Upgrade to Pro — share decks privately, control downloads, hide ads and more …

Brewing German Beer Styles

Brewing German Beer Styles

A talk on brewing German beer styles, given by Graeme Coates at the June 2015 London Amateur Brewers meeting.

London Amateur Brewers

June 01, 2015
Tweet

More Decks by London Amateur Brewers

Other Decks in Education

Transcript

  1. Graeme Coates 1st June 2015 www.uncraft.co.uk BREWING GERMAN BEER STYLES

    Experiences from West Oxfordshire…
  2.  All personal experiences – research using commercial samples, style

    guidelines and printed/online resources.  Started brewing against BJCP style guidelines to improve/experience new techniques.  Many of these styles aren’t readily available locally to me!  I’m not a biologist! BACKGROUND
  3. German Lagers Weissbiers (Kölsch) COVERAGE

  4. None
  5. Quick polls: Do you like lager? Have you ever made

    lager? Define “lager”? LAGERS
  6.  Lager-bier – a beer brewed for keeping  Cold

    storage common in caves in medieval period.  Hybridization resulted in “lager” yeasts in C15th – original source thought to be from hybridization of wild Patagonian yeast and S. cerevisiae (Libkind et al., 2011) LAGERN – “TO STORE”
  7. LAGER YEAST "PBB Protein GLA image" by Original uploader was

    ProteinBoxBot at en.wikipedia - www.pdb.org - Transferred from en.wikipedia. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PBB_Protein_GLA_image.jpg#/media/File:PBB_Protei n_GLA_image.jpg
  8.  C. pastorianus/bayanus have ability to ferment Melibiose: LAGER YEAST

  9.  Better at fermenting maltotriose than “ale” yeasts: LAGER YEAST

  10. “Bottom” vs “Top” fermenting? Yeast ferments in the middle(!) Some

    ale yeasts top-crop and do not drop after ferment (and alternatively there is WLP002…) “Lager” strains will create significant krausen when used well! Generally (though not always) show higher attenuation than ales. CHARACTERISTICS
  11. None
  12.  Low temperature fermentation  Lower ester production (cell membrane

    differences)  Higher sulphide production  Sulphur based metabolic pathways:  DMSO -> DMS  SO2 production (reduces to H2 S)  Vigorous fermentation helps to flush sulphur compounds with CO2. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
  13.  Basic methods are the same as for “normal” ales.

     Some more advanced techniques include:  Stepped mashes  Decoction  Mash capping (for colour without harsh roast) MASHING
  14.  Most important aim is to get the mash pH

    correct, while controlling salts (esp SO4 2- vs Cl-)  Control mash pH by controlling alkalinity (buffering capability of water)  Common techniques:  Acid addition (CRS/AMS, Lactic Acid)  Acidulated malt (Sauermalz) WATER TREATMENT
  15.  Witney water quality (source: Thames Water, 2013):  Hardness

    ~ 250ppm as CaCO3  Alkalinity* ~220ppm as CaCO3  Sulphates ~ 85ppm  Chlorides ~35ppm *- Measured myself using Methyl Orange WATER PROFILE
  16.  I use either CRS/AMS or lactic acid.  CRS:

    1ml/l reduces alkalinity by ~180ppm  Lactic (80%): 1ml/l reduces alkalinity by ~520ppm  Add calcium in form of gypsum /CaCl2 – former promotes bitterness, latter malt flavour. (~1.5-2 tsp/5 Gallons) WATER TREATMENT
  17.  Target alkalinity depends on beer being made.  Lighter

    beer – 20-40ppm, darker – 60-100ppm.  Higher alkalinity than for say, Czech pilsners. WATER TREATMENT
  18.  “Sauermalz” (Acidulated/acid malt)  Used for water corrections under

    Reinheitsgebot (malt is allowed – acids are not!)  Simplify by using lactic acid directly… (non-RHG!) – lactic acid has taste threshold higher than should be required for correction. ACIDULATED MALT
  19.  Traditional mashes would have used decoction  Helps with

    under-modified malt  Malt generally doesn’t require this these days  Adds melanoidins from boiling malt ADVANCED MASH TECHNIQUES
  20.  Can use Melanoidin Malt in place…  Styles I

    have used decoction in:  Munich Dunkel  Trad Bock  Weissbier  Weizenbock  Combine with step mash for ease of use if needed… TO DECOCT, OR NOT TO DECOCT…
  21. SINGLE DECOCTION

  22. ENHANCED DOUBLE DECOCTION

  23.  Melanoidin like “Munich on Steroids”  Decent replacement where

    decoction not possible/practical  Subtly different (IMHO decoction better – boiling of husk benefits flavour over what melanoidin can offer). DECOCTION VS MELANOIDIN MALT?
  24.  Decoction was used to raise mash temps  Step

    mashing by adding boiling water/HERMS/RIMS avoids the difficulty of decocting  Allows for good control over proteins/saccarification STEP MASHING
  25. STEP MASHING Recommended for modern German malts. Source: Braukaiser

  26. HOCHKURZ MASH

  27.  50C-55C – Protein rest: lower = short chain amino

    acids, higher = medium chain (mouthfeel + head retention). Helps to improve clarity.  61-63C – Maltose Rest (beta-amylase) – controls fermentability  67-70C – Dextrinization Rest (alpha-amylase)  75C – Mash out (mouthfeel?) REST TEMPERATURES
  28. HOCHKURZ DOUBLE DECOCTION

  29. Use good quality malt! Weyermann:  Pils (several)  Vienna

     Munich I/II  Melanoidin  Rauchmalz (Beech/Oak)  Sauermalz Dingemans:  Pilsner MALT
  30.  Most malts are easy to mash and convert using

    standard infusion mashes.  For high percentages of Munich Malt (eg Dunkel), consider enzymic activity in mash.  TIP: Munich II doesn’t self-convert particularly well! (add ~15% Pils Malt, step mash). MALT CONSIDERATIONS
  31.  Vigorous boil of 90min recommended for DMS reduction 

    Cool as quickly as possible to stop formation of DMS from SMM  Consider pre-chilling cooling water when cooling BOILING
  32. Fermentation Fermentation And… Fermentation YEAST

  33.  Primary Growth (“Lag”) phase  Primarily centred around yeast

    growth  Healthy yeast passes through this phase quickly  Secondary fermentation phase  Production of EtOH, esters, aldehydes, ketones, etc, etc! FERMENTATION
  34.  8-12C is ideal during fermentation (lower for true German

    strains for cleaner results).  Warm maturation towards end of fermentation (diacetyl reabsorption, full attenuation)  Fermentation of up to 2 weeks typical (with few days cold crashing to drop yeast) FERMENTATION TEMPERATURES
  35.  General rule: Double rate cf. ale yeast when cold

    pitching  Cold pitching: ~8-14C.  Pitch rates: 1.5M/ml/°P  23L @ 1050 -> ~410 billion cells  Good pitches ensure:  Low ester/diacetyl/fusel production, proper attenuation.  Low yeast stress  Quick fermentation/short lag periods PITCHING RATES
  36.  White Labs tubes contain approx. 100 billion cells 

    Viability reduces over time!  Strongly recommend a large starter I use (on a stir plate): 1 tube in ~1L (starter at ~1040), then…. Step up to 2L, then… Decant and step up to 3-4L PITCHING RATES
  37.  Repitching yeast works well – subsequent fermentations much stronger

     Use calculators:  Mr Malty  Wyeast – good for stepping starters up  Other brewing software PITCHING RATES
  38.  Starters: aim to grow yeast  Fermentation: aim to

    produce good flavour!  I recommend crashing and decanting starters and pitching only the yeast  Try to pitch cold (lower ester/fusel production)  Aerate as well as you can – oxygen vital to yeast in primary phase of fermentation! YEAST PITCHING
  39. Dry:  W34/70 (“=” WLP830/Wy2124 (Weihenstephan))  S-23  Mauribrew

    497  S189 (“=”WLP885 (Samichlaus))  Others (Brewferm, Youngs, etc….) STRAIN CHOICE
  40. Liquid:  Many more strains to choose from.  Differences

    perhaps more subtle than ale yeasts, but results noticeable.  WLP830 (Weihenstephan) widely used in commercial brewing STRAIN CHOICE
  41.  WLP833 (Ayinger) Well balanced with excellent malt profile Great

    for Dunkel, Bock, Märzen, Helles Good sedimentation  WLP810 (Anchor) Works very well at cold temps Versatile – and can use for Cal Common Less sensitive to higher fermentation temps YEAST STRAINS
  42.  Remove as much yeast as possible before racking (crash

    cooling)  Kegging – rack straight over and place in cold for maturation  Bottling – prime and bottle, allow carbonation and then place in cold for maturation POST-FERMENTATION
  43.  IMHO, needs at least 2 months  Considerable changes

    in beer in that period  Cold, long lagering better than warmer, shorter periods  Have used up to 7 months at 2C with no problems. LAGERING PROCESS
  44.  Jean De Clerke(1957):  Allow yeast/turbid matter to settle

     Carbonation (artificial or yeast derived)  Improve flavour (mellowing and ester formation)  Precipitate chill haze  Avoid oxygen pickup LAGERING
  45. RECIPES

  46. 90.1% Weyermann Pils Malt 7.1% Weyermann Munich I 2.8% Weyermann

    Melanoidin Malt 60min: 1g/l Tettnang 2.3%AA, 1.87g/l Hallertau 4.9%AA Yeast: White Labs WLP833 OG: 1050 FG: 1010 IBU: 23 (calc. Tinseth) SCHNEEFLOCKE (MUNICH HELLES)
  47. Weyermann Munich II 77.0% Dingemans Pils Malt 17.9% Melanoidin malt

    2.6% Carafa Special II 2.5% 75min: Perle, 0.96g/l, 8.5%AA; H. Mittelfrüh, 1.1g/l, 4.4%AA Yeast: White Labs 833 OG: 1053 FG: 1012 IBU: 26 (calc. Tinseth) DMZ (MUNICH DUNKEL)
  48. Weyermann Munich II 57.2% Weyermann Vienna 20.5% Weyermann Bohemian Pils

    Malt 17.4% Weyermann Caramunich II 3.3% Melanoidin malt 0.8% Carafa Special II 0.8% 90min: Perle, 1.5g/l , 8.5%AA Yeast: White Labs 833 OG: 1068 FG: 1014 IBU: 25 (calc. Tinseth) BOCKSE (TRAD. BOCK)
  49. 39.8% Warminster Munich I malt 39.8% Weyermann Vienna malt 18.1%

    Weyermann Bohemian Pilsner malt 2.4% Weyermann Caramunich 90min: H Mittelfrüh, Saaz, Tettnang 20min: 0.6g/l Tettnang OG 1055 FG 1013 25 IBU (Calc. Tinseth) Yeast: WLP810 NOTFEST (OKTOBERFESTBIER)
  50. 67.2% Pils malt 24.6% Munich I malt 7.4% Carafa Special

    II 0.8% Pale Chocolate malt H Mittelfrüh 25IBU 90min H Mittelfrüh 0.65g/l 20min H Mittelfrüh 0.7g/l 0min OG: 1051 FG: 1012 IBU: 28 (calc. Tinseth) Yeast: WLP810, 3L starter (in 23L) CAUCHY-SCHWARZ INEQUALITY (SCHWARZBIER)
  51. None
  52.  German law states must be >50% malted wheat 

    Characteristic yeast character:  Yeast has POF+ gene  Produces 4-vinyl-guaiacol:  Often accompanied by banana esters (isoamyl acetate): WEISS!
  53.  Single infusions work fine  Consider a short rest

    at about 45C for production of ferulic acid (converted to 4-VG by yeast).  Decoction adds malt complexity – I recommend short decoction for many of the lighter styles (complexity without adding too much colour) MASHING CONSIDERATIONS
  54.  Yeast choice is v. important – liquid yeasts probably

    essential  Balance between clove and banana key to many of these styles  Higher alcohols, sulphur, strawberry/bubblegum should be avoided! FERMENTATION
  55.  Control fermentation temperatures.  Use correct pitch rates (underpitching

    not recommended)  Fermentation is often vigorous!!! FERMENTATION
  56. There should be virtually no detectable bitterness in all classic

    German wheat beers!!!  Low rates of noble type hops only. HOPPING
  57.  WLP300/Wy3068 classic Weiss yeast (Weihenstephan 68) Ferment starting at

    ~15C and allow to rise to 17C  Other yeasts may be preferred: WLP380 – Less banana, more clove WLP351 – High phenolics/cloves, low esters Wy3333 – Good for Krystalweiss YEAST SELECTION
  58. RECIPES

  59. 60% Wheat Malt 40% Pilsner Malt H. Mittelfrüh 13IBU 60min

    Yeast: WLP300 OG: 1049 FG: 1009 IBU: 13 (calc. Tinseth) TRITICUM (HEFEWEISSBIER)
  60. 55% Weyermann Dark Wheat malt 25.1% Weyermann Bohemian Pilsner malt

    14.1% Weyermann Munich I malt 2.5% Special B 2.2% Pale Crystal malt 1.1% Pale Chocolate malt H. Mittelfrüh, 25IBU, 1h45m Yeast: WLP300 (2L active starter) OG: 1080 FG: 1017 IBU: 25 (calc. Tinseth) VITAL SIGNS (WEIZENBOCK)
  61.  Principles of Brewing Science (Fix)  Yeast (White, Zainasheff)

     German Beer Institute website (http://www.germanbeerinstitute.com/)  Braukaiser (http://braukaiser.com/)  Brewing with Wheat (Heironymus) RESOURCES