998; Brewer, 1981; Lewis
    & Weingert, 1985; Meyerson, Weick, &
    Kramer, 1996

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  39. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Ability Integrity Benevolence
    Shawn Burke DOI: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.09.006
    A group of skills, competencies, and
    characteristics that enable a person
    to have influence with others
    The perception that a person
    adheres to a set of principles that
    you find acceptable
    Genuine care about others and
    authentic concern in relationships
    40 years of academic research on trust can be summarized by three attributes:

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  40. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Trust has three attributes. Conceptualize your trust index by multiplying them.
    Ability Integrity
    Benevolence x
    x = Trust Index
    Ideal is to score high in all attributes.
    Jean-Luc Picard captain from ST:NG
    10 10 10 1000
    x x =

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  41. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Trust has three attributes. Conceptualize your trust index by multiplying them.
    Ability Integrity
    Benevolence x
    x = Trust Index
    Score zero on any one, and your total is zero.
    10 5 0 0 Harvey Weinstein the bastard from real life
    x x =
    Michael Scott boss from The Office
    Score high on two, with a blind spot in a third.
    1 10 10 100
    x x =
    Ideal is to score high in all attributes.
    Jean-Luc Picard captain from ST:NG
    10 10 10 1000
    x x =

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  42. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Trust has three attributes. Conceptualize your trust index by multiplying them.
    Ability Integrity
    Benevolence x
    x = Trust Index
    Score zero on any one, and your total is zero.
    10 5 0 0 Harvey Weinstein the bastard from real life
    x x =
    Michael Scott boss from The Office
    Score high on two, with a blind spot in a third.
    1 10 10 100
    x x =
    Ideal is to score high in all attributes.
    Jean-Luc Picard captain from ST:NG
    10 10 10 1000
    x x =

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  43. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Ability
    Skills x influence
    Integrity
    Principles
    Benevolence
    Care and concern
    Designer
    Individual
    Be as honest as possible.
    Take a moment to score yourself (from 0 to 10) in each attribute.
    ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST

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  44. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Ability
    Skills x influence
    Integrity
    Principles
    Benevolence
    Care and concern
    Team
    Interdisciplinary
    Designer
    Individual
    But trust is more than just you. You probably are on a team.
    How trustworthy is your team?
    ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST
    SCOPE OF TRUST
    Make sure your team members aren’t looking at your answers.

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  45. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Ability
    Skills x influence
    Integrity
    Principles
    Benevolence
    Care and concern
    Team
    Interdisciplinary
    Company
    Org-at-large
    Designer
    Individual
    Your team exists inside an organization.
    How trustworthy is it?
    ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST
    SCOPE OF TRUST

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  46. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Ability
    Skills & influence
    Integrity
    Principles
    Benevolence
    Care and concern
    Team
    Interdisciplinary
    Company
    Org-at-large
    Designer
    Individual
    ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST
    SCOPE OF TRUST
    T
    IM
    E
    Ability Integrity Benevolence
    Team
    Your team
    Company
    Your company
    Designer
    You 5
    5
    8
    4
    3
    9
    4
    3
    6
    200
    108
    72
    Try calculating a trust index for your
    unique scenario. The numbers are
    often lower with each higher rung.
    This grid of trust shows each trust
    attribute applied to the designer,
    their team and the company at large.
    Example

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  47. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Ability
    Skills & influence
    Integrity
    Principles
    Benevolence
    Care and concern
    Team
    Interdisciplinary
    Company
    Org-at-large
    Designer
    Individual
    ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST
    SCOPE OF TRUST
    T
    IM
    E
    What might your indices be in…
    1 year? 5 years? 10 years?

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  48. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Travis Bradberry, Emotional Intelligence 2.0 (2009)
    CEO
    Sr. Exec
    Exec/VP
    Director
    Manager
    Boss
    Individual
    80%
    78
    76
    74
    72
    70
    68
    Emotional Intelligence Scores and Job Title
    Ability
    Skills & influence
    Integrity
    Principles
    Benevolence
    Care and concern
    Team
    Interdisciplinary
    Company
    Org-at-large
    Designer
    Individual
    ATTRIBUTES OF TRUST
    SCOPE OF TRUST
    T
    IM
    E
    Reminder: As you move up in management, your EQ gets progressively lower.

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  49. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The shape of trust is a cloud…
    Indescribable.
    Forever changing.
    Visible, but not graspable.
    A source of beauty and destruction.
    A place for aspiration and imagination.

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  50. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Direct Negative Feedback
    Negative feedback is frank, blunt, honest and not softened
    by positiv. Criticism given to an individual in front of a group.
    Indirect Negative Feedback
    Negative feedback is soft, subtle, and diplomatic, wrapped
    in positive messages. Criticism given only in private.
    EVALUATING
    High-context
    Sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are spoken
    and read between the lines; implied but not plainly expressed.
    Applications-first
    Begin by building up a theoretical argument before moving
    to conclusion. Underlying conceptual principles are valued.
    Relationship-Based
    Trust built slowly over long term. I’ve seen who you are at a
    deep level; shared personal time with you ∴ I trust you.
    Top-down
    Decisions are made by individuals
    (usually the boss).
    Avoidant
    Disagreement is negative for group. Open confrontation is
    inappropriate, breaks group harmony.
    Flexible-time
    Steps are fluid, changing opportunities arise. Interruptions
    are accepted. Focus is on adaptability; flexibility is valued.
    Linear-time
    Steps are sequential: one thing at a time. No interruptions.
    Emphasis on promptness; good organization over flexibility.
    Unspoken cultural interpretations and expectations are often sources of conflict.
    Low-context
    Communication is precise, simple, and clear. Messages are
    expressed/understood at face value. Repetition may clarify.
    Principles-first
    Begins with an executive summary. Discussions are
    practical and concrete. Theoretical discussions avoided.
    Task-based
    Trust built by business-related activities, but dropped easily.
    You do good work consistently and are reliable ∴ I trust you.
    Consensual
    Decisions made in groups
    through unanimous agreement.
    Egalitarian
    Org structures are flat. A boss is a facilitator among
    equals. Communication skips hierarchical lines.
    Hierarchical
    A boss is a strong director who leads from the front. Status
    is important. Org is multilayered and fixed.
    Confrontational
    Disagreement positive for team/org. Open confrontation is
    appropriate and not negatively affect relationship.
    COMMUNICATING
    PERSUADING
    TRUSTING
    DECIDING
    LEADING
    SCHEDULING
    DISAGREEING
    Erin Meyer, The Culture Map (2014)

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  51. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Direct Negative Feedback
    Negative feedback is frank, blunt, honest and not softened
    by positiv. Criticism given to an individual in front of a group.
    Indirect Negative Feedback
    Negative feedback is soft, subtle, and diplomatic, wrapped
    in positive messages. Criticism given only in private.
    EVALUATING
    High-context
    Sophisticated, nuanced, and layered. Messages are spoken
    and read between the lines; implied but not plainly expressed.
    Applications-first
    Begin by building up a theoretical argument before moving
    to conclusion. Underlying conceptual principles are valued.
    Relationship-Based
    Trust built slowly over long term. I’ve seen who you are at a
    deep level; shared personal time with you ∴ I trust you.
    Top-down
    Decisions are made by individuals
    (usually the boss).
    Avoidant
    Disagreement is negative for group. Open confrontation is
    inappropriate, breaks group harmony.
    Flexible-time
    Steps are fluid, changing opportunities arise. Interruptions
    are accepted. Focus is on adaptability; flexibility is valued.
    Linear-time
    Steps are sequential: one thing at a time. No interruptions.
    Emphasis on promptness; good organization over flexibility.
    Low-context
    Communication is precise, simple, and clear. Messages are
    expressed/understood at face value. Repetition may clarify.
    Principles-first
    Begins with an executive summary. Discussions are
    practical and concrete. Theoretical discussions avoided.
    Task-based
    Trust built by business-related activities, but dropped easily.
    You do good work consistently and are reliable ∴ I trust you.
    Consensual
    Decisions made in groups
    through unanimous agreement.
    Egalitarian
    Org structures are flat. A boss is a facilitator among
    equals. Communication skips hierarchical lines.
    Hierarchical
    A boss is a strong director who leads from the front. Status
    is important. Org is multilayered and fixed.
    Confrontational
    Disagreement positive for team/org. Open confrontation is
    appropriate and not negatively affect relationship.
    COMMUNICATING
    PERSUADING
    TRUSTING
    DECIDING
    LEADING
    SCHEDULING
    DISAGREEING
    Erin Meyer, The Culture Map (2014)
    Yellow dots indicates where businesses in the United States tend to be.

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  52. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Trust built slowly
    over long term. I
    know who you are at
    a deep level; shared
    time with you,
    ∴ I trust you.
    Task-based
    Trust built by business-
    related activities, but
    dropped easily. You do
    good work consistently
    and are reliable,
    ∴ I trust you.
    TRUST
    Trust is layered differently depending on cultural contexts.
    Relationship-Based
    Saudi Arabia
    Nigeria
    China
    US
    Denmark
    Germany
    Netherlands Finland
    Australia Austria
    UK
    Poland
    Spain
    France
    Italy
    Mexico Brazil
    Russia
    Japan Turkey
    Thailand India

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  53. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Trust built slowly
    over long term. I
    know who you are at
    a deep level; shared
    time with you,
    ∴ I trust you.
    Co-worker
    (same team)
    CEO
    Director
    Manager
    Task-based
    Trust built by business-
    related activities, but
    dropped easily. You do
    good work consistently
    and are reliable,
    ∴ I trust you.
    TRUST
    Co-worker
    (different team)
    Boss
    Co-worker
    (overseas team)
    Executive
    Might trust also be woven uniquely depending on the team?
    Relationship-Based

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  54. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Dieter Rams knew the value of trust for good design.
    Good design is innovative
    Good design makes a product useful
    Good design is aesthetic
    Good design makes a product understandable
    Good design is unobtrusive
    Good design is honest
    Good design is long-lasting
    Good design is thorough down to the last detail
    Good design is environmentally-friendly
    Good design is as little design as possible
    Dieter Rams (1976), Design by Vitsœ.
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust

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  55. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Rachel Botsman describes three models of trust that underpin the modern world.
    Rachel Botsman, Who Can You Trust (2017).
    Local trust Institutional trust Distributed trust

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  56. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Institutional trust Distributed trust (Digital)
    Adapted from Rachel Botsman, Who Can You Trust (2017).
    Distributed quickly network
    Local trust
    Distributed slowly via network Distributed via institution
    Rachel Botsman describes three models of trust that underpin the modern world,
    but trust has always been distributed. Only recently has the pace quickened.

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  57. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The imagination
    ACT 3

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  58. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    QUESTION
    What games did you play as a child?

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  59. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    QUESTION
    What things be different about you if you grew up playing…
    Tetris
    Strict, rules-based game
    Minecraft
    The only rules are those I create

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  60. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Gen Z
    2004-?
    Gen ?
    Gen Y
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    (Census Bureau)
    (Harvard Center)
    (Harvard Center)
    (Strauss and Howe)
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945
    (Tom Brokaw)
    Generational cycles are approximately every 20 years.

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  61. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination.
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945

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  62. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination.
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    circa 1975
    Work became digital
    with the rise of the
    personal computer.
    1
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945

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  63. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination.
    circa 1975
    Work became digital
    with the rise of the
    personal computer.
    1
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    circa 1995
    People got connected
    with widespread
    access to the Internet.
    2
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945

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  64. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination.
    circa 1975
    Work became digital
    with the rise of the
    personal computer.
    1
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    circa 1995
    People got connected
    with widespread
    access to the Internet.
    2
    circa 2015
    Things got connected
    with a proliferation of
    networked devices.
    3
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945

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  65. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination.
    near future
    Things behave
    like humans,
    only better.
    4
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    circa 1975
    Work became digital
    with the rise of the
    personal computer.
    1
    circa 1995
    People got connected
    with widespread
    access to the Internet.
    2
    circa 2015
    Things got connected
    with a proliferation of
    networked devices.
    3
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945

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  66. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    Every generation has trend(s) that cultivate a unique technological imagination.
    circa 1975
    Work became digital
    with the rise of the
    personal computer.
    1
    circa 1995
    People got connected
    with widespread
    access to the Internet.
    2
    circa 2015
    Things got connected
    with a proliferation of
    networked devices.
    3
    near future
    Things behave
    like humans,
    only better.
    4
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    Millennials
    1982-2004

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  67. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030
    This visualization indicates the scale of effects of each technology is the same.
    circa 1975
    Work became digital
    with the rise of the
    personal computer.
    1
    circa 1995
    People got connected
    with widespread
    access to the Internet.
    2
    circa 2015
    Things got connected
    with a proliferation of
    networked devices.
    3
    near future
    Things behave
    like humans,
    only better.
    4
    Baby Boomers
    1946-1964
    Gen X
    1965-1982
    Gen Z
    2004-? Gen ?
    Millennials
    1982-2004
    Silent Gen.
    until 1945

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  68. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    This is an example of scale of the effects of each technology.
    Work became digital
    1
    People got connected
    2
    Things got connected
    3
    Things behave like humans
    4

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  69. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Combinatorial innovation tells us these trends will have outsized effects.
    People got connected
    2
    Work became digital
    1
    Things got connected
    3
    Things behave like humans
    4

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  70. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Combinatorial innovation tells us these trends will have outsized effects.
    People got connected
    2
    Work became digital
    1
    Things got connected
    3
    Things behave like humans
    4

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  71. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Combinatorial innovation tells us these trends will have outsized effects.
    People got connected
    2
    Work became digital
    1
    Things got connected
    3
    Things behave like humans
    4

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  72. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Combinatorial innovation tells us these trends will have outsized effects.
    People got connected
    2
    Work became digital
    1
    Things got connected
    3
    Things behave like humans
    4

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  73. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Each of these trends will have greater and greater effects.
    People got connected
    2
    Work became digital
    1
    Things got connected
    3
    Things behave like humans
    4

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  74. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    As we move into higher levels of autonomy, who decides and acts changes.
    Autonomy
    Acquire
    Information
    Analyze
    Situation Decide Act
    Level 0 Human Human Human Human
    1 Human/System Human Human Human
    2 System Human/System Human Human
    3 System System Human/System Human
    4 System System System Human/System
    5 System System System System

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  75. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    As we move into higher levels of autonomy, who decides and acts changes.
    Autonomy
    Acquire
    Information
    Analyze
    Situation Decide Act
    Level 0 Human Human Human Human
    1 Human/System Human Human Human
    2 System Human/System Human Human
    3 System System Human/System Human
    4 System System System Human/System
    5 System System System System
    2020
    Future

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  76. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Technology will not just do things for us…
    Adapted from Paul Pangaro and Hugh Dubberly
    “Lexus, play news from NPR.” “Lexus, I want to listen to news.
    What are my options?”
    “Lexus, some news please.” “Lexus, help me decide the
    best local news in this area.”
    Controlling Guiding Delegating Collaborating
    Human tells car what to do
    and how to do it
    Human sets goal
    but discusses means with car
    Human sets the goal
    but lets car decide
    the means to reach it
    Human and car decide
    together on goals
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Human Vehicle Human Vehicle
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Human Vehicle
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Human Vehicle
    Present Now or near future

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  77. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Technology will not just do things for us, it will soon help us decide.
    “Lexus, play news from NPR.” “Lexus, I want to listen to news.
    What are my options?”
    “Lexus, some news please.” “Lexus, help me decide the
    best local news in this area.”
    Controlling Guiding Delegating Collaborating
    Human tells car what to do
    and how to do it
    Human sets goal
    but discusses means with car
    Human sets the goal
    but lets car decide
    the means to reach it
    Human and car decide
    together on goals
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Human Vehicle Human Vehicle
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Human Vehicle
    Goals Goals
    Means
    Means
    Human Vehicle
    Adapted from Paul Pangaro and Hugh Dubberly
    Present Now or near future

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  78. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    n
    ACT 4
    Ac o
    t

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  79. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Action
    ACT 4

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  80. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    DESIGN THINKING
    How might we…?
    Update your design process from asking just…
    CHALLENGE 1

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  81. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    DESIGN THINKING ETHICAL COMPONENTS
    How might we…? Why should we…?
    ... design a better way to
    enjoy flowers in the home.
    Update your design process from asking just…
    CHALLENGE 1
    ... design a better way to
    enjoy flowers in the home.

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  82. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    CHALLENGE 2

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  83. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Architects have a code of ethics made of six canons.
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 5
    E.S. 6.5 Climate Change
    Members should incorporate
    adaptation strategies with their
    clients to anticipate extreme
    weather events and minimize
    adverse effects on the
    environment, economy and public
    health.
    Rule Members shall consider with their
    6.501 clients the environmental effects
    of their project decisions.
    RULES OF APPLICATION,
    ENFORCEMENT, AND
    AMENDMENT
    Application
    The Code of Ethics and Professional
    Conduct applies to the professional
    activities of all members of the AIA.
    Enforcement
    The Bylaws of the Institute state
    procedures for the enforcement of the Code
    of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Such
    procedures provide that:
    (1) Enforcement of the Code is
    administered through a National
    Ethics Council, appointed by the AIA
    Board of Directors.
    (2) Formal charges are filed directly with
    the National Ethics Council by
    Members, components, or anyone
    directly aggrieved by the conduct of
    the Members.
    (3) Penalties that may be imposed by
    the National Ethics Council are:
    (a) Admonition
    (b) Censure
    (c) Suspension of membership for
    a period of time
    (d) Termination of membership.
    (4) Appeal procedures are available.
    (5) All proceedings are confidential, as is
    the imposition of an admonishment;
    however, all other penalties shall be
    made public.
    Enforcement of Rules 4.101 and 4.202 refer
    to and support enforcement of other Rules.
    A violation of Rules 4.101 or 4.202 cannot
    be established without proof of a pertinent
    violation of at least one other Rule.
    Amendment
    The Code of Ethics and Professional
    Conduct may be amended by the
    convention of the Institute under the same
    procedures as are necessary to amend the
    In i e B la The Code may also be
    amended by the AIA Board of Directors
    upon a two-thirds vote of the entire Board.
    *2018 Edition. This copy of the Code of
    Ethics is current as of September 6, 2018.
    Con ac he General Co n el Office for
    further information at (202) 626-7311.
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 2
    slights, annoyances, and isolated incidents
    (unless extremely serious) will not rise to
    the level of violation of this Rule.
    Rule Members shall not engage in
    1.402 conduct involving wanton
    disregard of the rights of others.
    Commentary: Wanton disregard under this
    rule includes conduct taken in disregard of
    (1) a high degree of risk that the
    Complainant would be adversely affected,
    and (2) that risk would be apparent to a
    ea onable e on Rea onable e on i
    an objective standard and considers
    someone who uses such qualities as
    attention, knowledge, intelligence, and
    judgement which a society requires of its
    members to protect their own interests and
    the interests of others. Wanton disregard
    under this rule also includes engaging in
    conduct that is severe or pervasive enough
    that a reasonable person would consider it
    harassing, hostile, or abusive. This includes,
    but is not limited to, sexual misconduct,
    bullying, intimidation, or retaliation.
    E.S. 1.5 Design for Human Dignity and the
    Health, Safety, and Welfare of the
    Public:
    Members should employ their
    professional knowledge and skill
    to design buildings and spaces
    that will enhance and facilitate
    human dignity and the health,
    safety, and welfare of the
    individual and the public.
    E.S. 1.6 Allied Arts and Industries:
    Members should promote allied
    arts and contribute to the
    knowledge and capability of the
    building industries as a whole.
    CANON II
    Obligations to the Public
    Members should embrace the spirit
    and letter of the law governing their
    professional affairs and should promote
    and serve the public interest in their
    personal and professional activities.
    E.S. 2.1 Conduct:
    Members should uphold the law in
    the conduct of their professional
    activities.
    Rule Members shall not, in the conduct
    2.101 of their professional practice,
    knowingly violate the law.
    Commentary: The violation of any law, local,
    state or federal, occurring in the conduct of a
    Membe ofe ional ac ice i made he
    basis for discipline by this rule. This includes
    the federal Copyright Act, which prohibits
    copying architectural works without the
    permission of the copyright owner. Allegations
    of violations of this rule must be based on an
    independent finding of a violation of the law
    by a court of competent jurisdiction or an
    administrative or regulatory body.
    Rule Members shall neither offer nor
    2.102 make any payment or gift to a
    public official with the intent of
    infl encing he official j dgmen
    in connection with an existing or
    prospective project in which the
    Members are interested.
    Commentary: This rule does not prohibit
    campaign contributions made in conformity
    with applicable campaign financing laws.
    Rule Members serving in a public
    2.103 capacity shall not accept
    payments or gifts which are
    intended to influence their
    judgment.
    Rule Members shall not engage in
    2.104 conduct involving fraud.
    Commentary: This rule addresses serious
    misconduct whether or not related to a
    Membe ofe ional ac ice Proof of
    fraud must be based on an independent
    finding of a violation of the law or a finding of
    fraud by a court of competent jurisdiction or
    an administrative or regulatory body.
    Rule If, in the course of their work on
    2.105 a project, the Members become
    aware of a decision taken by their
    employer or client which violates
    any law or regulation and which
    ill in he Membe j dgmen
    materially affect adversely the
    safety to the public of the finished
    project, the Members shall:
    (a) advise their employer or client
    against the decision,
    (b) refuse to consent to the
    decision, and
    (c) report the decision to the local
    building inspector or other
    public official charged with the
    enforcement of the applicable
    laws and regulations, unless
    the Members are able to cause
    the matter to be satisfactorily
    resolved by other means.
    Commentary: This rule extends only to
    violations of the building laws that threaten
    the public safety. The obligation under this
    rule applies only to the safety of the finished
    project, an obligation coextensive with the
    usual undertaking of an architect.
    Rule Members shall not counsel or
    2.106 assist a client in conduct that the
    architect knows, or reasonably
    should know, is fraudulent or
    illegal.
    E.S. 2.2 Public Interest Services:
    Members should render public
    interest professional services,
    including pro bono services, and
    encourage their employees to
    render such services. Pro bono
    services are those rendered
    without expecting compensation,
    including those rendered for
    indigent persons, after disasters,
    or in other emergencies.
    E.S. 2.3 Civic Responsibility:
    Members should be involved in
    civic activities as citizens and
    professionals, and should strive
    to improve public appreciation
    and understanding of architecture
    and the functions and
    responsibilities of architects.
    Rule Members making public statements
    2.301 on architectural issues shall
    disclose when they are being
    compensated for making such
    statements or when they have an
    economic interest in the issue.
    E.S. 2.4 Environmental Equity and Justice
    Members should promote fairness
    and safety in providing
    professional services and make
    reasonable efforts to advise their
    clients and employers of their
    obligations to the environment,
    including: access to clean air,
    water, sunlight and energy for all;
    sustainable production, extraction,
    transportation and consumption
    practices; a built environment that
    equitably supports human health
    and well-being and is resistant to
    climate change; and restoring
    F R O M T H E O F F I C E O F G E N E R A L C O U N S E L
    2018 Code of Ethics and
    Professional Conduct
    Preamble
    Members of The American Institute of Architects are dedicated to
    the highest standards of professionalism, integrity, and competence.
    This Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct states guidelines for
    the conduct of Members in fulfilling those obligations. The Code is
    arranged in three tiers of statements: Canons, Ethical Standards,
    and Rules of Conduct:
    ƒ Canons are broad principles of conduct.
    ƒ Ethical Standards (E.S.) are more specific goals toward which
    Members should aspire in professional performance and
    behavior.
    ƒ Rules of Conduct (Rule) are mandatory; violation of a Rule
    is grounds for disciplinary action by the Institute. Rules of
    Conduct, in some instances, implement more than one Canon
    or Ethical Standard.
    The Code applies to the professional activities of all classes of
    Members, wherever they occur. It addresses responsibilities to the
    public, which the profession serves and enriches; to the clients and
    users of architecture and in the building industries, who help to shape
    the built environment; and to the art and science of architecture, that
    continuum of knowledge and creation which is the heritage and
    legacy of the profession.
    Commentary is provided for some of the Rules of Conduct. That
    commentary is meant to clarify or elaborate the intent of the rule.
    The commentary is not part of the Code. Enforcement will be
    determined by application of the Rules of Conduct alone; the
    commentary will assist those seeking to conform their conduct
    to the Code and those charged with its enforcement.
    Statement in Compliance With Antitrust Law
    The following practices are not, in themselves, unethical,
    unprofessional, or contrary to any policy of The American Institute
    of Architects or any of its components:
    (1) submitting, at any time, competitive bids or price quotations,
    including in circumstances where price is the sole or principal
    consideration in the selection of an architect;
    (2) providing discounts; or
    (3) providing free services.
    Individual architects or architecture firms, acting alone and not on
    behalf of the Institute or any of its components, are free to decide
    for themselves whether or not to engage in any of these practices.
    Antitrust law permits the Institute, its components, or Members to
    advocate legislative or other government policies or actions relating
    to these practices. Finally, architects should continue to consult with
    state laws or regulations governing the practice of architecture.
    CANON I
    General Obligations
    Members should maintain and advance
    their knowledge of the art and science of
    architecture, respect the body of
    architectural accomplishment, contribute
    to its growth, thoughtfully consider the
    social and environmental impact of their
    professional activities, and exercise learned
    and uncompromised professional
    judgment.
    E.S. 1.1 Knowledge and Skill:
    Members should strive to improve
    their professional knowledge and
    skill.
    Rule In practicing architecture,
    1.101 Members shall demonstrate a
    consistent pattern of reasonable
    care and competence, and shall
    apply the technical knowledge and
    skill which is ordinarily applied by
    architects of good standing
    practicing in the same locality.
    Commentary: B requiring a consistent
    pattern of adherence to the common law
    standard of competence, this rule allows for
    discipline of a Member who more than
    infrequently does not achieve that standard.
    Isolated instances of minor lapses would not
    provide the basis for discipline.
    E.S. 1.2 Standards of Excellence:
    Members should continually seek
    to raise the standards of aesthetic
    excellence, architectural
    education, research, training, and
    practice.
    E.S. 1.3 Natural and Cultural Heritage:
    Members should respect and help
    conserve their natural and cultural
    heritage while striving to improve
    the environment and the quality
    of life within it.
    E.S. 1.4 Human Rights:
    Members should uphold human
    rights in all their professional
    endeavors.
    Rule Members shall not engage in
    1.401 harassment or discrimination in
    their professional activities on the
    basis of race, religion, national
    origin, age, disability, caregiver
    status, gender, gender identity, or
    sexual orientation.
    Commentary: Harassment may include, but
    is not limited to, offensive jokes, slurs,
    epithets or name calling, unwelcome
    physical contact, or threats, intimidation,
    ridicule or mockery, insults or put-downs,
    offensive objects or pictures, and
    interference with work performance. Petty
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 3
    degraded or depleted natural
    resources.
    Rule When performing professional
    2.401 services, Members shall make
    reasonable efforts to inform their
    clients of the potential
    environmental impacts or
    consequences the Member
    reasonably believes may occur as
    a result of work performed on
    behalf of the clients.
    CANON III
    Obligations to the Client
    Members should serve their clients
    competently and in a professional manner,
    and should exercise unprejudiced and
    unbiased judgment when performing all
    professional services.
    E.S. 3.1 Competence:
    Members should serve their
    clients in a timely and competent
    manner.
    Rule In performing professional services,
    3.101 Members shall take into account
    applicable laws and regulations.
    Members may rely on the advice
    of other qualified persons as to
    the intent and meaning of such
    regulations.
    Rule Members shall undertake to
    3.102 perform professional services only
    when they, together with those
    whom they may engage as
    consultants, are qualified by
    education, training, or experience
    in the specific technical areas
    involved.
    Commentary: This rule is meant to ensure
    that Members not undertake projects that are
    beyond their professional capacity. Members
    venturing into areas that require expertise
    they do not possess may obtain that expertise
    by additional education, training, or through
    the retention of consultants with the
    necessary expertise.
    Rule Members shall not materially alter
    3.103 the scope or objectives of a
    jec i h he clien
    consent.
    E.S. 3.2 Conflict of Interest:
    Members should avoid conflicts of
    interest in their professional
    practices and fully disclose all
    unavoidable conflicts as they arise.
    Rule A Member shall not render
    3.201 professional services if the
    Membe fe i nal j dgmen
    could be affected by
    responsibilities to another project
    e n b he Membe n
    interests, unless all those who rely
    n he Membe j dgmen
    consent after full disclosure.
    Commentary: This rule is intended to embrace
    the full range of situations that may present a
    Member with a conflict between his interests
    or responsibilities and the interest of others.
    Those who are entitled to disclosure may
    include a client, owner, employer, contractor,
    or others who rely on or are affected by the
    Membe fe i nal deci i n A Membe
    who cannot appropriately communicate about
    a conflict directly with an affected person
    must take steps to ensure that disclosure is
    made by other means.
    Rule When acting by agreement of the
    3.202 parties as the independent
    interpreter of building contract
    documents and the judge of
    contract performance, Members
    shall render decisions impartially.
    Commentary: This rule applies when the
    Member, though paid by the owner and owing
    the owner loyalty, is nonetheless required to
    ac i h im a iali in f lfilling he a chi ec
    professional responsibilities.
    E.S. 3.3 Candor and Truthfulness:
    Members should be candid and
    truthful in their professional
    communications and keep their
    clients reasonably informed about
    he clien jec
    Rule Members shall not intentionally
    3.301 or recklessly mislead existing or
    prospective clients about the
    results that can be achieved
    h gh he e f he Membe
    services, nor shall the Members
    state that they can achieve results
    by means that violate applicable
    law or this Code.
    Commentary: This rule is meant to preclude
    dishonest, reckless, or illegal representations
    by a Member either in the course of soliciting
    a client or during performance.
    E.S. 3.4 Confidentiality:
    Members should safeguard the
    trust placed in them by their
    clients.
    Rule Members shall not knowingly
    3.401 disclose information that would
    adversely affect their client or that
    they have been asked to maintain
    in confidence, except as otherwise
    allowed or required by this Code
    or applicable law.
    Commentary: To encourage the full and open
    exchange of information necessary for a
    successful professional relationship, Members
    must recognize and respect the sensitive
    nature of confidential client communications.
    Because the law does not recognize an
    architect-client privilege, however, the rule
    permits a Member to reveal a confidence
    when a failure to do so would be unlawful or
    contrary to another ethical duty imposed by
    this Code.
    CANON IV
    Obligations to the Profession
    Members should uphold the integrity and
    dignity of the profession.
    E.S. 4.1 Honesty and Fairness:
    Members should pursue their
    professional activities with
    honesty and fairness.
    Rule Members having substantial
    4.101 information which leads to a
    reasonable belief that another
    Member has committed a
    violation of this Code which raises
    a serious question as to that
    Membe h ne
    trustworthiness, or fitness as a
    Member, shall file a complaint
    with the National Ethics Council.
    Commentary: Often, only an architect can
    recognize that the behavior of another
    architect poses a serious question as to that
    he fe i nal in eg i In h e
    ci c m ance he d he fe i nal
    calling requires that a complaint be filed. In
    most jurisdictions, a complaint that invokes
    professional standards is protected from a
    libel or slander action if the complaint was
    made in good faith. If in doubt, a Member
    should seek counsel before reporting on
    another under this rule.
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 4
    Rule Members shall not sign or seal
    4.102 drawings, specifications, reports,
    or other professional work for
    which they do not have
    responsible control.
    Commentary: Responsible control means
    the degree of knowledge and supervision
    ordinarily required by the professional
    standard of care. With respect to the work
    of licensed consultants, Members may sign
    or seal such work if they have reviewed it,
    coordinated its preparation, or intend to be
    responsible for its adequacy.
    Rule Members speaking in their
    4.103 professional capacity shall not
    knowingly make false statements
    of material fact.
    Commentary: This rule applies to statements
    in all professional contexts, including
    applications for licensure and AIA
    membership.
    E.S. 4.2 Dignity and Integrity:
    Members should strive, through
    their actions, to promote the
    dignity and integrity of the
    profession, and to ensure that
    their representatives and
    employees conform their conduct
    to this Code.
    Rule Members shall not make
    4.201 misleading, deceptive, or false
    statements or claims about their
    professional qualifications,
    experience, or performance and
    shall accurately state the scope
    and nature of their responsibilities
    in connection with work for which
    they are claiming credit.
    Commentary: This rule is meant to prevent
    Members from claiming or implying credit for
    work which they did not do, misleading others,
    and denying other participants in a project
    their proper share of credit.
    Rule Members shall make reasonable
    4.202 efforts to ensure that those over
    whom they have supervisory
    authority conform their conduct to
    this Code.
    Commen ar Wha con i e rea onable
    effor nder hi r le i a common en e
    matter. As it makes sense to ensure that those
    over whom the architect exercises supervision
    be made generally aware of the Code, it can
    also make sense to bring a particular
    provision to the attention of a particular
    employee when a situation is present which
    might give rise to violation.
    CANON V
    Obligations to Colleagues
    Members should respect the rights and
    acknowledge the professional aspirations
    and contributions of their colleagues.
    E.S. 5.1 Professional Environment:
    Members should provide their
    colleagues and employees with
    a fair and equitable working
    environment, compensate them
    fairly, and facilitate their
    professional development.
    Rule Members shall treat their
    5.101 colleagues and employees with
    mutual respect, and provide an
    equitable working environment.
    E.S. 5.2 Intern and Professional
    Development:
    Members should recognize and
    fulfill their obligation to nurture
    fellow professionals as they
    progress through all stages of
    their career, beginning with
    professional education in the
    academy, progressing through
    internship and continuing
    throughout their career.
    Rule Members who have agreed to
    5.201 work with individuals engaged in
    an architectural internship
    program or an experience
    requirement for licensure shall
    reasonably assist in proper and
    timely documentation in
    accordance with that program.
    E.S. 5.3 Professional Recognition:
    Members should build their
    professional reputation on the
    merits of their own service and
    performance and should recognize
    and give credit to others for the
    professional work they have
    performed.
    Rule Members shall recognize and
    5.301 respect the professional
    contributions of their employees,
    employers, professional
    colleagues, and business
    associates.
    Rule Members leaving a firm shall not,
    5.302 without the permission of their
    employer or partner, take designs,
    drawings, data, reports, notes, or
    other materials relating to the
    firm ork he her or no
    performed by the Member.
    Rule A Member shall not unreasonably
    5.303 withhold permission from a
    departing employee or partner to
    take copies of designs, drawings,
    data, reports, notes, or other
    materials relating to work
    performed by the employee or
    partner that are not confidential.
    Commentary: A Member may impose
    reasonable conditions, such as the payment
    of copying costs, on the right of departing
    persons to take copies of their work.
    CANON VI
    Obligations to the Environment
    Members should recognize and
    acknowledge the professional
    responsibilities they have to promote
    sustainable design and development in the
    natural and built environments and to
    implement energy and resource conscious
    design.
    E.S. 6.1 Energy conservation:
    Members should set ambitious
    performance goals for greenhouse
    gas emission reduction with their
    clients for each project.
    E.S. 6.2 Water Use:
    Members should optimize water
    conservation in each project to
    reduce water use and protect
    water supply, water quality, and
    watershed resources.
    E.S. 6.3 Building Materials:
    Members should select and use
    building materials to minimize
    exposure to toxins and pollutants
    in the environment to promote
    environmental and human health
    and to reduce waste and pollution.
    E.S. 6.4 Ecosystems
    Members should consider with
    their clients the impact of each
    project on the natural habitat and
    ecosystem to promote
    environmental and human health.
    General obligations
    Obligations to the Public
    Obligations to the Client
    Obligations to the Profession
    Obligations to the Colleagues
    Obligations to the Environment
    Public Client Profession Colleagues Environment
    General obligations
    Scope, ramifications and externalities of obligations increase
    https://aianova.org/pdf/codeofethics.pdf
    Obligations to…

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  84. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Architects have a code of ethics made of six canons.
    Interaction designers have none.
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 5
    E.S. 6.5 Climate Change
    Members should incorporate
    adaptation strategies with their
    clients to anticipate extreme
    weather events and minimize
    adverse effects on the
    environment, economy and public
    health.
    Rule Members shall consider with their
    6.501 clients the environmental effects
    of their project decisions.
    RULES OF APPLICATION,
    ENFORCEMENT, AND
    AMENDMENT
    Application
    The Code of Ethics and Professional
    Conduct applies to the professional
    activities of all members of the AIA.
    Enforcement
    The Bylaws of the Institute state
    procedures for the enforcement of the Code
    of Ethics and Professional Conduct. Such
    procedures provide that:
    (1) Enforcement of the Code is
    administered through a National
    Ethics Council, appointed by the AIA
    Board of Directors.
    (2) Formal charges are filed directly with
    the National Ethics Council by
    Members, components, or anyone
    directly aggrieved by the conduct of
    the Members.
    (3) Penalties that may be imposed by
    the National Ethics Council are:
    (a) Admonition
    (b) Censure
    (c) Suspension of membership for
    a period of time
    (d) Termination of membership.
    (4) Appeal procedures are available.
    (5) All proceedings are confidential, as is
    the imposition of an admonishment;
    however, all other penalties shall be
    made public.
    Enforcement of Rules 4.101 and 4.202 refer
    to and support enforcement of other Rules.
    A violation of Rules 4.101 or 4.202 cannot
    be established without proof of a pertinent
    violation of at least one other Rule.
    Amendment
    The Code of Ethics and Professional
    Conduct may be amended by the
    convention of the Institute under the same
    procedures as are necessary to amend the
    In i e B la The Code may also be
    amended by the AIA Board of Directors
    upon a two-thirds vote of the entire Board.
    *2018 Edition. This copy of the Code of
    Ethics is current as of September 6, 2018.
    Con ac he General Co n el Office for
    further information at (202) 626-7311.
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 2
    slights, annoyances, and isolated incidents
    (unless extremely serious) will not rise to
    the level of violation of this Rule.
    Rule Members shall not engage in
    1.402 conduct involving wanton
    disregard of the rights of others.
    Commentary: Wanton disregard under this
    rule includes conduct taken in disregard of
    (1) a high degree of risk that the
    Complainant would be adversely affected,
    and (2) that risk would be apparent to a
    ea onable e on Rea onable e on i
    an objective standard and considers
    someone who uses such qualities as
    attention, knowledge, intelligence, and
    judgement which a society requires of its
    members to protect their own interests and
    the interests of others. Wanton disregard
    under this rule also includes engaging in
    conduct that is severe or pervasive enough
    that a reasonable person would consider it
    harassing, hostile, or abusive. This includes,
    but is not limited to, sexual misconduct,
    bullying, intimidation, or retaliation.
    E.S. 1.5 Design for Human Dignity and the
    Health, Safety, and Welfare of the
    Public:
    Members should employ their
    professional knowledge and skill
    to design buildings and spaces
    that will enhance and facilitate
    human dignity and the health,
    safety, and welfare of the
    individual and the public.
    E.S. 1.6 Allied Arts and Industries:
    Members should promote allied
    arts and contribute to the
    knowledge and capability of the
    building industries as a whole.
    CANON II
    Obligations to the Public
    Members should embrace the spirit
    and letter of the law governing their
    professional affairs and should promote
    and serve the public interest in their
    personal and professional activities.
    E.S. 2.1 Conduct:
    Members should uphold the law in
    the conduct of their professional
    activities.
    Rule Members shall not, in the conduct
    2.101 of their professional practice,
    knowingly violate the law.
    Commentary: The violation of any law, local,
    state or federal, occurring in the conduct of a
    Membe ofe ional ac ice i made he
    basis for discipline by this rule. This includes
    the federal Copyright Act, which prohibits
    copying architectural works without the
    permission of the copyright owner. Allegations
    of violations of this rule must be based on an
    independent finding of a violation of the law
    by a court of competent jurisdiction or an
    administrative or regulatory body.
    Rule Members shall neither offer nor
    2.102 make any payment or gift to a
    public official with the intent of
    infl encing he official j dgmen
    in connection with an existing or
    prospective project in which the
    Members are interested.
    Commentary: This rule does not prohibit
    campaign contributions made in conformity
    with applicable campaign financing laws.
    Rule Members serving in a public
    2.103 capacity shall not accept
    payments or gifts which are
    intended to influence their
    judgment.
    Rule Members shall not engage in
    2.104 conduct involving fraud.
    Commentary: This rule addresses serious
    misconduct whether or not related to a
    Membe ofe ional ac ice Proof of
    fraud must be based on an independent
    finding of a violation of the law or a finding of
    fraud by a court of competent jurisdiction or
    an administrative or regulatory body.
    Rule If, in the course of their work on
    2.105 a project, the Members become
    aware of a decision taken by their
    employer or client which violates
    any law or regulation and which
    ill in he Membe j dgmen
    materially affect adversely the
    safety to the public of the finished
    project, the Members shall:
    (a) advise their employer or client
    against the decision,
    (b) refuse to consent to the
    decision, and
    (c) report the decision to the local
    building inspector or other
    public official charged with the
    enforcement of the applicable
    laws and regulations, unless
    the Members are able to cause
    the matter to be satisfactorily
    resolved by other means.
    Commentary: This rule extends only to
    violations of the building laws that threaten
    the public safety. The obligation under this
    rule applies only to the safety of the finished
    project, an obligation coextensive with the
    usual undertaking of an architect.
    Rule Members shall not counsel or
    2.106 assist a client in conduct that the
    architect knows, or reasonably
    should know, is fraudulent or
    illegal.
    E.S. 2.2 Public Interest Services:
    Members should render public
    interest professional services,
    including pro bono services, and
    encourage their employees to
    render such services. Pro bono
    services are those rendered
    without expecting compensation,
    including those rendered for
    indigent persons, after disasters,
    or in other emergencies.
    E.S. 2.3 Civic Responsibility:
    Members should be involved in
    civic activities as citizens and
    professionals, and should strive
    to improve public appreciation
    and understanding of architecture
    and the functions and
    responsibilities of architects.
    Rule Members making public statements
    2.301 on architectural issues shall
    disclose when they are being
    compensated for making such
    statements or when they have an
    economic interest in the issue.
    E.S. 2.4 Environmental Equity and Justice
    Members should promote fairness
    and safety in providing
    professional services and make
    reasonable efforts to advise their
    clients and employers of their
    obligations to the environment,
    including: access to clean air,
    water, sunlight and energy for all;
    sustainable production, extraction,
    transportation and consumption
    practices; a built environment that
    equitably supports human health
    and well-being and is resistant to
    climate change; and restoring
    F R O M T H E O F F I C E O F G E N E R A L C O U N S E L
    2018 Code of Ethics and
    Professional Conduct
    Preamble
    Members of The American Institute of Architects are dedicated to
    the highest standards of professionalism, integrity, and competence.
    This Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct states guidelines for
    the conduct of Members in fulfilling those obligations. The Code is
    arranged in three tiers of statements: Canons, Ethical Standards,
    and Rules of Conduct:
    ƒ Canons are broad principles of conduct.
    ƒ Ethical Standards (E.S.) are more specific goals toward which
    Members should aspire in professional performance and
    behavior.
    ƒ Rules of Conduct (Rule) are mandatory; violation of a Rule
    is grounds for disciplinary action by the Institute. Rules of
    Conduct, in some instances, implement more than one Canon
    or Ethical Standard.
    The Code applies to the professional activities of all classes of
    Members, wherever they occur. It addresses responsibilities to the
    public, which the profession serves and enriches; to the clients and
    users of architecture and in the building industries, who help to shape
    the built environment; and to the art and science of architecture, that
    continuum of knowledge and creation which is the heritage and
    legacy of the profession.
    Commentary is provided for some of the Rules of Conduct. That
    commentary is meant to clarify or elaborate the intent of the rule.
    The commentary is not part of the Code. Enforcement will be
    determined by application of the Rules of Conduct alone; the
    commentary will assist those seeking to conform their conduct
    to the Code and those charged with its enforcement.
    Statement in Compliance With Antitrust Law
    The following practices are not, in themselves, unethical,
    unprofessional, or contrary to any policy of The American Institute
    of Architects or any of its components:
    (1) submitting, at any time, competitive bids or price quotations,
    including in circumstances where price is the sole or principal
    consideration in the selection of an architect;
    (2) providing discounts; or
    (3) providing free services.
    Individual architects or architecture firms, acting alone and not on
    behalf of the Institute or any of its components, are free to decide
    for themselves whether or not to engage in any of these practices.
    Antitrust law permits the Institute, its components, or Members to
    advocate legislative or other government policies or actions relating
    to these practices. Finally, architects should continue to consult with
    state laws or regulations governing the practice of architecture.
    CANON I
    General Obligations
    Members should maintain and advance
    their knowledge of the art and science of
    architecture, respect the body of
    architectural accomplishment, contribute
    to its growth, thoughtfully consider the
    social and environmental impact of their
    professional activities, and exercise learned
    and uncompromised professional
    judgment.
    E.S. 1.1 Knowledge and Skill:
    Members should strive to improve
    their professional knowledge and
    skill.
    Rule In practicing architecture,
    1.101 Members shall demonstrate a
    consistent pattern of reasonable
    care and competence, and shall
    apply the technical knowledge and
    skill which is ordinarily applied by
    architects of good standing
    practicing in the same locality.
    Commentary: B requiring a consistent
    pattern of adherence to the common law
    standard of competence, this rule allows for
    discipline of a Member who more than
    infrequently does not achieve that standard.
    Isolated instances of minor lapses would not
    provide the basis for discipline.
    E.S. 1.2 Standards of Excellence:
    Members should continually seek
    to raise the standards of aesthetic
    excellence, architectural
    education, research, training, and
    practice.
    E.S. 1.3 Natural and Cultural Heritage:
    Members should respect and help
    conserve their natural and cultural
    heritage while striving to improve
    the environment and the quality
    of life within it.
    E.S. 1.4 Human Rights:
    Members should uphold human
    rights in all their professional
    endeavors.
    Rule Members shall not engage in
    1.401 harassment or discrimination in
    their professional activities on the
    basis of race, religion, national
    origin, age, disability, caregiver
    status, gender, gender identity, or
    sexual orientation.
    Commentary: Harassment may include, but
    is not limited to, offensive jokes, slurs,
    epithets or name calling, unwelcome
    physical contact, or threats, intimidation,
    ridicule or mockery, insults or put-downs,
    offensive objects or pictures, and
    interference with work performance. Petty
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 3
    degraded or depleted natural
    resources.
    Rule When performing professional
    2.401 services, Members shall make
    reasonable efforts to inform their
    clients of the potential
    environmental impacts or
    consequences the Member
    reasonably believes may occur as
    a result of work performed on
    behalf of the clients.
    CANON III
    Obligations to the Client
    Members should serve their clients
    competently and in a professional manner,
    and should exercise unprejudiced and
    unbiased judgment when performing all
    professional services.
    E.S. 3.1 Competence:
    Members should serve their
    clients in a timely and competent
    manner.
    Rule In performing professional services,
    3.101 Members shall take into account
    applicable laws and regulations.
    Members may rely on the advice
    of other qualified persons as to
    the intent and meaning of such
    regulations.
    Rule Members shall undertake to
    3.102 perform professional services only
    when they, together with those
    whom they may engage as
    consultants, are qualified by
    education, training, or experience
    in the specific technical areas
    involved.
    Commentary: This rule is meant to ensure
    that Members not undertake projects that are
    beyond their professional capacity. Members
    venturing into areas that require expertise
    they do not possess may obtain that expertise
    by additional education, training, or through
    the retention of consultants with the
    necessary expertise.
    Rule Members shall not materially alter
    3.103 the scope or objectives of a
    jec i h he clien
    consent.
    E.S. 3.2 Conflict of Interest:
    Members should avoid conflicts of
    interest in their professional
    practices and fully disclose all
    unavoidable conflicts as they arise.
    Rule A Member shall not render
    3.201 professional services if the
    Membe fe i nal j dgmen
    could be affected by
    responsibilities to another project
    e n b he Membe n
    interests, unless all those who rely
    n he Membe j dgmen
    consent after full disclosure.
    Commentary: This rule is intended to embrace
    the full range of situations that may present a
    Member with a conflict between his interests
    or responsibilities and the interest of others.
    Those who are entitled to disclosure may
    include a client, owner, employer, contractor,
    or others who rely on or are affected by the
    Membe fe i nal deci i n A Membe
    who cannot appropriately communicate about
    a conflict directly with an affected person
    must take steps to ensure that disclosure is
    made by other means.
    Rule When acting by agreement of the
    3.202 parties as the independent
    interpreter of building contract
    documents and the judge of
    contract performance, Members
    shall render decisions impartially.
    Commentary: This rule applies when the
    Member, though paid by the owner and owing
    the owner loyalty, is nonetheless required to
    ac i h im a iali in f lfilling he a chi ec
    professional responsibilities.
    E.S. 3.3 Candor and Truthfulness:
    Members should be candid and
    truthful in their professional
    communications and keep their
    clients reasonably informed about
    he clien jec
    Rule Members shall not intentionally
    3.301 or recklessly mislead existing or
    prospective clients about the
    results that can be achieved
    h gh he e f he Membe
    services, nor shall the Members
    state that they can achieve results
    by means that violate applicable
    law or this Code.
    Commentary: This rule is meant to preclude
    dishonest, reckless, or illegal representations
    by a Member either in the course of soliciting
    a client or during performance.
    E.S. 3.4 Confidentiality:
    Members should safeguard the
    trust placed in them by their
    clients.
    Rule Members shall not knowingly
    3.401 disclose information that would
    adversely affect their client or that
    they have been asked to maintain
    in confidence, except as otherwise
    allowed or required by this Code
    or applicable law.
    Commentary: To encourage the full and open
    exchange of information necessary for a
    successful professional relationship, Members
    must recognize and respect the sensitive
    nature of confidential client communications.
    Because the law does not recognize an
    architect-client privilege, however, the rule
    permits a Member to reveal a confidence
    when a failure to do so would be unlawful or
    contrary to another ethical duty imposed by
    this Code.
    CANON IV
    Obligations to the Profession
    Members should uphold the integrity and
    dignity of the profession.
    E.S. 4.1 Honesty and Fairness:
    Members should pursue their
    professional activities with
    honesty and fairness.
    Rule Members having substantial
    4.101 information which leads to a
    reasonable belief that another
    Member has committed a
    violation of this Code which raises
    a serious question as to that
    Membe h ne
    trustworthiness, or fitness as a
    Member, shall file a complaint
    with the National Ethics Council.
    Commentary: Often, only an architect can
    recognize that the behavior of another
    architect poses a serious question as to that
    he fe i nal in eg i In h e
    ci c m ance he d he fe i nal
    calling requires that a complaint be filed. In
    most jurisdictions, a complaint that invokes
    professional standards is protected from a
    libel or slander action if the complaint was
    made in good faith. If in doubt, a Member
    should seek counsel before reporting on
    another under this rule.
    2018 CODE OF ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT 4
    Rule Members shall not sign or seal
    4.102 drawings, specifications, reports,
    or other professional work for
    which they do not have
    responsible control.
    Commentary: Responsible control means
    the degree of knowledge and supervision
    ordinarily required by the professional
    standard of care. With respect to the work
    of licensed consultants, Members may sign
    or seal such work if they have reviewed it,
    coordinated its preparation, or intend to be
    responsible for its adequacy.
    Rule Members speaking in their
    4.103 professional capacity shall not
    knowingly make false statements
    of material fact.
    Commentary: This rule applies to statements
    in all professional contexts, including
    applications for licensure and AIA
    membership.
    E.S. 4.2 Dignity and Integrity:
    Members should strive, through
    their actions, to promote the
    dignity and integrity of the
    profession, and to ensure that
    their representatives and
    employees conform their conduct
    to this Code.
    Rule Members shall not make
    4.201 misleading, deceptive, or false
    statements or claims about their
    professional qualifications,
    experience, or performance and
    shall accurately state the scope
    and nature of their responsibilities
    in connection with work for which
    they are claiming credit.
    Commentary: This rule is meant to prevent
    Members from claiming or implying credit for
    work which they did not do, misleading others,
    and denying other participants in a project
    their proper share of credit.
    Rule Members shall make reasonable
    4.202 efforts to ensure that those over
    whom they have supervisory
    authority conform their conduct to
    this Code.
    Commen ar Wha con i e rea onable
    effor nder hi r le i a common en e
    matter. As it makes sense to ensure that those
    over whom the architect exercises supervision
    be made generally aware of the Code, it can
    also make sense to bring a particular
    provision to the attention of a particular
    employee when a situation is present which
    might give rise to violation.
    CANON V
    Obligations to Colleagues
    Members should respect the rights and
    acknowledge the professional aspirations
    and contributions of their colleagues.
    E.S. 5.1 Professional Environment:
    Members should provide their
    colleagues and employees with
    a fair and equitable working
    environment, compensate them
    fairly, and facilitate their
    professional development.
    Rule Members shall treat their
    5.101 colleagues and employees with
    mutual respect, and provide an
    equitable working environment.
    E.S. 5.2 Intern and Professional
    Development:
    Members should recognize and
    fulfill their obligation to nurture
    fellow professionals as they
    progress through all stages of
    their career, beginning with
    professional education in the
    academy, progressing through
    internship and continuing
    throughout their career.
    Rule Members who have agreed to
    5.201 work with individuals engaged in
    an architectural internship
    program or an experience
    requirement for licensure shall
    reasonably assist in proper and
    timely documentation in
    accordance with that program.
    E.S. 5.3 Professional Recognition:
    Members should build their
    professional reputation on the
    merits of their own service and
    performance and should recognize
    and give credit to others for the
    professional work they have
    performed.
    Rule Members shall recognize and
    5.301 respect the professional
    contributions of their employees,
    employers, professional
    colleagues, and business
    associates.
    Rule Members leaving a firm shall not,
    5.302 without the permission of their
    employer or partner, take designs,
    drawings, data, reports, notes, or
    other materials relating to the
    firm ork he her or no
    performed by the Member.
    Rule A Member shall not unreasonably
    5.303 withhold permission from a
    departing employee or partner to
    take copies of designs, drawings,
    data, reports, notes, or other
    materials relating to work
    performed by the employee or
    partner that are not confidential.
    Commentary: A Member may impose
    reasonable conditions, such as the payment
    of copying costs, on the right of departing
    persons to take copies of their work.
    CANON VI
    Obligations to the Environment
    Members should recognize and
    acknowledge the professional
    responsibilities they have to promote
    sustainable design and development in the
    natural and built environments and to
    implement energy and resource conscious
    design.
    E.S. 6.1 Energy conservation:
    Members should set ambitious
    performance goals for greenhouse
    gas emission reduction with their
    clients for each project.
    E.S. 6.2 Water Use:
    Members should optimize water
    conservation in each project to
    reduce water use and protect
    water supply, water quality, and
    watershed resources.
    E.S. 6.3 Building Materials:
    Members should select and use
    building materials to minimize
    exposure to toxins and pollutants
    in the environment to promote
    environmental and human health
    and to reduce waste and pollution.
    E.S. 6.4 Ecosystems
    Members should consider with
    their clients the impact of each
    project on the natural habitat and
    ecosystem to promote
    environmental and human health.
    General obligations
    Obligations to the Public
    Obligations to the Client
    Obligations to the Profession
    Obligations to the Colleagues
    Obligations to the Environment
    Public Client Profession Colleagues Environment
    General obligations
    Scope, ramifications and externalities of obligations increase
    https://aianova.org/pdf/codeofethics.pdf
    Obligations to…

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  85. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    https://uxpamagazine.org/developing-a-code-of-ethics
    WELL Building Standard
    Quality standards including filtration, cleaning
    protocols, microbe control, material safety
    Testing and monitoring to control public water
    additives and system contaminants.
    Promoting of healthy food options, nutrition
    labeling, safe food preparation and sourcing
    Glare-free and circadian lighting design, effects of
    surfaces and contrast, light quality, daylighting
    Active design enhanced ergonomics, activity
    incentives, and structured fitness programs
    Maximum thermal comfort by meeting individual
    thermal preferences
    Identify and mitigate parameters
    of acoustical comfort
    Reduce human exposure to hazardous building
    materials known to be toxic
    Organizational policies and transparency,
    biophilic design, flexible and adaptable spaces
    Establish inclusive, integrated communities
    through social equity and civic engagement
    Find new ways to go beyond the standard to
    create healthy environments
    Innovations
    Air
    Water
    Nourishment
    Light
    Movement
    Thermal
    comfort
    Sound
    Materials
    Mind
    Community
    Proposed UX Design Ethics (Shamonsky, 2018)
    Reduce obstacles to those with disabilities
    including vision, hearing and dexterity
    Appropriate, safe and non-damaging
    for human bodies
    Take care with potential life-risking apps such as
    self-driving cars, robotic surgery, etc.
    Use calm tech when appropriate,
    discourage addiction and distraction
    Mobility, wearables, fitness, healthy lifestyle
    Consider the aesthetic effects, don’t be
    annoying, unpleasant or unnecessary
    Be transparent about dark GUI patterns, promote
    awareness of invisible/ubiquitous computing
    Understand what, when and why of gathered
    personal data and protect privacy
    Natural, intuitive, or, when appropriate,
    learnable user experiences
    Manage bullying, social isolation and fakes news
    Use new technology to create more natural
    and beautiful user experiences
    Innovations
    Accessibility
    Ergonomics
    Safety
    Appropriate
    Attention
    Movement
    Beauty
    Transparency
    Security
    Mind
    Community
    Designers have tried to
    adapt other standards
    to what we do…

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  86. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    General obligations
    Obligations to the Public
    Obligations to the Client
    Obligations to the Profession
    Obligations to the Colleagues
    Obligations to the Environment
    CHALLENGE 2
    Write your own code of ethics.

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  87. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Koyaanisqatsi: Life out of Balance (1983)
    When an architect fails, a building falls...
    What falls when a designer fails?

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  88. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust: World Interaction Design Day · Sept 24, 2019
    CHALLENGE 3
    Write your own unique challenge.

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  89. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    The self-renewing person remembers
    Antaeus—invincible in wresting as long
    as he remained in contact with the earth.
    A periodic return to the solid earth of
    direct experience.
    Certain kinds of creativity require a
    reasonable margin of abundance.
    aletheia
    The Greek story of Antaeus is important.
    William Blake, Antaeus sets down Dante and Virgil
    A wrestler, Antaeus was invincible, so as long as
    he remained in contact with the earth.

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  90. Cassini Nazir · The Shape of Trust
    William Blake, Antaeus sets down Dante and Virgil
    Cassini Nazir
    Clinical Associate Professor
    The University of Texas at Dallas
    @cassininazir
    Dallas
    Like Antaeus, what things help keep you grounded?

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