was run by Andy Rubin and a few other big names in the early world of mobile tech. They were trying to build so;ware for phones and digital cameras. 2005 Google bought Android in 2005. Andy Rubin and his team quietly worked on what would become the Android mobile operaBng system. 2008 Google partnered with T-‐Mobile to launch the ﬁrst-‐ever Android smartphone, the G1. 2007 The Open Handset Alliance, a consorBum of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Sony and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-‐Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices 2013 Google's smartphone operaBng system powers a whopping 80% of devices worldwide.
This is the Open source version of Android, used by Amazon, Zebra Technologies, Xiaomi and others OEM to build devices without the Google services. Google Mobile Services (GMS) This are additional features only available on devices that signed Google’s Anti-Fragmentation Agreement, including: Google Play Services, Google Maps, Gmail, etc. History Version 1.0 was released on September 26, 2012 Version 4.4 was released on May 7, 2014 Version 5.0 was released on June 25, 2014 Version 6.5, was released on November 17, 2014 Version 7.0 released on March 2, 2015 Version 7.5 released on May 28, 2015 Version 8.1 released on September 24, 2015
• Binder • Paranoid Networking SELinux – further deﬁnes boundaries of the Android applicaBon sandbox • Introduced in Android v4.3 – MAC not enforced • v4.4 – MAC enforced on 4 core services (installd, netd, vold and zygote) • v5.x – MAC enforced on everything (more than 60 domains) MAC = Mandatory Access Control DAC = DiscreBonary Access Control
VM Dalvik is opBmized for mobile devices: • Bajery consumpBon • CPU capabiliBes Key Dalvik diﬀerences: • Register-‐based versus stack-‐based VM • Dalvik runs .dex ﬁles • More eﬃcient and compact implementaBon • Diﬀerent set of Java libraries than JDK Oracle had accused Google of copying the APIs of Java, a programming language Oracle owns, and punng them into Android.
publicly announced its plans for its new runBme on Android. ART ART is designed to be fully compaBble with Dalvik’s exisBng byte-‐code format, “dex” (Dalvik executable). The big paradigm-‐shi; that ART brings, is that instead of being a Just-‐in-‐Time (JIT) compiler, it now compiles applicaBon code Ahead-‐of-‐Time (AOT). The performance gains over Dalvik are signiﬁcant;; roughly a 2x improvement in speed for code running on the VM.
applicaBons are: • All applicaBons must be signed. The system will not install an applicaBon on an emulator or a device if it is not signed. • To test and debug your applicaBon, the build tools sign your applicaBon with a special debug key that is created by the Android SDK build tools. • When you are ready to release your applicaBon for end-‐users, you must sign it with a suitable private key. You cannot publish an applicaBon that is signed with the debug key generated by the SDK tools. • You can use self-‐signed cerBﬁcates to sign your applicaBons. No cerBﬁcate authority is needed. • The system tests a signer cerBﬁcate's expiraBon date only at install Bme. If an applicaBon's signer cerBﬁcate expires a;er the applicaBon is installed, the applicaBon will conBnue to funcBon normally.
RTL Layout support • NaBve, always-‐on VPN • CerBﬁcate Pinning • New Bluetooth stack • New NFC stack • Hidden developer menu and USB debug whitelist • System.Senngs are now read-‐only (e.g. Airplane mode) • Content providers are no longer exported by default • AddiBonal layer of security in the WebView interface for JS binding
• MulBple account and restricted proﬁles (tablets) • Bluetooth SMART support (aka BLE) • WiFi Enterprise API (e.g. EAP access) • WiFi Scan-‐only-‐mode (get posiBon even with WiFi oﬀ) • Improved RTL Text support • Hardware credenBal storage
mode for all domains • WebView updates without OTA • MulBple user and restricted proﬁle on phones (prev. only tablets) • Full disk encrypBon “enforced” and improved • ART (Android Run Time) only available RunBme • Material Design • Screen Capture and sharing: hjps://github.com/googlesamples/android-‐ScreenCapture • 64-‐bit support • Managed provisioning • Screen Pinning (Kiosk Mode) • Manually: SeJngs > Security > Screen Pinning • ProgrammaBcally: StartLockTask() V5.1 • MulBple SIM cards
• Doze: Screen off and unplugged device stationary • App Standby: when an app is idle the OS diable networking • Removed access to Hardware identifier: • WifInfo.getMacAddress return always 02:00:00:00:00:00 • BluetoothAdapter.getAddress return always 02:00:00:00:00:00 • Fingerprint Authentication • USB Connection are now charge-only by default • Adoptable Storage Devices • App permissions changes • Check for Permissions • Request Permissions