Identifying Potential Sources of Data and Metaphors for Learning Analytics and Dashboards

Identifying Potential Sources of Data and Metaphors for Learning Analytics and Dashboards

Retention and the measurement of student engagement are long standing problems within HE (Jones, 2008). A number of studies have investigated how students at risk of failing or withdrawing from University courses can be identified (e.g. Rugg et al.) but the issue still remains, and looks set to be a key concern with the rapid development of MOOCs within HE worldwide (Yuan and Powel, 2013). One area of research in this field that is receiving increased interest is the use of implicit data collection and analysis, commonly known as Learning Analytics (LA).

LA has been defined as a method for “deciphering trends and patterns from educational big data … to further the advancement of a personalized, supportive system of higher education." (Johnson et al., 2013). Traditionally a student’s progress and level of engagement has been measured by assessment. However, in a student’s day-to-day interactions with a University, other real-time measures are being generated that are currently not being fully utilised e.g. attendance, VLE server log data, library usage data, Web 2.0/social media usage.

Increasingly, student data is being aggregated and presented to tutors in the form of a Dashboard e.g. the University of Southampton’s “Student Dashboard” (JISC, 2011) but a further problem is that the representations being used are often based upon the ability of the developer to extract information from disparate sources and not on the types of data and interpretive needs of the user, usually falling far short of their potential (Few, 2006).

Making information available and transparent to tutors is only the first step however. Presenting student data back to students, using student centric formats and metaphors could tackle students’ inability to access a composite, over arching view of their current learning activity which can impact on a student’s ability to develop creative divergent thinking skills (Rugg and Gerrard, 2009). A related issue that is frequently reported is students’ inability to link skills that they are being taught on different courses together and how that impacts on both their employability and financial outlook.

This workshop therefore intends to explore the potential sources of data that represent a student’s level of engagement and progress from both an academic and employers’ perspective and to then identify potential ways of aggregating and representing that data in the form of dashboards.

(Cartoon on slide 2 from http://www.all4ed.org/files/DF_01_1.jpg)

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Ed de Quincey

July 02, 2013
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Transcript

  1. 1.

    LEARNING ANALYTICS & DASHBOARDS IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL SOURCES OF DATA AND

    METAPHORS Dr Ed de Quincey & Dr Ray Stoneham, University of Greenwich
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    LOOKS SET TO BE A KEY CONCERN WITH THE RAPID

    DEVELOPMENT OF MOOCS WITHIN HE WORLDWIDE
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    Learning Analytics has been de ned as a method for

    “deciphering trends and patterns from educational big data … to further the advancement of a personalized, supportive system of higher education.” (Johnson et al., 2013) Co-authorship network map of physicians publishing on hepatitis C (detail) Source: http://www. ickr.com/photos/speedo ife/8274993170/
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    Outline of the Workshop 1.  Presentation of an ongoing study

    within the School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences which has analysed the attendance and Intranet usage of students and compared it to achievement levels. 2.  Discussion and identi cation of other potential sources of data that represent student engagement levels from an academic and employer perspective. If time… 3.  Discussion and identi cation of suitable metaphors and interfaces that represent student engagement levels from an academic and student perspective using a User Centered Design (UCD) methodology. 4.  Discussion of how LA can be used to reinforce graduate skills and digital literacies for enhancing employability.
  7. 15.

    Outline of the Workshop 1.  Presentation of an ongoing study

    within the School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences which has analysed the attendance and Intranet usage of students and compared it to achievement levels. 2.  Discussion and identi cation of other potential sources of data that represent student engagement levels from an academic and employer perspective. If time… 3.  Discussion and identi cation of suitable metaphors and interfaces that represent student engagement levels from an academic and student perspective using a User Centered Design (UCD) methodology. 4.  Discussion of how LA can be used to reinforce graduate skills and digital literacies for enhancing employability.
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    We have collected the usage data of 3,576 students across

    the School (UG and PG) since September 2011. During this time there have been 7,899,231 interactions with the student intranet.
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    We also have stored in our systems, detailed attendance data,

    programme and course information and coursework marks.
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    PERIOD UNDER STUDY: September 1st 2012 to May 29th 2013

    2,544,374 interactions with 65 different le types from 2,634 students. 2,131,278 18,974 157,607 128,676 6,368 66,129 1,851 19,561
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    COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming 1st Year Course with

    53 students Correlation between Average Mark and Attendance % = 0.638 0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   A"endance  %   Average  Mark  
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    COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming 1st Year Course with

    53 students Correlation between Average Mark and Intranet Activity = 0.601 0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500   0   10   20   30   40   50   60   70   80   90   100   Number  of  interac7ons  with  Intranet   Average  Mark  
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    COMP1314: Digital Media, Computing and Programming 1st Year Course with

    53 students Correlation Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.601614385 Overall  a@endance/Average  mark 0.637771689 Intranet  interac4ons/Overall  a@endance 0.438059389 COMP1314  Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.627753051 Lecture/tutorial  slide  views/Average  mark 0.480171638 Lecture  slide/tutorial  views/Overall  a@endance 0.45670929 Coursework  specifica4on  views/Average  mark 0.229025047
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    COMP1640: Enterprise Web Software Development 3rd Year Course with 109

    students Correlation Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.168484881 Overall  a@endance/Average  mark 0.418583626 Intranet  interac4ons/Overall  a@endance 0.234846724 COMP1640  Intranet  interac4ons/Average  mark 0.188256752 Lecture/tutorial  slide  views/Average  mark -0.067577432 Lecture  slide/tutorial  views/Overall  a@endance 0.183237816 Coursework  specifica4on  views/Average  mark 0.378425564
  17. 25.

    Outline of the Workshop 1.  Presentation of an ongoing study

    within the School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences which has analysed the attendance and Intranet usage of students and compared it to achievement levels. 2.  Discussion and identi cation of other potential sources of data that represent student engagement levels from an academic and employer perspective. If time… 3.  Discussion and identi cation of suitable metaphors and interfaces that represent student engagement levels from an academic and student perspective using a User Centered Design (UCD) methodology. 4.  Discussion of how LA can be used to reinforce graduate skills and digital literacies for enhancing employability.
  18. 26.

    What Is a Persona? A persona represents a cluster of

    users who exhibit similar behavioral patterns in their purchasing decisions, use of technology or products, customer service preferences, lifestyle choices, and the like. Behaviors, attitudes, and motivations are common to a "type" regardless of age, gender, education, and other typical demographics. In fact, personas vastly span demographics. (O’Connor, 2011) http://uxmag.com/articles/personas-the-foundation-of-a-great-user-experience
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    USDA Senior Manager Gatekeepers Matthew Johnson Program Staff Director, USDA

    Matthew is 51-year-old married father of three children and one grandchild. He has a Ph.D. in Agricultural Economics who spends his work time requesting and reviewing research reports, preparing memos and briefs for agency heads, and supervising staff efforts in food safety and inspection. He is focused, goal-oriented within a strong leadership role. One of his concerns is maintaining quality across all output of programs. He is comfortable using a computer and refers to himself as an intermediate Internet user. He is connected via a T1 connection at work and dial-up at home. He uses email extensively and uses the web about 1.5 hours during his work day. He is most likely heard saying: “Can you get me that staff analysis by Tuesday?” http://www.usability.gov/methods/analyze_current/personas.html
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    Average Mark Attendance % Total Intranet Interactions Intranet Files Downloaded

    COMP1314 Intranet Interactions COMP1314 Lecture/Tutorial Views COMP1314 CW Speci cation Views 86   75   5.3  per  day   1,439   213   278   103   8   Average “First” Student on COMP1314 Average Mark Attendance % Total Intranet Interactions Intranet Files Downloaded COMP1314 Intranet Interactions COMP1314 Lecture/Tutorial Views COMP1314 CW Speci cation Views 21   40   2.6  per  day   696   121   118   52   5   Average “Failing” Student on COMP1314 from September 1st, 2012 to May 29th, 2013
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    “First” Students vs “Failing” Students COMP1314 Average Intranet Interactions  

    0   10   20   30   40   50   60   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec   Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Average  Number  of  Intranet  Interac7ons   First  Logs   Fail  Logs