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Release of new varieties

Release of new varieties

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Deependra Dhakal

November 07, 2020
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  1. Release of new varieties Deependra Dhakal 2019/04/15 (updated: 2020-10-11)

  2. Introduction

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  4. Definition of variety (Seed act, 2045) 'Variety' means a plant

    grouping within a single botanical taxon of the lowest known rank, which can be defined by the expression of the characteristics resulting from a given genotype of that plant grouping, distinguished from any other plant grouping by expression of at least one of the said characteristics and considered as a unit with regard to its suitability for being propagated, which remains unchanged after such propagation. 4 / 18
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  6. Formal characters defining variety: DUS test Laboratory of field based

    tests determine whether or not the rights are granted. To be granted PBR, new variety must be: novel -- new to the market, i.e., not available commercially usually before the date of application for DUS tests; distinct -- have a unique identity; uniform -- must be sufficiently uniform within the limits achievable of the species breeding system, e.g., self-pollinating or partially out-pollinating or obligate out-pollinating etc., from which the new variety was derived; and stable -- capable of reproducing its uniqueness and uniformity over successive generations. 6 / 18
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  8. Usually for 2 successive growing seasons. The UPOV guidelines specify

    which characters should be recorded, at what growth stage records should be taken, the states of expression of individual characters, and example varieties that illustrate specific states of expression For SP cereals, once practical homozygosity is reached, variety enters into DUS tests and performance trials. What percent of applications should then meet uniformity criteria ? Distinctness is measured by recording morphological characters on 1-9 scale. One being the weakest state of expression. For example anthocyanin color of the leaf margins in corn. Distinctness may show discrete expression too. Presence of hairs on rachilla of barley. A consistent difference of at least 1 scale point in morphological characters from the most similar variety is usually enough to confer distinctness. 8 / 18
  9. Varietal descriptors for cereals and grains Seasonal type; Spring, winter,

    summer Early growth characters; Prostrate, erect, hairs on lower leaf sheath, coleoptile anthocyanin. Leaf characteristics; Color, size, leaf attitude, auricles Ear emergence Plant height Glaucosity Anthocyanin pigmentation Morphology of ear Morphology of grain Others: shape of the lodicules, color of aleurone layer, color of grain, shape of germ area and embryo, physiological reaction to phenol immersion, etc. 9 / 18
  10. Variety notification

  11. Cultivars (varieties and landraces) to be included in the national

    list (i.e. released and registered genotypes) need to pass through some rules and regulations (SQCC 2014). Cultivars published in the Nepal Gazette are the National list of cultivars and referred as notified. Nepal seed board is delegated the authority to formulate and implement policies relating to the seeds and to give necessary advice to Government of Nepal on the matters pertaining to the seeds. Amongst other duties, the board is also assigned to approve, release and register the seeds of new variety as prescribed1. The board is comprised of 11 person members including Secretary of Ministry of Agriculture acting as chairperson. It tests the specialty, uniformity and permanency of the seeds of new variety and grant the right of ownership to the breeder as prescribed. GoN regulates and controls the quality standards for any type or variety of the seeds to, in consultation with the board, prescribe such type or variety as the notified, by publishing a notification in the Nepal Gazette. The prescription may be differently made for different regions. 1 Seed act, 2045 11 / 18
  12. Variety registration Submission of application by the authorized institution/individual/company for

    release or registration in the prescribed format to NSB/SQCC; Review and evaluation of the proposal by the Technical Subcommittee; Provision of feedback on the proposal, and, if needed, defense by the applicant and/or updating the proposal; Review and evaluation of the updated proposal by members of the Variety Approval, Release and Registration Sub-committee (VARRS) and comments for improvement/clarification by the applicant, if required; Presentation of the proposal at the VARRS meeting and responses to the queries or defense of the proposal, if needed; Approval or rejection of the proposal by NSB on the basis of the recommendations of VARRS; and If the variety/hybrid has been approved for registration, its notification in the gazette by the MoAD 12 / 18
  13. Information required to be reported for variety release and registration

    Status Importance Names (Common,botanical,proposed, symbolic) Pedigree (Parents) Country of origin Source of material (Name of institution, farmer/farming community), experiment and the year in which it was first introduced, etc.) Trial (Years, supervision by) Details of where, when and which seasons were following trials conducted: Varietal trial Disease damage scoring Insect damage scoring Fertilizer trial Agronomic trial CVT FFT/FAT Others 13 / 18
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  15. Performance data on phenology and growth for each year of

    experiment Days to maturity, plant height, branches/plant (tiller/hill), effective tillers/sqm, lodging, (cobs/pods/siliqua)/plant, (panicles/spikes)/(hill/sqm), filled pods/plant or effective panicles/sqm, grain yield, 1000 seed weight, straw yield, HI. Combined analysis of major agronomic traits (Yield, days to maturity, plant height) Summary of agronomic traits (Comparison with varieties with Checks) Soil test report and fertilizer application details Disease and insect score data Farmer field trial (major agronomical traits and yield), participatory trial data, information on stakeholders' preference On station v/s on farm data comparison Cost-benefit analysis DUS of the variety 2 Stability analysis Recommendation domain (Agroecology, soil moisture, growing season, cropping pattern, special package of practice (if any)) 2 http://sqcc.gov.np/images/category/Model_for_Varietal_DUS1.xlsx 15 / 18
  16. Contrasting existing system and suggested reforms for variety release3 10.1314

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  18. Participatory variety selection It is an approach to provide choices

    of varieties to the farmers for increasing production in their diversity of socioeconomic and agro- ecological condition. It is also a selection process of testing released or promising genotypes in farmer's field. Includes research and extension methods to deploy genetic materials beginning with on-farm experiment. Importance of PVS: 1. Provide an opportunity to the farmers a large number of varietal choices on their own resources. 2. Enhance farmer's access to crop varieties and increase in diversity. 3. Increase production and ensure food security. 4. Help to disseminate the adoption of pre and released varieties in larger areas. 5. Allow to varietal selection in targeted areas at cost-effectiveness and also in less time. 6. Help seed production at community based seed. Stages in a PVS: 1. Situation analysis and identification of farmers' needs 2. Search for suitable varieties 3. On-farm experimentation by farmers (Mother-Baby trials, Farmers' field trials) 4. Farmers' evaluation of variety/ Field day/ Farm walk 18 / 18