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Turf conditions & optimal efficiency

C62291821dac0dd5b7ef3b72a30cd137?s=47 Micah Woods
February 14, 2018

Turf conditions & optimal efficiency

These are the slides for my half day pre-conference seminar at the Western Canada Turfgrass Association conference. Just doing the work -- fertilizing, topdressing, irrigation, mowing, pest control -- doesn't guarantee that one will get the desired turf surfaces. In fact, one will sometimes notice that the areas receiving the most maintenance actually have the worst turf! That's unfortunate. In this presentation, I explain some portions of what I call the "Grammar of Greenkeeping." This is a way to think of the work done to the turf in terms of what the objectives actually are -- producing a good surface and doing so with the least possible amount of work. When this grammar is implemented, one can either improve results with the same amount of work, which gives improved conditions and improved efficiency. Or, one can get the same results with less work, which is improved efficiency.

C62291821dac0dd5b7ef3b72a30cd137?s=128

Micah Woods

February 14, 2018
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Transcript

  1. Turf conditions & optimal efficiency Micah Woods 14 February 2018

    Chief Scientist Asian Turfgrass Center www.asianturfgrass.com
  2. Today’s schedule • 08:00 to break, session 1 • break/s

    • break to noon, session 2
  3. Golf Course Seminar magazine, Japan

  4. “The BOOK”, photo by Jonathan Smith

  5. None
  6. manilagrass putting green, southern Thailand

  7. manilagrass putting green, central Thailand

  8. Table of Contents in the Grammar 1. Defining turfgrass management

    2. Two uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth 3. Managing water in the soil 4. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate 5. Temperature-based growth potential 6. Managing soil organic matter 7. Measuring soil water to estimate soil air 8. Four things to increase roots on putting greens 9. Do you know how much salt is in the irrigation water? 10. Managing salt by leaching 11. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens 12. An easy PAR 13. Similar temperatures, but dissimilar sunshine 14. Two ways to avoid nutrient deficiencies
  9. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management

  10. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth
  11. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth • Managing water in the soil
  12. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth • Managing water in the soil • Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate
  13. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth • Managing water in the soil • Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate • Temperature-based growth potential
  14. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth • Managing water in the soil • Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate • Temperature-based growth potential • Managing soil organic matter
  15. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth • Managing water in the soil • Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate • Temperature-based growth potential • Managing soil organic matter • Measuring clipping yield from putting greens
  16. Today’s “Table of Contents” • Defining turfgrass management • Two

    uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth • Managing water in the soil • Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate • Temperature-based growth potential • Managing soil organic matter • Measuring clipping yield from putting greens • An easy PAR
  17. Defining turfgrass management

  18. Old Course at St. Andrews, Scotland

  19. Kashima Stadium, Japan

  20. Royal Bangkok Sports Club, Thailand

  21. Greenkeeping is managing the growth rate of the grass to

    create the desired playing surface for golf.
  22. creeping bentgrass, Japan

  23. bermudagrass and seashore paspalum, Thailand

  24. manilagrass putting green, Thailand

  25. seashore paspalum and bermudagrass, Thailand

  26. Penn A-1 creeping bentgrass, K deficiency

  27. creeping bentgrass, PGA Catalunya

  28. Two uncontrollable factors influencing grass growth

  29. What affects growth? Growth is a function of photosynthetic light,

    plant water status, temperature, and a nutrient index.1 This can be represented as the environmental productivity index (EPI). 1Each of these factors can be represented by an index that takes a value from 0 to 1. Thus, the EPI will also have a value in the range of 0 to 1. The nutrient index is primarily a function of leaf N content.
  30. What affects growth? Growth is a function of photosynthetic light,

    plant water status, temperature, and a nutrient index.1 This can be represented as the environmental productivity index (EPI). (light)(water)(temperature)(nutrient) = EPI 1Each of these factors can be represented by an index that takes a value from 0 to 1. Thus, the EPI will also have a value in the range of 0 to 1. The nutrient index is primarily a function of leaf N content.
  31. Poa annua & kikuyugrass, Gran Canaria, November

  32. storm approaching, Bangkok, September

  33. creeping bentgrass 5 cm soil temperature, Japan, July

  34. Festuca & Poa annua near Reykjavik, May 4

  35. Simplified EPI   XXX X (light)(water)((((((( ( hhhhhhh h

    (temperature)(nutrient) = EPI
  36. Another simplified EPI   XXX X (light)  XXX

    X (water)(temperature)(nutrient) = EPI
  37. Managing water in the soil

  38. 80 year old rootzone, Sydney

  39. None
  40. Nitrogen, temperature, and growth rate

  41. fairway fertilization, Hanoi

  42. add N, get more colour and growth

  43. “We determined through field experiments that in our climate [Wisconsin]

    it takes at least [80 g N/m2/year] to maximize clipping production on a [Poa pratensis] lawn and in excess of [19 g N/m2/month] on a bentgrass fairway.” Houlihan and Kussow, 2006
  44. None
  45. 2 key things with more N: chlorophyll & RuBisCO overseeded

    bermudagrass, La Quinta, California
  46. fescue sod, Iceland

  47. Temperature-based growth potential

  48. Grasses can grow well when temperatures are close to an

    optimum for growth, and grasses will grow more slowly or not at all as the temperature moves away from the optimum.
  49. Temperature-based growth potential PACE Turf developed the Temperature-based GP to

    express the actual temperature in terms of its proximity to optimum temperatures for shoot growth. GP = e−0.5( t−to var )2 where, GP = growth potential, on a scale of 0 to 1 e = 2.71828, a mathematical constant t = average temperature for a location, in celsius to = optimum temperature, 20 for C3 grass, 31 for C4 grass var = adjusts the change in GP as temperature moves away from to ; I suggest 5.5 for C3 and 7 for C4
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  57. vacuum mower, Japan

  58. None
  59. Implications and use of GP • mowing frequency • fungicide

    duration • heat-related stress • topdressing requirement • nutrient use
  60. Managing soil organic matter

  61. golf course construction, Thailand

  62. seashore paspalum, Hong Kong

  63. First, manage the grass growth to be as slow as

    possible.
  64. Second, add sand topdressing to mix with the organic matter

    as it is produced by the grass.
  65. Third, there is coring or scarification to physically remove organic

    matter from the soil.
  66. Measuring clipping yield from putting greens

  67. 10 L bucket to measure clipping volume

  68. None
  69. None
  70. What’s affected by the growth rate? • divot recovery •

    ball mark recovery • some diseases • traffic damage • green speed • mowing requirement • thatch (and everything associated with its management)
  71. Checking variability • day to day • green to green

    • machine to machine • year to year
  72. mowing greens, Fukuoka, Japan

  73. None
  74. KBC Augusta Tournament, 2013

  75. None
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  85. An easy PAR

  86. 3 terms 1. PAR – photosynthetically active radiation 2. PPFD

    – photosynthetic photon flux density, measured per second 3. DLI – daily light integral, sum of PPFD from sunrise to sunset
  87. Quantum meter for PPFD Okinawa, Japan

  88. 14 July 2015, Tokyo with clear sky

  89. 1 July 2015, Tokyo with heavy clouds

  90. None
  91. None
  92. For more, please see www.asianturfgrass.com or @asianturfgrass on Twitter.

  93. ATC newsletter: www.subscribepage.com/atcupdate MLSN newsletter: www.subscribepage.com/mlsn