Einstein's annus mirabilis

2a1046385e6cf8e4d07d590f9821ece5?s=47 federica
February 15, 2012

Einstein's annus mirabilis

a class i guest taught at SFU in 2012 on einstein's 5 papers from 1905

2a1046385e6cf8e4d07d590f9821ece5?s=128

federica

February 15, 2012
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Transcript

  1. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year 1905: Einstein’s annus mirabilis Tuesday, January

    6, 15
  2. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year 1905: Einstein’s annus mirabilis five papers

    that changed physics and the way we see the world Tuesday, January 6, 15
  3. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • Historical context: Einstein’s life Physics

    in the early 1900s • The kinetic theory of gas Why statistical? Boltzmann’s theory • The statistical papers ...Paper I ...Paper II ...Papaer III • Brief mention to Paper IV and Paper V Tuesday, January 6, 15
  4. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year focus on the significance understand the

    method Tuesday, January 6, 15
  5. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Historical context: Einstein’s life Tuesday, January

    6, 15
  6. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1950 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  7. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1946 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  8. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1940 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  9. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1940 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  10. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1934 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  11. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1932 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  12. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1930 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  13. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1921 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  14. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1920 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  15. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1916 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  16. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1912 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  17. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1911 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  18. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1905 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  19. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year circa 1900 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  20. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  21. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Albert Einstein studied at ETH Zurich till 1900 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  22. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Albert Einstein studied at ETH Zurich till 1900 In the intermediate exam he scored the highest. His proficiency diminished afterwords, and his relationship with his advisor Weber deteriorated. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  23. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Albert Einstein studied at ETH Zurich till 1900 In the intermediate exam he scored the highest. His proficiency diminished afterwords, and his relationship with his advisor Weber deteriorated. He had written his first paper in 1900 and sent it to Boltzmann and Ostwald... no response. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  24. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Albert Einstein studied at ETH Zurich till 1900 In the intermediate exam he scored the highest. His proficiency diminished afterwords, and his relationship with his advisor Weber deteriorated. He had written his first paper in 1900 and sent it to Boltzmann and Ostwald... no response. No jobs either. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  25. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Albert Einstein studied at ETH Zurich till 1900 In the intermediate exam he scored the highest. His proficiency diminished afterwords, and his relationship with his advisor Weber deteriorated. He had written his first paper in 1900 and sent it to Boltzmann and Ostwald... no response. No jobs either. He submitted a dissertation in 1901, which he withdrew. By 1903 he had given up on the doctorate: “The whole comedy has become tiresome for me” (letter to his friend Michele Besso) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  26. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich

    (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich) Albert Einstein studied at ETH Zurich till 1900 In the intermediate exam he scored the highest. His proficiency diminished afterwords, and his relationship with his advisor Weber deteriorated. He had written his first paper in 1900 and sent it to Boltzmann and Ostwald... no response. No jobs either. He submitted a dissertation in 1901, which he withdrew. By 1903 he had given up on the doctorate: “The whole comedy has become tiresome for me” (letter to his friend Michele Besso) Still he published 5 papers in 1901-1904 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  27. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Tuesday, January 6, 15

  28. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office Tuesday, January 6, 15
  29. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office In 1903 his position becomes permanent Tuesday, January 6, 15
  30. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office In 1903 his position becomes permanent In 1903 Einstein marries (for the first time) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  31. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office In 1903 his position becomes permanent In 1903 Einstein marries (for the first time) In 1904 his first son Hans Albert was born. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  32. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office In 1903 his position becomes permanent In 1903 Einstein marries (for the first time) In 1904 his first son Hans Albert was born. what does a patent examiner do?? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  33. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office In 1903 his position becomes permanent In 1903 Einstein marries (for the first time) In 1904 his first son Hans Albert was born. what does a patent examiner do?? he evaluated patent applications for electromagnetic devices Tuesday, January 6, 15
  34. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note In 1902 he finds

    a temporary job at the Swiss patent office In 1903 his position becomes permanent In 1903 Einstein marries (for the first time) In 1904 his first son Hans Albert was born. what does a patent examiner do?? he evaluated patent applications for electromagnetic devices and in the case of Einstein that leaves a lot os spare time to study and for research... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  35. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note truly 5 papers... and

    21 “reviews” In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers “Physics was divided into separate fields, each of which was capable of devouring a short lifetime of work without having satisfied the hunger for deeper knowledge. [...] In this field, however, I soon learned to scent out that which might lead to fundamentals, and to turn aside from everything else, from the multitude of things that cluttered up the mind and divert it from the essential.” Autobiographical notes, 1947 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  36. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note truly 5 papers... and

    21 “reviews” In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers “Physics was divided into separate fields, each of which was capable of devouring a short lifetime of work without having satisfied the hunger for deeper knowledge. [...] In this field, however, I soon learned to scent out that which might lead to fundamentals, and to turn aside from everything else, from the multitude of things that cluttered up the mind and divert it from the essential.” Autobiographical notes, 1947 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  37. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note truly 5 papers... and

    21 “reviews” In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers “Physics was divided into separate fields, each of which was capable of devouring a short lifetime of work without having satisfied the hunger for deeper knowledge. [...] In this field, however, I soon learned to scent out that which might lead to fundamentals, and to turn aside from everything else, from the multitude of things that cluttered up the mind and divert it from the essential.” Autobiographical notes, 1947 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  38. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Historical context: physics in

    the early 1900s Tuesday, January 6, 15
  39. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note The physics debate, early

    1900s Tuesday, January 6, 15
  40. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note •Boltzmann, Dalton, Ostwald and

    the atomic debate The physics debate, early 1900s Tuesday, January 6, 15
  41. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Democritus, 460-370 BC Five

    Mahavratas of Jain ascetics ~600BC a-tomos: greak, un-cuttable the debate over the existence of the atom Tuesday, January 6, 15
  42. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Dalton, 1766-1844 formalized in

    1800 by Dalton elements react in fixed ratios! the debate over the existence of the atom some hydrogen + some oxygen = water Tuesday, January 6, 15
  43. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Dalton, 1766-1844 formalized in

    1800 by Dalton elements react in fixed ratios! the debate over the existence of the atom some hydrogen + some oxygen = water if I double the hydrogen I MUST double the oxygen to obtain water! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  44. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Dalton, 1766-1844 formalized in

    1800 by Dalton elements react in fixed ratios! the debate over the existence of the atom Mendeleev, 1869: periodic table ATOMIC WEIGHT Tuesday, January 6, 15
  45. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Dalton, 1766-1844 formalized in

    1800 by Dalton elements react in fixed ratios! the debate over the existence of the atom Mendeleev, 1869: periodic table ATOMIC WEIGHT Tuesday, January 6, 15
  46. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note the debate over the

    existence of the atom atoms and molecules were not visible in 1905... (molecules not until 2009! ... can you guess why?) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  47. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Ostwald, 1853-1932 Nobel prize

    for chemistry, 1909 Ostwald: I can derive thermodynamic laws without atoms. Atoms are useful to describe chemical interactions but they are only a mathematical tool Boltzmann: atoms are real and their properties, particularly their constant motion, govern the behavior of gasses Boltzmann, 1844-1906 VS the debate over the existence of the atom Tuesday, January 6, 15
  48. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note •Boltzmann, Dalton, Ostwald and

    the atomic debate •Maxwell, Lorentz, fields and electromagnetic waves The physics debate, early 1900s Tuesday, January 6, 15
  49. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Newton, 1666: bodies exert

    forces at a distance on each other Maxwell, 1861: particles generate a field, which interacts with other particle’s fields F -F Lorentz-Maxwell’s electormagnetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  50. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note Newton, 1666: bodies exert

    forces at a distance on each other Maxwell, 1861: particles generate a field, which interacts with other particle’s fields F -F Lorentz-Maxwell’s electormagnetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  51. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note •Boltzmann, Dalton, Ostwald and

    the atomic debate •Maxwell, Lorentz, fields and electromagnetic waves •epistemology: what is a scientific theory? The physics debate, early 1900s Tuesday, January 6, 15
  52. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note The epistemological debate of

    the 1900s! a theory has to be falsifiable POSITIVISM: A theory has to be provable “No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.” Tuesday, January 6, 15
  53. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note structure: The epistemological debate

    of the 1900s! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  54. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note •consider someone else’s theory

    (Boltzmann, Plank), best if hot... and maybe controversial structure: The epistemological debate of the 1900s! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  55. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note •consider someone else’s theory

    (Boltzmann, Plank), best if hot... and maybe controversial •find an observed phenomenon which can only be explained within that theory, or that predicts quantities consistently with that theory, but from simple concepts, as simple and as uncontroversial as possible structure: The epistemological debate of the 1900s! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  56. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year historical note •consider someone else’s theory

    (Boltzmann, Plank), best if hot... and maybe controversial •find an observed phenomenon which can only be explained within that theory, or that predicts quantities consistently with that theory, but from simple concepts, as simple and as uncontroversial as possible •prediction: propose an experiment to observe this behavior structure: The epistemological debate of the 1900s! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  57. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year The molecular-kinetic theory of gas Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  58. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers

    Tuesday, January 6, 15
  59. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  60. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  61. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  62. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect • electrodynamics of moving bodies In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  63. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect • electrodynamics of moving bodies • equivalence of mass and energy In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  64. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect • electrodynamics of moving bodies • equivalence of mass and energy In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  65. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect • electrodynamics of moving bodies • equivalence of mass and energy “statistical” In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  66. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect • electrodynamics of moving bodies • equivalence of mass and energy “statistical” In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  67. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect • electrodynamics of moving bodies • equivalence of mass and energy “statistical” special relativity In 1905 Einstein publishes 5 papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  68. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • electrodynamics of moving bodies •

    equivalence of mass and energy 1905: einstein’s miraculous year special relativity Tuesday, January 6, 15
  69. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • electrodynamics of moving bodies •

    equivalence of mass and energy 1905: einstein’s miraculous year special relativity Tuesday, January 6, 15
  70. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • electrodynamics of moving bodies •

    equivalence of mass and energy PARADIGM SHIFT! forever changed our perception of the world, with profound implications for cosmology and our understanding of the Universe, for philosophy... and GPS technology 1905: einstein’s miraculous year special relativity Tuesday, January 6, 15
  71. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect “statistical” Tuesday, January 6, 15
  72. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year • measuring of the size of

    molecules • Brownian motion • photoelectric effect “statistical” full acceptance of molecular and atomic theories foundation for quantum theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  73. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year focus on the significance! understand the

    method! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  74. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year focus on the significance! understand the

    method! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  75. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  76. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water Tuesday, January 6, 15
  77. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  78. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) a mole of water weights 18 g Tuesday, January 6, 15
  79. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) 224 / 18 x 6.02 x 1023 = 7.5 x 1024 molecules in glass of water a mole of water weights 18 g Tuesday, January 6, 15
  80. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) 224 / 18 x 6.02 x 1023 = 7.5 x 1024 molecules in glass of water a mole of water weights 18 g a septillion molecule, a trillion trillion molecules, as many molecules as... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  81. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers what does a

    septillion look like? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  82. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers what does a

    septillion look like? there are 7 million billion ants in the world. there are a billion times as many molecules in a glass of water Tuesday, January 6, 15
  83. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers what does a

    septillion look like? how many stars in our galaxy? there are 7 million billion ants in the world. there are a billion times as many molecules in a glass of water Tuesday, January 6, 15
  84. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers what does a

    septillion look like? how many stars in our galaxy? 1011 stars in our galaxy, there are 100 galaxies of galaxies of molecules in a glass of water there are 7 million billion ants in the world. there are a billion times as many molecules in a glass of water Tuesday, January 6, 15
  85. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers what does a

    septillion look like? how many stars in our galaxy? 1011 stars in our galaxy, there are 100 galaxies of galaxies of molecules in a glass of water there are 7 million billion ants in the world. there are a billion times as many molecules in a glass of water the US national debt is currently ~ $15,363,624,256,030.68 this is only 1.5x1013 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  86. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) 224 / 18 x 6.02 x 1023 = 7.5 x 1024 molecules in glass of water a mole of water weights 18 g a septillion molecule, a trillion trillion molecules, as many molecules as... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  87. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) 224 / 18 x 6.02 x 1023 = 7.5 x 1024 molecules in glass of water a mole of water weights 18 g a septillion molecule, a trillion trillion molecules, as many molecules as... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  88. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Why statistical papers?

    consider a glass of water. say 8oz. how many molecules of water do you think we are talking about? 8oz ~ 224 g of water a mole is by definition 6.02 x 1023 molecules (try to remember this: it will be useful later!) 224 / 18 x 6.02 x 1023 = 7.5 x 1024 molecules in glass of water a mole of water weights 18 g a septillion molecule, a trillion trillion molecules, as many molecules as... Avogadro’s number: N Tuesday, January 6, 15
  89. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers We like to

    describe the world in terms of forces, but what if we are not dealing with a solid body, but a gas or liquid?? Why statistical papers? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  90. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers We like to

    describe the world in terms of forces, but what if we are not dealing with a solid body, but a gas or liquid?? Why statistical papers? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  91. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Boltzmann, 1844-1906 Maxwell,

    1831-1879 The kinetic theory of gases : a gas is a collection of small particles (atoms or molecules), in constant, random motion. Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory The statistical motion of molecules govern the thermodynamic properties of gasses and liquids Tuesday, January 6, 15
  92. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Boltzmann, 1844-1906 Maxwell,

    1831-1879 The kinetic theory of gases : a gas is a collection of small particles (atoms or molecules), in constant, random motion. Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory The statistical motion of molecules govern the thermodynamic properties of gasses and liquids Tuesday, January 6, 15
  93. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Boltzmann, 1844-1906 Maxwell,

    1831-1879 The kinetic theory of gases : a gas is a collection of small particles (atoms or molecules), in constant, random motion. Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory The statistical motion of molecules govern the thermodynamic properties of gasses and liquids instead of considering each particle, let’s consider their average behavior (probability of being somewhere) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  94. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Boltzmann, 1844-1906 Maxwell,

    1831-1879 The kinetic theory of gases : a gas is a collection of small particles (atoms or molecules), in constant, random motion. Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory The statistical motion of molecules govern the thermodynamic properties of gasses and liquids instead of considering each particle, let’s consider their average behavior (probability of being somewhere) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  95. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Boltzmann, 1844-1906 Maxwell,

    1831-1879 The kinetic theory of gases : a gas is a collection of small particles (atoms or molecules), in constant, random motion. Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory The statistical motion of molecules govern the thermodynamic properties of gasses and liquids P, T, ρ, V instead of considering each particle, let’s consider their average behavior (probability of being somewhere) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  96. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Boltzmann, 1844-1906 Maxwell,

    1831-1879 The kinetic theory of gases : a gas is a collection of small particles (atoms or molecules), in constant, random motion. Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory microscopic properties macroscopic predictions The statistical motion of molecules govern the thermodynamic properties of gasses and liquids P, T, ρ, V instead of considering each particle, let’s consider their average behavior (probability of being somewhere) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  97. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers WARNING: technical slide!

    the probability of a state with energy E is proportional to an exponential factor p(E) ~ e(-E/kT) Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  98. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers WARNING: technical slide!

    the probability of a state with energy E is proportional to an exponential factor p(E) ~ e(-E/kT) Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  99. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers WARNING: technical slide!

    the probability of a state with energy E is proportional to an exponential factor p(E) ~ e(-E/kT) Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  100. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers WARNING: technical slide!

    the probability of a state with energy E is proportional to an exponential factor p(E) ~ e(-E/kT) E=mgh Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  101. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers WARNING: technical slide!

    the probability of a state with energy E is proportional to an exponential factor p(E) ~ e(-E/kT) E=mgh p is larger where E is smaller Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  102. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers WARNING: technical slide!

    the probability of a state with energy E is proportional to an exponential factor p(E) ~ e(-E/kT) E=mgh p is larger where E is smaller (from this you could derive the ideal gas law PV=nkT) Boltzmann molecular kinetic theory Tuesday, January 6, 15
  103. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Ostwald, 1853-1932 Nobel

    prize for chemestry, 1909 Mach, 1836-1916 recall that not everyone believes atoms are real! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  104. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Ostwald, 1853-1932 Nobel

    prize for chemestry, 1909 Mach, 1836-1916 recall that not everyone believes atoms are real! What is all that statistics jibber-jabber?! I only trust Newtonian mechanics! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  105. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers Einstein’s “statistical” papers

    provide evidence in support of Boltzmann’s “statistical mechanics”, or the “molecular-kinetic theory of gas” Tuesday, January 6, 15
  106. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Einstein’s statistical papers Tuesday, January 6,

    15
  107. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Paper I and II Tuesday, January

    6, 15
  108. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  109. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) "A

    New Determination of Molecular Dimensions" Buchdruckerei K. J. Wyss, Bern, 1905. (30 April 1905) Also: Annalen der Physik, 19(1906), pp. 289-305. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  110. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  111. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) 1905

    letter to a close friend: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  112. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) 1905

    letter to a close friend: So what are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul... I promise you four papers... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  113. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) 1905

    letter to a close friend: So what are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul... I promise you four papers... 1) ... a determination of the true sizes of atoms from the diffusion and viscosity of dilute solutions of neutral substances. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  114. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) 1905

    letter to a close friend: So what are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul... I promise you four papers... 1) ... a determination of the true sizes of atoms from the diffusion and viscosity of dilute solutions of neutral substances. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  115. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) reminder:

    Avogadro’s number • a mole of carmon is 12 grams of carbon (12C) • a mole is N = 6.02 x 1023 molecules ... according to the kinetic theory of gas Tuesday, January 6, 15
  116. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) start

    with a simple concept: water flows... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  117. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) start

    with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it Tuesday, January 6, 15
  118. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) start

    with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν Tuesday, January 6, 15
  119. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) start

    with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  120. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  121. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  122. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  123. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) for a mole (=180 g) of sugar (= N molecules of sugar): start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  124. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) for a mole (=180 g) of sugar (= N molecules of sugar): start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Vs = ρ/m • (4π/3) • Rs 3 • N Tuesday, January 6, 15
  125. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) for a mole (=180 g) of sugar (= N molecules of sugar): start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Vs = ρ/m • (4π/3) • Rs 3 • N Tuesday, January 6, 15
  126. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) for a mole (=180 g) of sugar (= N molecules of sugar): start with a simple concept: water flows... how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Vs = ρ/m • (4π/3) • N = 1 / Rs 3 x (measurable quantities) Rs 3 • N Tuesday, January 6, 15
  127. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) for a mole (=180 g) of sugar (= N molecules of sugar): start with a simple concept: water flows... ... 1 equation and 2 unknowns ... WE CANNOT SOLVE THIS :( how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: Vs = ρ/m • (4π/3) • N = 1 / Rs 3 x (measurable quantities) Rs 3 • N Tuesday, January 6, 15
  128. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) ν’

    > ν call Vs the fraction of total volume occupied by sugar ν’ = ν • (1+ Vs) (from geometry and Newtonian laws!) for a mole (=180 g) of sugar (= N molecules of sugar): start with a simple concept: water flows... ... 1 equation and 2 unknowns ... WE CANNOT SOLVE THIS :( how easily it flows depends on its viscosity let’s call it ν let’s put a sugar molecule in the water: essentially a sphere. the viscosity of the fluid changes because the molecules of sugar are obstructing the flow: 5/2 Vs = ρ/m • (4π/3) • N = 1 / Rs 3 x (measurable quantities) Rs 3 • N Tuesday, January 6, 15
  129. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  130. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) Einstein...

    got stuck! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  131. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion Tuesday, January 6, 15

  132. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion "On the motion of

    small particles suspended in liquids at rest required by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat." Annalen der Physik, 17(1905), pp. 549-560.(May 1905; received 11 May 1905) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  133. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion 1905 letter to a

    close friend: So what are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul... I promise you four papers... 1) ... a determination of the true sizes of atoms from the diffusion and viscosity of dilute solutions of neutral substances. 2) ... proves that, on the assumption of the molecular [kinetic] theory of heat, bodies of the order of magnitude of 1/1000 mm, suspended in liquids, must already perform an observable random movement that is produced by thermal motion; in fact, physiologists have observed motions of suspended small, inanimate, bodies, which they call "Brownian molecular motion." Tuesday, January 6, 15
  134. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion 1905 letter to a

    close friend: So what are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul... I promise you four papers... 1) ... a determination of the true sizes of atoms from the diffusion and viscosity of dilute solutions of neutral substances. 2) ... proves that, on the assumption of the molecular [kinetic] theory of heat, bodies of the order of magnitude of 1/1000 mm, suspended in liquids, must already perform an observable random movement that is produced by thermal motion; in fact, physiologists have observed motions of suspended small, inanimate, bodies, which they call "Brownian molecular motion." Tuesday, January 6, 15
  135. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion basic concept: significance: Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  136. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion basic concept: significance: If

    I can describe the observed Brownian motion from the basic assumptions of molecular kinetic theory + Newtonian mechanics, that is evidence that the molecular kinetic theory may be right. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  137. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion basic concept: significance: If

    I can describe the observed Brownian motion from the basic assumptions of molecular kinetic theory + Newtonian mechanics, that is evidence that the molecular kinetic theory may be right. This, and the measurement of molecules paper, put to rest the debate over the existence of atoms! Tuesday, January 6, 15
  138. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion start with a simple

    concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  139. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  140. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  141. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  142. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  143. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  144. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  145. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  146. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure credit: David Walker Discovered by Brown in 1827 watching pollen in solution..... start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  147. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure credit: David Walker Discovered by Brown in 1827 watching pollen in solution..... its alive!! start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  148. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure credit: David Walker Discovered by Brown in 1827 watching pollen in solution..... its alive!! start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  149. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure credit: David Walker Discovered by Brown in 1827 watching pollen in solution..... its alive!! It is the constant motion of the molecules of water that hit the particles of pollen which causes them to move. start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  150. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure credit: David Walker Discovered by Brown in 1827 watching pollen in solution..... its alive!! It is the constant motion of the molecules of water that hit the particles of pollen which causes them to move. It cannot be explained without kinetic energy of the atoms! start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  151. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  152. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  153. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  154. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  155. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) N = 1 / Rp x (measurable quantities) credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  156. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) N = 1 / Rp x (measurable quantities) N: molecules in 1 mole of substance: 6.02x1023 (he actually got 2.1x1023 ... but close enough!) credit: David Walker start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  157. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) N = 1 / Rp x (measurable quantities) N: molecules in 1 mole of substance: 6.02x1023 (he actually got 2.1x1023 ... but close enough!) credit: David Walker Einstein can PREDICT the diffusion time from the size of a molecule assuming N start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  158. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brownian motion that is why your

    entire cup of tea is sweet diffusion is the motion of molecules under the thermal energy this thermal motion generates the osmotic pressure measure the diffusion velocity, which depends on the radius of the pollen Rp, (or of the sugar molecule Rs in his dissertation) (Kirchhoff, Lecture 26) all these are mechanical forces and measurable quantities D= cT/(6 πk) • 1/(N Rp) N = 1 / Rp x (measurable quantities) N: molecules in 1 mole of substance: 6.02x1023 (he actually got 2.1x1023 ... but close enough!) credit: David Walker Einstein can PREDICT the diffusion time from the size of a molecule assuming N Einstein can PREDICT N from the size and observed motion of a particle start with a simple concept: sugar diffuses in water... Tuesday, January 6, 15
  159. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) back

    to Einstein’s dissertation Tuesday, January 6, 15
  160. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) back

    to Einstein’s dissertation N = 1 / Rs 3 x (measurable quantities) N = 1 / Rs x (measurable quantities) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  161. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) back

    to Einstein’s dissertation N = 1 / Rs 3 x (measurable quantities) N = 1 / Rs x (measurable quantities) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  162. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) back

    to Einstein’s dissertation N = 1 / Rs 3 x (measurable quantities) N = 1 / Rs x (measurable quantities) Now Einstein can PREDICT N and the size of a molecule in a liquid suspension ... 2 equation and 2 unknowns ... WE CAN SOLVE THIS!! :) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  163. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) significance:

    Tuesday, January 6, 15
  164. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year size of molecules (einstein’s dissertation) significance:

    The kinetic theory of gas will acquire large acceptance (from Ostwald too!) around 1909, when the experiments that Einstein suggested became feasible. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  165. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Paper III Tuesday, January 6, 15

  166. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Tuesday, January 6, 15

  167. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect "On a heuristic viewpoint

    concerning the production and transformation of light" Annalen der Physik, 17(1905), pp. 132-148.(17 March 1905) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  168. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect • newton: light made

    of corpuscles Tuesday, January 6, 15
  169. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect • maxwell: light is

    a wave as such it has a frequency (wavelength) that describes it. it propagates into the ether arbitrarily small amounts of it are allowed... • newton: light made of corpuscles Tuesday, January 6, 15
  170. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect • maxwell: light is

    a wave as such it has a frequency (wavelength) that describes it. it propagates into the ether arbitrarily small amounts of it are allowed... • newton: light made of corpuscles Tuesday, January 6, 15
  171. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Planck, 1858-1947 Nobel prize

    for physics, 1909 Under certain circumstances (high frequency radiation), light behaves as if it was made of particles (or minimal amounts of energy -- quanta, which is to say like particles)... • plank: could light be a particle after all? • maxwell: light is a wave • newton: light made of corpuscles Tuesday, January 6, 15
  172. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Planck, 1858-1947 Nobel prize

    for physics, 1909 Under certain circumstances (high frequency radiation), light behaves as if it was made of particles (or minimal amounts of energy -- quanta, which is to say like particles)... but that surely is a mathematical abstraction! (does it remind you of anything???) • plank: could light be a particle after all? • maxwell: light is a wave • newton: light made of corpuscles Tuesday, January 6, 15
  173. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Einstein’s Nobel prize paper

    (1921) Tuesday, January 6, 15
  174. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Einstein’s Nobel prize paper

    (1921) in the 1905 letter to that one close friend: Tuesday, January 6, 15
  175. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Einstein’s Nobel prize paper

    (1921) in the 1905 letter to that one close friend: .. I will soon receive the free reprints. The paper deals with radiation and the energetic properties of light and is very revolutionary, as you will see . . Tuesday, January 6, 15
  176. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect basic concept: significance Tuesday,

    January 6, 15
  177. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect basic concept: significance If

    some details of the interaction between matter and light cannot be described by light as a wave, but can be predicted assuming light is a particle then like is likely to be made of particles. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  178. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect basic concept: significance If

    some details of the interaction between matter and light cannot be described by light as a wave, but can be predicted assuming light is a particle then like is likely to be made of particles. It is the first clear assertion of the existence of photons. Fundamental paradigm shift which lead to quantum mechanics. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  179. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms Tuesday, January 6, 15
  180. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms Tuesday, January 6, 15
  181. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms Tuesday, January 6, 15
  182. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms Tuesday, January 6, 15
  183. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms Hertz, 1887 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  184. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms If light is wave, I can always send MORE light and increase the energy imparted to the electron. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  185. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms If light is wave, I can always send MORE light and increase the energy imparted to the electron. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  186. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms If light is wave, I can always send MORE light and increase the energy imparted to the electron. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  187. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms If light is wave, I can always send MORE light and increase the energy imparted to the electron. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  188. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect material made of atoms

    Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms If light is wave, I can always send MORE light and increase the energy imparted to the electron. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  189. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect E = hν material

    made of atoms Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect We now know: matter is made of molecules and atoms If light is wave, I can always send MORE light and increase the energy imparted to the electron. But if low frequency light CANNOT extract electrons, light must be a particle. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  190. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Einstein’s study of photoelectric

    effect What about the diffraction, which proves that light is a wave? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  191. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect Einstein’s study of photoelectric

    effect What about the diffraction, which proves that light is a wave? the dual wave-particle nature of light Tuesday, January 6, 15
  192. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year photoelectric effect the wave is a

    snapshot of enormous amounts of particles at the same energy E= hν Einstein’s study of photoelectric effect What about the diffraction, which proves that light is a wave? the dual wave-particle nature of light Tuesday, January 6, 15
  193. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year Brief mention to Einstein’s special relativity

    papers Tuesday, January 6, 15
  194. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year relativity principle Tuesday, January 6, 15

  195. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year relativity principle "On the electrodynamics of

    moving bodies" Annalen der Physik, 17(1905), pp. 891-920. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  196. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year relativity principle basic concept: ...the fourth

    paper is only a rough draft at this point, and is an electrodynamics of moving bodies, which employs a modification of the theory of space and time. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  197. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year relativity principle basic concept: ...the fourth

    paper is only a rough draft at this point, and is an electrodynamics of moving bodies, which employs a modification of the theory of space and time. Everything is relative: length can change, time can last longer, simultaneous events are not necessarily simultaneous... the only thing that does not change is the speed of light. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  198. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year E=mc2 Tuesday, January 6, 15

  199. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year E=mc2 "Does the inertia of a

    body depend upon its energy content" Annalen der Physik, 18(1906), pp. 639-641. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  200. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year E=mc2 basic concept: ...One more consequence

    of the paper on electrodynamics has also occurred to me. The principle of relativity, in conjunction with Maxwell's equations, requires that mass be a direct measure of the energy contained in a body; light carries mass with it. [...] The argument is amusing and seductive; but for all I know, the Lord might be laughing over it and leading me around by the nose. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  201. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year E=mc2 basic concept: The mass of

    a body is a measure of its energy content. ...One more consequence of the paper on electrodynamics has also occurred to me. The principle of relativity, in conjunction with Maxwell's equations, requires that mass be a direct measure of the energy contained in a body; light carries mass with it. [...] The argument is amusing and seductive; but for all I know, the Lord might be laughing over it and leading me around by the nose. Tuesday, January 6, 15
  202. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year E=mc2 basic concept: The mass of

    a body is a measure of its energy content. ...One more consequence of the paper on electrodynamics has also occurred to me. The principle of relativity, in conjunction with Maxwell's equations, requires that mass be a direct measure of the energy contained in a body; light carries mass with it. [...] The argument is amusing and seductive; but for all I know, the Lord might be laughing over it and leading me around by the nose. E=mc2 Tuesday, January 6, 15
  203. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year References: •Einstein’s papers! •“Einstein’s Miraculous year”,

    John Stachel (Princeton, 2005) •"Einstein 1905: The Standard of Greatness" by John S. Rigden (Harvard, 2005) •Einstein for Everyone , John D. Norton, Einstein for Everyone (Nullarbor Press, 2007) •http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/Goodies/ Einstein_stat_1905/index.html Tuesday, January 6, 15
  204. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers TEASER Why could

    we image atoms before molecules? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  205. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers molecules are about

    10 times bigger... TEASER Why could we image atoms before molecules? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  206. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year einstein’s statistical papers molecules are about

    10 times bigger... but atoms are held together by much less strong bonds TEASER Why could we image atoms before molecules? Tuesday, January 6, 15
  207. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year second law of thermodynamics (or the

    arrow of time): p is larger where E is smaller but p is NEVER zero! in an isolated system entropy always grows, or: the system will ultimately find itself in the state of maximum microscopic disorder, and maximum macroscopic order (thermal equilibrium) TEASER Why didn’t Ostwald like Boltzmann statistical approach to thermodynamics Tuesday, January 6, 15
  208. 1905: einstein’s miraculous year second law of thermodynamics (or the

    arrow of time): p is larger where E is smaller but p is NEVER zero! in Boltzmann’s theory there is a tiny probability that that is not so in an isolated system entropy always grows, or: the system will ultimately find itself in the state of maximum microscopic disorder, and maximum macroscopic order (thermal equilibrium) TEASER Why didn’t Ostwald like Boltzmann statistical approach to thermodynamics Tuesday, January 6, 15