A set of slides created as part of the Creative Commons Certificate Course for Educators in Summer 2018. These slides are licensed CC BY 4.0
See here for the slides in Power Point format that you can download and reuse: https://osf.io/qnupa/
A brief overview of
What is copyright?
Allows the holder exclusive rights to:
• Copy, translate, adapt, perform/communicate works
What can be copyrighted?
No: facts or ideas Yes: Expressions
What are trademarks, patents?
Also part of IP law, but different from copyright
Prevent uses of words,
symbols, designs by those
other than the holder, to
avoid confusion over the
source of goods or services.
Protect new inventions for
limited time (e.g., 20 years):
prevent others from making,
using, or selling the
See, e.g., Gov’t of Canada on intellectual assets
Who holds copyright?
Not always the original creator! They may need to
give up (some of) their rights to publishers or
Encourage creation & spread of original knowledge &
works, through quid pro quo (something for something)
create & share;
integrity of works
of access to works,
often with a fee
and requirement to
attribute & avoid
See Copyright tells the story of his life, and CC Certificate resources unit 2
Why and who
If the creator doesn’t hold copyright rights but has given
them to publishers/producers, does this complicate
“While many books for example have . . . authors’
names on them, in some cases the authors have
signed away their lifelong right to benefit from the
sale of their work. As a consumer that wants to
support good art, I have no idea what has
transpired behind the scenes, and whether or not
my purchase will matter to the creator very much.
It’s not a very transparent system.”
– Jenni Hayman, discussion board for CC Certificate Course for
Educators, July 2018
When does copyright start?
Automatic: as soon as a work is fixed in a tangible
medium (including digital)—no registration required.
See the Berne Convention and Innovation, Science, & Economic Dev. Canada
When does copyright end?
Varies by country . . .
Berne Convention: Life of creator plus 50 years
• Same in Canada
Some countries: Life plus 70 or more
When not: public domain
• Copyright has expired
• Work not copyrightable
○ E.g., in the U.S., works by the U.S.
• Work dedicated to public domain
○ E.g., CC0 public domain declaration
• Work not properly registered (rarely
When not: exceptions &
Uses of works that are allowed under copyright law
without permission, e.g.,
• Criticism, parody, satire, education
• Fair use or fair dealing (can include
○ E.g., UBC Copyright office on fair
dealing in Canada
Creative Commons licenses
Not an exception to copyright; these work within
• By applying a CC license, the copyright holder
grants others permissions to use the work under
terms designated by the license.
Except where otherwise noted (see next slide), these
slides are licensed CC BY 4.0, by Christina Hendricks
Special thanks to all the people who made and shared these
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Project, and thus are not part of the CC BY license applied to
these slides generally.
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